How to Tell the Difference Between Fiber Optic Transmitters and Light Sources

:: What are fiber optic transmitters?

Optical transmitters generate the light signals transported by a fiber optical communication system. a transmitter includes a light source but also includes signal generation circuit and components such as an electro-optical modulator.

The transmitter contains electronics that modulate the light source. At low speeds, the transmitter directly modulates light emission by varying the drive current to the light source. But the transmitter needs a high performance external modulator such as a electro-optical modulator for high speed applications. It maintains a constant drive current to the light source, producing a steady output beam, which passes through the external modulator that produces the 1 and 0 signals.

Transmitters can have more than one light source. Each light source operates at different wavelengths and are modulated separately with their corresponding signals. These light sources are then coupled to a single fiber with WDM (wavelength division multiplexing) technology. DWDM (density wavelength division multiplexing) technology essentially expand a single fiber's information carrying capacity by hundreds of times.

:: What are fiber optic light sources?

A fiber optic light source emits continuous light without any modulation or signal processing. It is one component of a fiber optical transmitter.

In fiber optic communication, the standard light sources are LEDs (light-emitting diodes) and semiconductor lasers. Other types of lasers such as gas lasers may be used in some special cases.

Lasers emit much higher powers than LEDs and can transmit much faster signals. But lasers are also much more expensive than LEDs.

:: LED light sources

All plastic fibers transmit visible light better than infrared light, although they can only carry low speed signals at short distances. So visible red LEDs are widely used in all plastic fiber data links. One sample application is a data link on the same floor of an office building.

Light sources emitting at 750nm to 900nm (central wavelength is 850nm) are used for higher speed and longer distance applications which utilize glass optical fibers. This type of light sources include 850nm LEDs and 850nm semiconductor lasers which are made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and gallium-aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs).

A typical application for this type of light source is between buildings on a campus. LEDs do not offer any cost advantage over inexpensive GaAs lasers so they are less common.

:: Semiconductor laser sources

Semiconductor lasers emitting at 1310nm, 1550nm and up to 1610nm are used in much longer distance glass optical fiber networks. The applications range from inter-building links to transcontinental cables.

These lasers are made from indium gallium arsenide phosphate (InGaAsP). They produce much higher power and speed. Their major applications are in telecommunication systems.

:: Considerations for light source

Many factors determine the choice of light sources for fiber optic systems. Here are a few listed.

1. The wavelength must fall within a transmission window of the optical fiber being used

2. The power must be high enough to span the distance between optical amplifiers

3. The power must not be too high so that it causes nonlinear effects in the fiber or overloads the receiver

4. The range of wavelengths emitted by the source should not be so broad that dispersion limits transmission speed

5. The light source must be able to couple light effectively into the optical fiber

How To Plan A Retirement Party

A retirement party is an event to celebrate a person's career and achievements and is a great opportunity to show appreciation in a fun and respectful way. Similar to any other party, a lot is involved in planning a party to present an individuals accomplishes. Whether it be a party for your spouse, parent, friend or colleague, a tip to make your life easier is to plan the retirement party online. Having a website dedicated to the retirement party will keep you organized and keep guests informed and involved in all the details of the event.

Here are a few good ideas on how to plan a great retirement party that the retiree will remember forever:

  • Establish a budget

Establishing a budget for retirement party should be one of the first planning steps. It should take into account venue, food, decor, entertainment and a nice gift. Your budget will determine the number of guests you can invite and the price per ticket if you are selling tickets to the party. Your retirement party website will help you keep track of all your expenses, when to make bookings and when payments are due.

  • Select a location

The party can be held at the office, at someone's home, in a restaurant, hotel, club, art gallery, or casino. Your budget, how many guests, when the event will take place (day or evening), and what time of year all need to be taken into account. You should also consider the preferences of the retiree wherever they want a big or small or traditional event. To choose the best location, you should ask co-workers for their suggestions by having an online poll.

  • Create a guest list

You have to decide who and how many people to invite to the party. Do you want an employee only event or one that includes close friends and family? Your budget will help determine the number of guests you can have.

  • Choose a theme

Themed parties are always a lot of fun and should reflect the retirees character, career, interests or hobbies. The type of theme can be determined by co-workers using an online poll. A theme will establish the decor, invitation design, dress code, music and entertainment at the retirement party.

  • Send out invitation online

Inviting guests to retirement party by email is simple and saves you time and money. The invitation should specify the location, time, date, purpose of the event, and how to RSVP online. The invitation can direct guest to the party website where they can learn more about the details of the event including directions, parking instruction, travelers information and about any secret or special guests.

  • Ticket purchase online

If you choose to sell tickets to the retirement party, it will be more convenient for guests to be able to purchased them online, directly from the website, using their credit card. This is simpler then writing a cheque and mailing it in.

  • Selecting a gift

A gift registry can be set up on the website, with details or a direct link to stores or items the retiree would enjoy. Usually co-workers will chip in for one big gift for the retiree. Using the online message board or poll, co-workers can discuss and vote on the gift they want to purchase. Some examples of good retirement gifts include books, golf clubs, or luggage.

A very meaningful gift would be one that would also be a keepsake for the retiree. This could be a personalized framed retirement plaque, or you can ask guests in advance to submit pictures or a few words about their experience or relationship with the retiree, and assemble a memento book to present to the retiree at the party. Another way to really demonstrate appreciation is to name a wing of the office after the retiree, which really indicates how much the retiree has contributed.

The retiree may ask that contributions to their favorite charity be made in their honor rather than gifts. The website can express information about the charity of choice and why it was selected by the retiree. To making giving easy, all donations can be made online.

  • Festive ambience

You want to create a fun atmosphere for the party while at the same time really focusing on the guest of honor. Aside from balloons, banners and streamers, decorations should emphasize the retiree's life, accomplishments, and interests. You can blow up photos of the retiree through the years and place them through the location or each table can have a centerpiece with a specific theme relating to a part of the retiree's life or their hobbies.

  • Plan entertainment

A retirement party differs from other celebratory parties, however you should still have music (can hire a DJ or band or simply set up speakers) and someone in charge of taking pictures and video (can hire a photographer or videographer or have a co-worker do) it.) Photos and videos of the party can be uploaded onto the website for the retiree and guests to browse through after the event.

Seeing as the party is centered on the person's career, the entertainment should also focus on the retirees profession and accomplishments. Guests can make speeches sharing stories, experiences and what they've learned from the retiree, and toasts expressing how the retiree has impacted their lives. Having a roast is also always entertaining and a comical way to show admiration. The guest of honor may also want to make a speech expressing his gratitude to all those involved in helping make professional career a success. All can be recorded and the videos can be uploaded on the website to remember all the kind words that were said at the party.

