Willis Newton Interview – 1979

Willis Newton was the longest living Texas outlaw who robbed more than 80 banks and trains. He and his outlaw gang robbed more than Jessie James, the Daltons, and all of the rest of the Old West outlaws-combined. Their biggest haul occurred in 1924 when they robbed a train outside of Rondout, Illinois-getting away with $ 3,000,000. They still hold the record for the biggest train robbery in US history.

In 1979, I interviewed Willis Newton at his home in Uvalde, Texas. A few months later the outlaw died at age 90.

When I stepped up and knocked on Willis Newton's door there was no response. After a minute I heard a raspy growl, "It's open. Come on in."

Stepping inside the rundown clapboard house with the unkempt yard, I saw a small, with looking looking old man glaring at me from his rocking chair. "What the hell do you want?"

"Mr. Newton, I am the guy that called you yesterday and wanted to ask you some questions."

"I is not talking to no one about my life.

I knew then that doing an interview with the old outlaw was going to be a tough nut to crack. As best I could, I reminded him of our phone conversation on the previous day when I asked him to provide me with some details on how to rob a bank or a train. I told him I was writing a paperback novel (which was true) and that I needed some help in depicting a factual description of how the robberies took place (which was also true). After a few moments of consideration, he gestured to a chair in the small living room and agreed to answer "just a few questions."

In contrast to the chilly weather outside, it was hot and stuffy in his cluttered living room-being heated by a small gas wall heater. I quickly unloaded my tape recorder and after a brief conversation with Willis, handed him the microphone. I asked him how to stage a bank hold up and what was involved in robbing a train. Then like turning on a wind-up toy, Willis essentially started telling me his life's story. From time to time, I managed to get in additional questions but for the most part he rattled off the well-behaved accounts of his life in machine gun fashion-rationalizing everything he had done, blaming others for his impersonations, and repeatedly claiming that he had only stolen from "other thieves."

I had no idea what to expect when I stepped into his little house that day but what I encountered was the quintessence of the criminal mind. Everything he had done was justified by outside forces, "Nobody ever give me anything. All I ever got was hell!" As I listened in rapt attention, he sat center stage speaking in a high-pitched raspy voice, pontificating on an assortment of subjects of his choosing. Lacing his speech with large quantities of profanities, vulgarities and racial slurs, Willis was quite articulate in telling his stories – a master of fractured grammar. At times he would slip into mythological story telling mode where he would talk of killing rabbits and camping out while on the run from lawmen. Then with a little prodding he would return to the basic facts of his story.

In the process, he told me how he was raised as a child and how he was first arrested for a crime "that they knew I did not do." He went into detail about his first bank holdup, how he "greased" a safe with nitroglycerine, robbed trains, and evaded the lawmen that came after him. Willis described the Texas bank robberies in Boerne, San Marcos, New Braunfels, and Hondo (two in one night). He also related the double bank robbery in Spencer, Indiana and proceeded to give accounts of bank robberies in a multitude of other states.

He often recounted the events of the Toronto Bank Clearing House robbery in 1923 and finally the great train robbery outside of Rondout, Illinois, where he and his brothers got away with $ 3,000,000 in cash, jewelry, and bonds. He went into great detail about the beatings he and his brothers took from the Chicago police when they were later captured. As he told the story his face reddened and his voice rose to a pitched screech until he had to pause to catch his breath. Then lowering his voice he described how he managed to negotiate a crafty deal with a postal inspector for reduced prison sentences for himself and his brothers by revealing where the loot was hidden.

He told about his prison years at Leavenworth and his illegal businesses he ran in Tulsa, Oklahoma, after he got out of prison in 1929. He complained bitterly about being sent back to prison in McAlester, Oklahoma, for a bank robbery "they knew I did not do, "in Medford.

After returning to Uvalde, Texas, following his release from prison, Willis swore that he "never had no trouble with the law after that." When I asked him about his elderly brother's botched bank robbery in Rowena, Texas, in 1968, he exploded, "They tried to get me as the get-away driver but hell, I was in Laredo, over 400 miles away! I had 12 Witnesses that said I was there the night old Doc and RC got done. "

At the end of the interview, I asked him to comment on the Rondout loot buried in Texas by his brother, Jess. He said he knew where it was buried-just not exactly where because "Jess was whiskey-drunk when he hid it." Looking at the frail aged man dressed in a frayed union suit and a pair of stained pants, Willis did