A slideshow can be created and played through a guests speech or toast or roast or you can have a slideshow running all night in the background as it is a simple set up and amusing for guests. You should start collecting photos from relatives, friends and colleagues in advance that represent the work and life of the retiree. The slideshow can later be uploaded onto the website and watched again at any time.

Other fun pre-planned entertainment at the party can be having co-workers putting on skits, or composing a humorous song or poem to be performed at the party and recorded to be placed on the party website. A big board with many pictures of the guest of honor with co-workers and colleges can be displayed, and guests can sign the board which the retiree can take home with them after the party.

  • Stay in touch

The website is an excellent way to foster communication before and after the party. It is a great way to make suggestions and share stories and photos. Guests and the retiree can visit the website even after the party and continue to correspond with one another as the website acts as a private communication hub. The website will help with sharing and recall happy memories about the retirees career before and after the party.

List of Pus and Mucus-Forming Foods

The word “mucus” is from the Latin mucus which means “slime, mold, snot, etc.” Mucus refers to a thick, viscous, slippery discharge that is comprised of dead cells, mucin, inorganic salts, water, and exfoliated cells. It also refers to the slimy, sticky, viscous substance left behind by mucus-forming foods in the body after ingestion. The word “pus” is from late 14c. Latin “pus” (related to puter [putrid] “rotten”), from Proto-Indo-European*pu- compared to Sanskrit. puyati “rots, stinks,” putih “stinking, foul.” Pus often refers to a thick white, yellowish, or greenish opaque liquid produced in infected tissue, consisting of dead white blood cells, bacteria, tissue debris, and serum. It also refers to the substance that dead animal flesh is chemically changed to after being consumed or while rotting in one’s digestive tract. The ingestion of meat and dairy products create pus residue in the body, while starchy and fatty foods are mucus-forming.

The word “mucusless,” or mucus-free, refers to foods that are not mucus-forming. Such foods digest without leaving behind a thick, viscous, slimy substance called mucus. These foods include all kinds of fat-free, and starchless, fruits and vegetables.

All foods that are pus/mucus-forming are acid-forming. The word “acid” is from the early 1600s meaning “of the taste of vinegar,” from French acide (16c.) or directly from Latin acidus “sour, sharp,” adjective of state from acere “to be sour,” from PIE root *ak- “sharp, pointed” (see acrid).In chemistry it refers to a class of substances whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts. From a mucusless perspective, pus and mucus-forming foods are understood to be “acid-forming” inside the human body. Such foods create an acidic internal environment that is detrimental to wellness.

The following is a list of pus, mucus, and acid-forming foods:

FLESH (PUS-FORMING)

  • Blood of Animals
  • Eggs (All Kinds)
  • Lard
  • Meat (Beef, Chicken, Horse, Dog, Mutton/Lamb, Turkey, Veal, Pork:
  • Bacon, Ham, Sausage, Gammon, Chitterlings, Pig Feet; Wild Game: Bison, Buffalo, Ostrich, Rabbit, Venison, etc.)
  • Margarine (Made with Animal Fat)

FISH (PUS-FORMING)

  • Crustacean (Crab, Crawfish, Lobster, Shrimp)
  • Fish (All Types)
  • Mollusks (Clam, Oysters, Mussels, Snail, etc.)
  • Roe (Caviar)
  • Salmon
  • Shell Fish

DAIRY PRODUCTS (PUS-FORMING)

  • Butter, Cow
  • Buttermilk
  • Cheese (All Kinds)
  • Cream
  • Crème fraîche
  • Kefir
  • Milk (All Animals and Kinds; Raw Organic, Skim, 1 or 2 %, etc.)
  • Yogurt

CEREALS (MODERATELY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Barley
  • Breads (All Kinds; Barley, Black, Rye, White, Graham, Pumpernickel,
  • Zwieback, etc.)
  • Cereal Grains (All Kinds; Maize, Farina, Kamut, Millet,
  • Oats, Quinoa, Spelt, White Rice, Brown Rice, Whole or Refined Wheat, etc.)
  • Cornmeal
  • Pseudocereals (All Kinds; Amaranth, Buckwheat, Chia, Cockscomb, Kañiwa, Quinoa, etc.)
  • Pastas

BEANS (MODERATELY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Beans (All Kinds and Forms; Black Beans, Black-eyed peas, Fava Beans, Butter Beans, Cannellini Beans, Chickpeas/Garbanzo Beans, Edamame, Great Northern Beans, Italian Beans, Kidney Beans, Lentils, Lima Beans, Mung Beans, Navy Beans, Pinto Beans, Soy Beans, Split Peas, String Beans (Green Beans), White Beans, etc.)

NUTS AND SEEDS (MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Nuts (All Kinds; Acorns, Almonds, Brazil Nuts, Cashews, Chestnuts, Hazelnuts, Peanuts, Pecans, Pistachios’, Walnuts, etc.)
  • Seeds (All Kinds; Sunflower, Pumpkin, Hemp, Sesame, etc.)

PROCESSED FOODS (PUS AND/OR VERY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Dried Convenience Foods
  • Fast Foods
  • Frozen Convenience Foods
  • Packaged Convenience Foods
  • Processed Meat

CONFECTIONERIES/CANDY/SWEETS (PUS AND/OR VERY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Baked Goods (All kinds including pies, cakes, pastries, etc.)
  • Candy (All Types; Bars, Caramels, Chocolate, Fudge, Jelly candies, Rock
  • Candy, Taffy
  • Gelatin (Jello)
  • Ice Cream (Dairy and Non-Dairy)
  • Marshmallow

ACIDIC, FERMENTED, OR DISTILLED DRINKS/SYRUPS (ACID-FORMING STIMULANTS)

  • Alcoholic Beverages (All Kinds; Ale, Beer, Brandy, Champagne, Hard
  • Cider, Liqueur, Mead, Porter, Rum, Sake/Rice Wine, Gin, Herbal Wine, Lager, Fruit Wine, Vodka Whisky, Tequila, etc.)
  • Syrups (Brown Rice, Barley Malt, Chocolate, Corn, Artificially Flavored)
  • Cocoa
  • Coffee
  • Kombucha Tea
  • Soft Drink (Soda Pop)
  • Tea (All Kinds from the Theaceae family)
  • Vinegar (White, Apple Cider)
  • Old-fashioned Root Beer

FERMENTED FOODS AND SAUCES (ACID-FORMING STIMULANTS)

  • Fish Sauce
  • Fermented Vegetables (All; Kimchi/cabbage and other veggies, Olives
  • Pickles/cucumbers. Sauerkraut/cabbage, etc.)
  • Miso
  • Sauces with Vinegar (Hot Sauce, Ketchup, Mustard, Mayonnaise, Relish,
  • Tartar, Barbecue, Salad Dressings, Salsa, etc.)
  • Soy Sauce

VEGETARIAN/VEGAN PROCESSED FOODS (MODERATELY MUCUS FORMING)

  • Chips (corn, potato, plantain, etc.)
  • Frozen Vegan Breakfast Foods (waffels, etc.)
  • Hummus (processed chickpeas)
  • Lab Grown Animal Tissue
  • Margarine
  • Nutritional Yeast
  • Pasta (egg-free)
  • Pasteurized 100% Fruit Juice (potentially acid-forming)
  • Plant milks (grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes including soy, rice, etc.)
  • Plant-based butter (nuts, seeds, and legumes including soy, peanut, etc.)
  • Plant-based creamers
  • Soy Lecithin (food additive)
  • Tempeh
  • Texturized Vegetable Protein (‘mock’ meats including soy, etc.)
  • Tofu
  • Vegan Baked Goods
  • Vegan Confections (All Types; Chocolates, Ice Cream, etc.)
  • Vegan Cheese Substitutes
  • Vegan Mayonnaise
  • Vegan Whipped Cream
  • Yogurts (Plant-based)

OILS (FATTY AND MILDLY MUCUS FORMING)

  • Oil (All types; Avocado Oil, Chia Seed, Coconut, Corn, Cotton Seed, Cotton Seed, Flax Seed, Grape Seed, Hemp Seed, Nut Oils, Olive, Palm, Peanut, Quinoa, Rapeseed (Including Canola), Safflower, Soybean etc.)

SALTS AND SPICES (STIMULANTS/POTENTIALLY ACID-FORMING)

  • Black Peppercorns
  • Cayenne Pepper
  • Chili Powder
  • Cream of Tarter
  • Curry Powder
  • Nutmeg
  • Paprika
  • Pepper
  • Salt (Celery, Crystal, Iodized, Sea)
  • Vanilla Extract

STARCHY OR FATTY VEGETABLES AND FRUITS (SLIGHTLY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Artichoke
  • Avocados
  • Cassava
  • Cauliflower
  • Coconut Meat
  • Corn
  • Durian
  • Fungus (Mushrooms)
  • Green Peas
  • Olives
  • Parsnips
  • Peas (Raw)
  • Plantain
  • Plantains
  • Pumpkins
  • Raw or Baked White Potatoes
  • Raw Squashes (Winter, Acorn, Butternut, etc.)
  • Raw Sweet Potatoes
  • Rutabaga
  • Turnip
  • Unripe Banana

What are Deceptive Mucus-Formers?

Here is a list of foods that many people do not realize create mucus:

  • Rice (great for creating glue to bind books, bad for the transition to a mucus-free diet)
  • Avocados (fatty item that may be used on the transition, but are highly addictive. Although technically a fruit, if used it is best to combine them with a mucus-free combination salad or vegetables to aid elimination. However, it is recommended to stay away from them if you are not already stuck to them.)
  • Nuts (Mucus-forming, but may be used on the transition. It is best to eat with dried fruits like raisins to aid with elimination.)
  • Plantains (Starchy)
  • Tofu (Slimy and mucus-forming.)
  • Un-ripened fruits like green bananas (the riper the fruit you eat the better).
  • Corn (It does not eliminate well. When cooked corn or corn chips are eating it becomes mushy and slimy in the intestines.)
  • Corn chips (Some people use them on the transition, but they are very addictive and do not eliminate well)
  • Beans (They are starchy and mucus-forming. But, they may be used sparingly on the transition within close proximity to green-leafy salads)
  • Starchy Vegetables (Some vegetalbes are starchy and mucus-forming in raw or cooked forms, such as white potatoes. But, many other vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, become almost mucus-free (starchless) after proper cooking.

The Transition Diet

It is very important that people learn how to transition from the most harmful mucus-forming foods to the ones that leave behind the least amount of waste. To learn more about this transitional process, check out Arnold Ehret’s Mucusless Diet Healing System: Annotated, Revised, and Edited by Prof. Spira.

Geox Shoes: Waterproof and Breathable Soles With Style

Geox shoes provide ladies with more than protection for their feet and good support. The brand has a good reputation for producing modern styles and high quality. This is seen no better than in the Geox ladies shoes line, but Geox also makes shoes for men and children in addition. One of the best features of Geox shoes is that they make shoes in every design which follow the current trends.

Geox, and its Geox ladies shoes, is known for its Respira technology. Respira technology makes sure that your feet remain cool and dry. Shoes from Geox are made with a leather sole that lets the feet breathe normally while its membrane keeps out moisture and water. Therefore, the leather sole by Geox is revolutionary in that it's actually an impermeable leather. Geox achieves this by putting a specialized, micro-porous membrane into its leather soles. This membrane is specialized because its micro-pores are smaller in size than the average size of water droplets. However, these micro-pores are still larger than vapor molecules. As a result, the vapor that's created by the feet is then just absorbed and also automatically released through said leather sole.

Your feet are also kept cool and dry by Geox's Respira technology through its patented rubber. This patented rubber actually works to remove moisture from Geox shoes and also regulate the microclimate within Geox shoes. Research has actually proven that Geox ladies shoes that feature this Respira technology are more successful in keeping your feet from overheating. When your feet do not overheat as much, they tend to stay both cool and dry, especially in comparison to shoes that use ordinary rubber that is not Geox's patented type.

The Goex brand and its Geox ladies shoes keep out water and moisture from entering the shoe. This is a lot more than what can be said about many of their competitors. The importance of having a breathable sole can not be stressed enough because it allows the sweat on your feet to evaporate. The convenience and comfort of a waterproof shoe make sure that you can carry on with your day without having to worry about your shoes and feet. Even Geox ladies shoes like pumps and heels are waterproof.

To experience this Geox benefit for yourself, purchase this brand the next time you're at a shoe store. Good places to start are online retailers as they tend to have the best prices.

Jobsite Cleaning is a Must For Building and Remodeling Contractors

When I first started working in construction, I was constantly stepping over large pieces of lumber that were spread all over the jobsite. I would often trip or fall over these large cumbersome items and never even think about cleaning any of it up. A clean job can make all the difference in the world and I'm going to tell you why.

When I used to work on jobs that were not clean, I would come home tired and thought it was because I worked hard all day, until I actually worked on a job that was clean. Just the fact that you have to step over construction debris all day long can wear anyone out and it definitely took its toll on me.

Almost everyone has seen pictures of students and people in the military on an obstacle course, running through a bunch of tires. If they do not place their feet directly in the center of these tires, they can easily trip and fall. This is what it feels like to me, when I'm stepping over cumbersome pieces of lumber on the jobsite obstacle course.

It was not until I met one contractor that changed my way of thinking for ever. This man would often spend an hour or two each day cleaning the job himself. I always thought that he was trying to avoid working and this was one way that he could look busy. I still think this was his main objective, but the lesson I learned is stuck in my head for ever.

If you're the type of person who does not keep their jobs clean, I suggest that you try it for a few days and see what it feels like. It changed my way of thinking and I'm sure that it will change yours.

Your Guide to an Efficient Filing System

Your Guide to Filing

An efficient filing system has become critical, but still, more often than not, filing systems are accepted without consideration to WHAT is being stored, WHY it's been stored, WHERE and HOW it's been stored. You need to ensure resources are not wasted by replacing your filing system just for replacement sake; it may well be that your current filing system will meet your required criteria by adopting different soft folder and indexing formats.

Many filing organizations will recommend replacing your current system with space efficient filtering systems without consideration to the filing process.

Filing Facts

The freedom of Information Act and the Data Protection Act has made a huge impact on the way records are stored.

Certain types of records have to be stored by law for certain periods of time.

The amount of paper and records stored by organizations is increasing every year.

Misplaced or lost records cost many organizations a substantial amount of money through lost time looking for them. Some types of records will also incur an organization a heavy fine if the record can not be produced on demand.

Clear indexing and identifiable records will speed up the retrieval process for when the file is needed – not when it is too late.

An ineffective filing system will take up more floor space costing the organization more money through floor space rates.

An efficient filing system will save time, space and money making your organization run much more effectively, leading to greater success.

Filing Audit

If you want to improve your filing efficiency you need to know the strengths and weaknesses of your current filing system. The questions below are a good list of questions that once answered will outline specific areas that need attention.

The Records

o How are your records stored? (Lever Arch, Foolscap file)
o What is the volume of records in linear meters
o Are there any duplicates or copies? If so what for?

Indexing

o How effective is your indexing?
o What do you like or dislike about your indexing?
o Is misfiling a common occurrence?

File Storage

o How effective is the storage system?
o What do you like or dislike about it?
o What are the present floor space costs?

Record Access

o How frequently are records retrieved from the system?
o How many people use the filing system?
o Do the records need to be secure?
o Are records returned accurately and on time?

Record Tracking

o Are the records needed for filing Audits?
o How do you keep track of your records?
o Does your tracking system work?

Evaluating your system

The answers to the above should enable you to evaluate:

o Records which are not needed could be archived or destroyed
o Records needing consolidation
o Any indexing improvements
o Effectiveness of the system

Creating an efficient filing system

o Avoid complicated indexing methods
o Avoid handwritten indexes
o Before opening a new record make sure its unique.
o When indexing a record think of the first identifying reference that comes to mind
o Be specific with titles, never use general or miscellaneous.
o Allocate a unique reference ID.
o All correspondence in the file should be dated or marked for reference
o Separate archive from live records

Further details on file creation refer to RMS 1.1 Standard written by the National Archives.

Tracking Records

What happens to your records when they are away from the system?

Case studies show that traditional tracking methods have become inefficient and unreliable An electronic system using a barcode or RFID tags will improve file tracking.

Locating and Controlling Records must be efficient. Record users should be able to file and retrieve records quickly and efficiently.

Tracking records in a filing system should:

o Assist with accurate retrieval of records
o Ensure access of records to staff authorized to do so
o Assist with record retention periods
o Record a complete history of a record's movement

If a record is removed from the system, the following information should be documented:

o The record's index details
o Who retrieved the record
o The date the record was retrieved
o A proposed return date and the actual return date

Conventional Filing Methods Vs End Tab Color Coded Filing Methods

It has been established by the industry that traditional suspended pocket filing is the most inefficient way of storing documentation. The suspended file pocket, by design, is estimated to waste between 15-20% of valuable storage space within the system. Furthermore, suspended file sockets have a tendency to split and as a result cause misfiling / lost files.

File Indexes in a hand-written or text-printed format can be difficult to read enhancing the opportunity for slow retrieval and misfiling.

Using standard folders, filing / retrieval times are slow and misfiling is a common occurrence purely because another folder hides a records index.

Portrait Lever Arch Files are designed with a fixed center of between 73-78mm, invariably the folder houses less capacity than the file offers wasting valuable shelf storage space, in addition because of its design, fewer storage levels can be achieved in a standard storage system .

By simply employing a color coded index system these inherent problems can be overcome.

Disposal

Disposing of records is an important part of maintaining control of your records. Before a disposal schedule is put into place you must understand all of your legal and regulatory business requirements.

Legal and regulatory requirements including the Freedom of Information Act 2000, the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Public Records Act 1958 all effect the disposal of records. All have imposed new and more stringent duties on public sector bodies with regards to records disposal.

So what does this mean?

Disposal does not mean destruction. It means any action taken to determine the fate of the record including transfer to an archive system. When it is not possible at any time to determine the disposal of the records they may be scheduled for review at a later date.

Retention usually means the length of time records are kept, sometimes known as disposal schedules. If a disposal schedule is not put into place, the standby is to store records indefinitely taking up unnecessary space.

Confidential information must be stored securely and disposed of by way of shredding.

For further details on disposing scheduling please refer to Disposal Scheduling (RMS 5.1) Standard written by the National Archives.

Innovations In Construction Technology: Hercules Single Strand Tensioning Systems

Prior to the 1950s, one of the biggest recurring costs in the construction industry was replacing concrete forms that had cracks and fissures brought on by the ravages of age and stress. Time consuming and costly, it was a continual headaches that most companies and their clients dreaded. Pretty soon an experimental method of using concrete in the construction of bridges and buildings arrived in the form of prestressed concrete, in hopes of reducing this costly and constant maintenance. Experimentation leads to product development, and one of the most popular innovation survives to this day, the Hercules Single Strand Tensioning Systems.

The Advantages of Using Prestressed Concrete

The science behind producing prestressed concrete forms for construction purposes overcomes the material’s natural stress points and allows for using it in construction without the need for reinforcement. It also allows for more flexibility in the use of concrete, enabling construction companies to pour and create longer spans of bridges, floors or beams that would ordinarily not be possible without first utilizing a costly network of reinforcing rebars and bars to act as load bearers over time. Its success in use has made it the preferred choice for use in high rises and nuclear reactors everywhere, thanks to its stress reducing nature.

Tendons made out of high tensile steel cables or rods are strung throughout concrete forms made out of steel. By pouring the concrete into the forms, it forms around these tendons and their adjustable clamping devices to create a longer and thinner slab. Without all the joints associated with using bars and rebars, the finished product is just as strong, easier to use due to its reduced weight, and has its weight bearing load points evenly spread throughout. When weak points develop in reinforced concrete, it generally begins at the joints of the pipes. With strung cables being stressed through the slabs, there are no joints and no potential for future problems in weak points developing.

Hercules Single Strand Stressing Systems

While the technology rejuvenated the construction industry, especially when it came to building infrastructure sites like bridges, it was not completely flawless. Early stressing methods either manually drew the cables through the hardening concrete or the cables were laid first and the concrete carefully manipulated around and over them, adding a lot of manpower and labor hours to every project. What they were initially saving in repair and replacement costs started to be eaten away in payroll hours.

Prestress Supply Incorporated developed one of the first automated concrete stressing systems in the early 1960s, and with only a handful of companies in practice that were devoted to developing this new technology, they soon became industry leaders and would remain dominant in the market to this day. Their Hercules Single Strand Stressing Systems, as well as later innovations, operate on a design that utilizes low pressure hydraulics with jacks and chucks that distribute the tension cables faster and without the shock gaps that can form through the manual pulling.

New Innovations

Known for decades as the stressing system with the gentle touch, the latest systems Hercules B and Hercules C are still very easy to use and guarantee the safety of all employees using it by allowing them to set the exact pressure needed on the cables and chucks to create the stress network, eliminating tension snapping and damage to the delicate workings.

Built around an open-face draw system, the newer models make it easier than ever to change out cable, jacks, chucks and pulling jaws. They also feature the ability to switch strand diameters throughout the forming, without having to completely restart the process, should your designs call for it. One hundred percent mechanical in nature, with no electronics to short out, Hercules Single Strand Tensioning Systems are ideal to use in any environment or terrain. Even replacing forms on bridges are now easier, since the systems allow workers to pull, form and install on site with ease.

Improving Topsoil

The activities involved with construction remove, bury or damage soil, and it may seem that adding new soil is the only way to create a landscape and garden, but with today's methods it's easier and less expensive to improve the existing soil than to invest in new topsoil.

A poor soil, for instance one damaged by construction, can be improved by mixing in organic matter. This can be accomplished by applying one to three-inch layer of compost, and mixing this compost in with the existing soil.

If it proves necessary to add new topsoil, evaluate the soil quality before buying it. The most important soil qualities to consider are: the soil texture, the organic matter content of the soil, the pH of the soil, and the soluble salts in the soil. Naturally occurring topsoils vary broadly in quality.

There is no one official or legal definition for "topsoil". Practically, topsoil can be considered the top six to ten inches of soil, or the soil down to the depth exposed by plowing or through cultivation.

Topsoil usually differs from the underlying soil by having a higher organic matter content, a darker color, better tillage possibilities, and a higher biological activity. This includes earthworms, bacteria, and fungi. Topsoil is less compact than the underlying subsoil and thus facilitates plant growth.

Testing the soil is the most reliable way to evaluate its quality. If the soil has low fertility levels, fertilizers can be applied as needed. It is however not easy to improve a soil which has undesirable physical properties.

The physical condition of a soil depends on the texture of the soil. Soil texture can be defined as the percentage of sand, silt, and clay in its content. Topsoils with highly desirable textures have sand, silt and clay contents within the following ranges: sand 40 to 65%, silt 25 to 60%, and clay 5 to 20%.

Types of topsoil with desirable textures include: sandy looms, silt loams, and loams.

There is a marketing and communications association that was formed to assist entrepreneurs in the topsoil business and the general public. 1.800.TOPSOIL provides an easily remembered number where people can get information about the availability of good topsoil. 1-800-TOP-SOIL members include the finest Topsoil and Landscaping supply companies in the nation.

They currently have members spread through the United States. In order to find the topsoil and landscape supply company in your area, that is right for you, call 1.800.TOPSOIL.

Part 2 of Swapping a V8 Into a Toyota MR2 2nd Generation

Please note: this is the second article in a series of articles on a V8 MR2 engine swap

In my introduction, I left off at the point where I decided to change from the Audi V8 engine, over to another engine for my V8 MR2 swap. The reason I originally chose the Audi was because there was a very good chance it would fit without cutting the car chassis. The axle clearance issue, unfortunately, could not be known until I removed the oil cooler / filter from the side of the engine. It then became apparent that the engine block itself was in the way. The block could not be cut and re-welded as the oil pump and oil pump drive pulley were also in the way. I had to purchase the engine in order to find these things out. This is the nature of swaps like this, that no one has ever done before. Know anyone that wants a 1997 Audi ABZ 4.2L V8 with 70K miles?

I realized at that point that it might be easier to find a transverse V8 engine, even if it's too long to fit, and go ahead and cut the chassis and weld it back up again. Welding some sheet metal is easier and far cheaper than trying to solve the problems created by using the Audi V8, which may be solvable, but only with a lot of very expensive custom machined parts. Even then, I still feel the axle clearance issue will still cause problems, as it would require a 3rd CV joint to be added to the right axle, and some large permanent angles would be required, which are never a good idea with CV joints. The areas of the MR2 chassis that needed cutting were thin sheet metal. They are structural, but they are not heavy structural, so welding sheet metal back into the cut areas should not pose too much of a problem, plus, I had a plan to reinvigorate those cut areas. More on this later in this article.

I need to backtrack a bit, as I have not discussed the transaxle yet, which is another major component that needs to fit between the engine. During the initial research into this project, I decided to check out what the Fiero guys were doing. The Fiero, made by GM and Pontiac from 1984 to 1988, was a mid-engine affordable car, which also used a front wheel drive train that was simply transposed to the rear of the car, just like all 3 generations of MR2. The engine sat slightly ahead of the driving axle, so when the front wheel drive train was moved to the rear of the car, it became mid engine. Note that the definition of a mid-engine car is one where the engine sits ahead or on top of the rear axle, just like the MR2. Note that a rear-engine car has the engine behind the rear axle, like a Porsche 911 or the original VW Beetle. The Fiero guys have been doing V8 swaps into the Fiero for many years now, since the early 1990's. The car is wider than the MR2 mk2 (mark 2), so it's easier to fit a V8. I contacted one of the oldest companies that did V8 Fiero conversions and found out that they were using a new GM 6 speed front wheel drive transaxle. This transaxle was the strongest transaxle available to the average person. It had the highest torque rating.

Transmissions and transaxles are rated by torque from the factory. Transmissions and transaxles are not rated by horsepower, as horsepower does not kill transmissions. Too much torque is what can kill a transmission. Think of it like this, when you turn a bolt with a wrench, you are applying torque to the bolt. Apply too much torque to an already tight bolt, and you can snap the head off. Transmissions are similar in that too too torque can break the gear teeth right off of a gear.

The torque rating given is also based on the weight of the intended vehicle. Torque rating means, how much torque from an engine can the transmission or transaxle handle, and still last a long time, usually 100,000 miles. The heavier the car, the lower the torque capacity of the transmission. Use the same transmission in a lighter car, and the torque rating will be higher. A heavier car generates more stress on the transmission components when the car is accelerating at its maximum, when the engine is generating maximum torque. This is always first gear, as that is the maximum torque multiplication given by the transmission to the engine during driving. The 1997 Audi V8 I tried to use was rated for 295 ft-lbs of torque at its maximum. The Northstar has a similar rating.

The new transaxle the Fiero guys were using was a new GM unit rated for almost 300 ft-lbs of torque, in a 3500 lb car. The biggest surprise is that this transaxle could be purchase NEW on eBay for only $ 475 SHIPPED !!! That was in 2007. Nowadays, you can get it for around $ 375. There is a story behind this, but basically, GM surplussed out the 2006 version of this transmission, as they decided to change it in 2007.

This transaxle could take the torque of a healthy V8 engine. If the car were lighter than 3500 lbs (Fieros are around 2700 lbs, and mk2 MR2's are 2700 to 2950 lbs), the torque capacity of this transaxle would be higher than its factory intended application. The 6 speed was also shorter than the stock MR2 transaxles by 1.75 inches, allowing more room for a longer motor and adapter plate (if one was needed).

The icing on the cake, and the part I did not know until 6 months after buying the Audi V8, was that the Cadillac Northstar 4.6L V8 bolted up to this transaxle, with the exception of one bolt, that could easily be accommodated by a fabricated small bracket or welding some additional aluminum to the side of the transmission bell housing flange on the block. No adapter plate needed!

By switching to the Northstar, I could resolve the adapter plate issues, the starter location issue, and most importantly, the axle clearance. This is because the Northstar was used originally in transverse applications from 1992 or 1993 up to 2002. It's still used transversely, but there is a longitudinal version and GM moved the starter location. Checking my notes from November of 2007, I found that I had written that the Northstar was 23.75 inches long at the critical dimension-this is the length of the engine from the crank pulley bolt head to the rear face of the bell housing flange on the block. At the time, I may have accidently included the flex plate in the critical dimension, but it is really not part of the critical dimension. It turns out that the 23.75 inches measurement was INCORRECT!

Back in Nov 2007, I did not use a straightedge on the Northstar I looked at in the wrecking yard, just a tape measure. Also, at the time, I assumed an adapter plate would be needed for the Northstar to mate to the GM 6 speed (which was wrong as I later found out, and discussed above). If you have ever measured an engine for length, you would know that it can be tricky to get an accurate measurement as the engine has a lot of width and parts in the way of measuring. In December of 2008 (a year later), I went back to the wreckers and re-measured the Northstar. This time, I was much more careful. I found that it was actually 23.0 inches long, but remember, no adapter plate was needed (which would add around inch inch to the whole assembly). This puts a different spin on the problem.

OK, so if this is a bit confusing, or hard to picture, I will simplify it here. The stock MR2 turbo motor is the Toyota / Yamaha 3S-GTE, and the stock transaxle is the Toyota E153. The 3S-GTE is 20 inches at the critical dimension. The E153 is 16 inches long. Total length of this drive train is 36 inches. However, there is a notch in the left side of the car that matches the E153 case perfectly, giving it a little additional clearance. It will not match the GM 6 speed. The stock MR2 drive train has about in inches of clearance at the crank pulley, and the same on the transaxle end.

Now, the Northstar is 23 inches, and the 6 speed is 14.25 inches, for a total of 37.25 inches or 1.25 inches more than the MR2 stock drive train. This would not fit, as the MR2 chassis notch at the transmission end does not match the 6 speed. Cutting of the chassis is required, but not very much cutting.

The prior attempts to put do a V8 MR2 swap in the Gen2 attempted to use a Toyota 1UZ-FE V8 which is 26 inches long, and the E153 which is 16 inches, for a total of 42 inches. This is 4 inches more than stock! 4 inches may not sound like much, but it's a lot when you're fitting a drive train. To make things worse, an adapter plate is needed to mate the 1UZ to the E153 transaxle. So, add another inch inch.

This approach required complete removal of the MR2 subframes, which are only 2 or 3 inches wide in those areas on each side of the car. This would weaken the car quite a bit. Also, the right shock tower would probably hit the rear head of the 1UZ V8, so it would have to be cut a lot. I think the guys that did the prior attempts figured this out after they cut their MR2s, and they brave up.

In December of 2008, I went ahead and purchased a low mileage Cadillac Northstar. Fortunately, 1994 to 1999 were all the same, and I found out that they were the easiest to add a stand alone engine management solution to. The later 2000 and up versions are far more difficult. The 1993 version is also the same, except that the intake manifold was cast from metal (aluminum or magnesium), instead of plastic like the 1994-1999 versions.

I was able to mate the Northstar to my 6 speed that I had purchased in December of 2007, a year earlier. Finally! I made some progress! I then did a test fit into my 1991 MR2, and made the cuts to the chassis, so now the Northstar and the 6 speed fit in the car. I just recently mounted an alternator to the Northstar, and found a way to fit it much more tightly to the block, giving the engine additional room around it in the car. I am currently in the process of building the motor and transaxle mounts. Once that is complete, I can send the axles out to be shortened and re-splined.

Getting back to the cutting of the chassis that I promised at the beginning of this article: The areas of the chassis that I had to cut are part of a stamped sheet metal "pseudo" sub frame. It's not really a sub frame as its stamped sheet metal that is spot welded to the body, but they are in the shape of a traditional frame rails (ie rectangular cross section). I notched these "frame rails" on each side of the car to clear the Northstar crank pulley and the case on the GM 6 speed. The metal is thin gage sheet metal. I will re-weld these areas with new sheet metal to cover the holes, and I will probably put additional sheet metal doublers over these cut areas, overlapping the weld joints. This will ensure that the repairs will be stronger than original. This is the standard approach in the aircraft industry, when facing a similar issue.

In addition to the doublers, I am going to create a new rear suspension cross member from scratch, as the original cross member interferees with the GM 6 speed case, and the new axle locations. This new cross member will have extended sections that the original did not have, which will straddle the notched areas of the sub frames, further enhancing strength. I did not need to cut the right shock tower, but that is not completely certain yet. I did have to remove some metal that was attached to the outside of the shock tower. It did not add much in the way of structure, so I felt it was OK to do this.

The end results of these modifications will probably add weight to the car, and I will weigh the new parts to get an idea of ​​how much added weight there will be, but I estimate it will be less than 20 lbs more than stock. The V8 should easily handle an extra 20 lbs of car!

Please stay tuned for the next in this series of articles.

Update: It turns out that the custom cross member is NOT needed! I found a way to use the stock MR2 cross member (with seme minorl modifications). This is great, and is a HUGE time / money saver. The MR2 crossmember is extremely important because the rear suspension and rear toe control rods attach to it, so trying to duplicate it accurately, and with enough strength is extremely difficult and time consuming. Now that I found a way to re-use the original cross member, I have save huge time and money.

Tricks And Tips For Laminate Floor Installation

Laminate flooring is a very easy thing to put down if you are prepared. One thing many of the first time installers that I have talked to forget are the simple pull bar and grooved plastic block. These tools are inexpensive and will make your job 100% easier. It would be a good idea to purchase 2 of the plastic blocks on account of their tension to break if you tap them too hard.

The first thing that needs to be done is to make sure the floor is properly prepped. You need to make sure the floor is as level as possible. You have to lay your moisture barrier down after you have the level surface. It is rolled padding that you will find next to the flooring. This also prevails the laminate flooring from moving. A quick way to help with the barrier is to duct tape the pieces together after you lay each row down. One thing to remember is the barrier has an up side and a down side (not reversible).

The next thing to do is to measure the room and decide how wide of piece you will have left if you start with a whole piece. If you end up with too narrow of piece the flooring may break. You may have to cut the first and last row in width to make it right. When you start the flooring remember to stagger it, meaning if you start the first row with a whole piece start the next row with a smaller piece. Start each row from the same end. You have to put full pieces in the middle or the grooves wont be there to lock in the next piece. When you get close to the wall use the pull bar to tap the pieces together.

Now that you get the basic idea it will be a breeze to finish your laminate floor. Always remember to measure twice and cut once. Remember you want this floating floor to end up very close to (but not touching) the wall. That will determine the width of the trim you will need to finish the job.

I hope I have been helping to somebody that has made the choice to take on a new challenge.

Funny Construction Humor

Six Phases of a Construction Project:

1) Enthusiasm

2) Disillusionment

3) Panic

4) Search For The Guilty

5) Punishment Of The Innocent

6) Praise & Honors For The Non-Participants

Directory of Construction Terminology:

Contractor – A gambler that never gets to cut, shuffle or deal.

Bid Opening – A poker game where the losing hand wins.

Bid – A wild guess carried out to two decimal places.

Low Bidder – A contractor who is wondering why he's left out.

Engineer's Estimate – The cost of construction in heaven.

Project Manager – The conductor of an orchestra in which every musician is in a different union.

Critical Path Method – A management technique for losing your shirt under personal control.

OSHA – A protective coating made by half-baking a mixture of fine print, red tape, split hairs, and
baloney – usually applied at random with a shotgun.

Strike – An effort to increase egg production by strangling the chicken.

Delayed Payment – A tourniquet applied at the pockets.

Completion Date – The point where liquidated damages begin.

Liquidated Damages – A penalty for failing to achieve the impossible.

Auditor – A person who goes in after the war is lost and bayonets the wounded.

Lawyer – A person who goes in after the auditors and strips the bodies.

Spiral Stair Installation to Increase Home Value

As of now you may be content with the look of your home or you may want to update and improve your home. You can add an all wooden spiral stair to accent the style of your home. It is easier than you may think to add one of these beautiful spiral staircases. You only need to order the spiral staircase kit that best fits your sense of style. You can choose from a country looking spiral stairway to a more contemporary style.

Spiral stairways are made of high quality wood and manufactured in a custom woodshop. Once the pieces of the staircase are manufactured, then the entire staircase is constructed to ensure that you will not have any problems at home when putting the kit together. The pieces are then taken apart, packed securely, and shipped directly to your home. When you receive the complete package, you are then ready to put your very own wooden spiral staircase back together in your home.

When putting together your spiral stair kit, you will know that your stairway meets all the required codes where you live.

If you have any questions or concerns, make sure you choose a company that has friendly and knowledgeable staff and that will be happy take your phone call.

You are also able to choose from an all wooden spiral staircase for the outdoors by adding a touch of class to your deck or patio with a new staircase kit. The wood is treated so it will withstand the outdoors. You will proudly walk down your gorgeous stairway. Maybe you have a cement or brick outdoor floor to entertain on. The stairs along with the cement or brick will make your home look first class. Your guests will constantly compliment you on your beautiful home.

Down the road when you choose to move, you may sell your home above others by previously using one of the spiral stair kits. If your home is in the same price range as other homes, your home may be chosen due to the elegant wooden spiral staircase you have. People like to feel special and the stairway can make them feel this way. Being able to sell your home quicker in a down market is very important. If you have to move due to a job transfer, downsizing, or other reason, you will be happy you installed a wooden spiral staircase kit in your home. You will not be stuck with a home that just sits and sits in down markets. You will not waste having to pay property tax money or have to pay two mortgages if you have already moved and your home is just sitting there empty. You sold your home and you are ready to make a new chapter in your life without any unnecessary added expenses.

By using a spiral stair kit and adding wooden spiral stairs, not only adds sophistication and elegance to your home, but it also adds peace of mind knowing that in the future you will most likely be able to sell your home much more easily, even when times are tough.

Multi-Slide Doors and Pocket Glass Doors – The Pro's and Con's

It seems you almost can not build a house over 5000 SF any more without including a multi-slide door. What used to be a luxury is now almost a requirement.

This being the case it appears that more and more consumers want to update their existing homes with these products. Their popularity can not be denied so I feel the best way to discuss these doors are in terms of pro's and cons. Then, you the homeowner can decide whether the decision is right for you or not.

Cons

1. Poor Energy Efficiency – Usually multi-slide doors are such large openings that they need to be made of aluminum to be able to manufacture such large openings. As you probably know, aluminum is not very energy efficient. Also having such large sections of your home being glass will also require more energy to heat and cool as opposed to if there was just wall space there. However, luckily glass is getting more energy efficient all the time, and there are several low-e glasses available that perform surprisingly well.

2. Difficult to Install – This is one of the projects that I would seriously recommend you hire a licensed contractor to install. Most manufacturers only sell the product as an installed unit because of the difficulty of installing them; they require all installers to be factory trained employees. Even manufacturers that do not install, usually require vendors to be licensed glaziers.

3. Difficult for remodeling situations – Most multi-slide doors are designed with pockets and large spanning opening, they can be sometimes difficult to rearrange your existing framing to accommodate what you may be looking for. The home usually needs to be designed with the multi-slide door in mind to accommodate your exact design wishes. However, usually if you're flexible with the design and configuration, there is typically a way to make it work.

4. May require a general contractor – Most times when installing a multi-slide door, it may require framing changes. Depending on where you live, if the change is made to a load bearing wall, you have to pull a permit and have an engineer sign off on the change. This will usually require a GC to handle the details for you. A simple French door or window installation can be done by a licensed window or door company.

5. Cost – These doors can be quite expensive. Most time when I give a remodeling customer / homeowner an estimate on these doors, it usually becomes price prohibitive. They see a French door or sliding glass door at a home store for 800 dollars and figure these doors are three times as big, so they should be three times as much right? Wrong, you see standard size doors are made with stock sized tempered glass. Multi-slide doors are custom sized and the price grows exponentially when you go to custom sizes.

Pros

1. Dramatic effect – No other home improvement will such a dramatic effect on the design, look and feel of your home. Removing what used to be a wall and replacing it with what amounts to a moving glass wall can really improve the lighting, look, feel and design of your home.

2. Indoor / Outdoor – These doors are the best way to create a space where the lines between inside and outside are not so clear. Some people like to barbecue and invite lots of people over but do not quite have the space inside their home to entertain the way they would like to. Well, choosing the correct sill tract and continuing your flooring from inside to the outside and the lines between inside and outside disappear. The glass disappoints into the wall and voila, you have doubled your living space without actually adding any space.

3. Automation – If you are going to the expense of installing these types of doors, you might as well have them automated as well. You can set them up with a motion sensor so when you walk up; they automatically open for you or your guests when you are entertaining. This feature is easily disabled when the need is no longer required.

4. Resale Value – nothing will catch the eye of a prospective buyer from a large expansive opening across the back wall of your home. Your competitive neighbor may have nicer landscaping or a larger pool, but if you can not see it from inside the home, there is not the same perceived value.

So there you have the pros and cons of multi-slide / pocket doors. The fact remains that these are a luxury item and they are going to be expensive but like most things that are expensive, they are worth it.

How to Fix System Error 5 – "Access is Denied"

System error 5 – also known as the "Access Is Denied" error – is an error which shows when you try and use the "Net Time" or "NetView" commands inside Windows. The error basically means that your system is being blocked from accessing the various files / settings / information that it needs from a network computer, and the only way it can be fixed is to make sure all the settings that are blocking it are in working order .

System error 5 shows up like this normally:

"System Error 5 has occurred"

"Access is denied"

There are various causes of this error, which every Windows computer can become susceptible to. However, the main cause of the problem is down to the " Windows Vista User Account Control (UAC) " feature of your system. This feature is what Windows uses to control who has access to your files & settings, and it's often the case that if its not set up correctly, a PC will just block access to it. There are also other causes of problems, such as having registry errors and virus infections.

The first thing you should do to fix this error is to change the " LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy " registry key. This is the key inside the registry database which allows Windows to control the various access options that you have. It's often the case that this key will have the wrong setting, and will surely deny you from being able to access other computers. To remedy this, it's advised you edit the registry and change the value of this key.

After you've done that, you should then look at the time on your PC. This might seem like a trivial error – but most computers will actually end up having problems if their timing is out. To make sure this is not a problem, you should look to edit the time on your system & synchronize it with Microsoft's time server.

The last steps is to clean out the registry of your system with a 'registry cleaner' application. Registry cleaners will scan through the registry database of your PC and fix any of the damaged settings that are causing your computer to run slower and with errors. If you want to fix your system, you should use one of these tools to make sure no corrupt settings are causing System Error 5. If you do this, along with the other steps mentioned in this tutorial, you should be able to resolve this error quite easily.

Stair Lifts and Residential Elevators

It can be very difficult for some people to climb the stairs safely. This is especially true of people who are sufferers of diseases like arthritis, but also those who suffer from cognitive disorders, like Alzheimer’s. In order to allow for complete access of a home, many people decide to install personal elevators, but this can quickly get pretty expensive. A stair lift is a much more affordable way to allow complete access to a home.

A stair lift is a device that is designed to carry a person up and down the stairs. For a straight staircase, there are several easy to install do-it-yourself kits available. These kits consist of a metal track, which is attached directly to the stairs, and a car, which is sent up and down the track. Usually a chair will be attached to the car, but sometimes a small platform, which is referred to as a perch, is used. Perch lifts will require that the user remain standing as they are carried up and down the track, so this option is generally only used by people who, for medical reasons, can not use a traditional chair lift.

These do-it-yourself kits can generally be installed in only a few hours, but due to the important nature of the work, it is important to carefully install the lift and follow all instructions, so it is better to take longer to install the lift then it would be to rush through it. Most dealers also have a trained installation team available, so those that do not feel comfortable doing the installation can have it professionally installed at an affordable rate.

While a personal elevator can be a nice touch, it requires a great deal of construction to the home, which can be quite expensive. The cost of the elevator is also fairly high, which is one of the main reasons a stair lift is often the best choice. A stair lift that is designed for a straight staircase is also installed much more quickly than an elevator would be. However, if you have a curved stairway, you will probably be better off installing a residential elevator.

People who have a curved staircase, might be able to install two straight stairway lifts onto the stairs, so it is a good idea to talk with a straight stair lift dealer first. Installing two stairway lifts will still save you considerable time and money when compared to a curved stairway lift, which costs at minimum 1000% more than a straight stairway lift.

If you can not install a straight staircase lift, then you might want to consider installing a personal elevator, which many times can be installed for the same price or even less than a curved stairway lift would be. Residential elevators can also usually be installed sooner than a curved staircase lift could be. Since the price of a personal elevator and a curved staircase lift is about the same, it is usually best to install a residential elevator as opposed to a curved stair lift.

A residential elevator will also retain its value and add value to the home, so much of the cost of the elevator will be retrieved when you sell your home. A curved stairway lift on the other hand does not have much value after it is sold, because it will only work on identical staircases.

For a straight stairway or an ‘L’ shaped stairway, a stair lift will be much less expensive than a personal elevator, but those that have a curved stairway, would probably be better off installing a residential elevator, because it will be about the same cost as a curved stair lift.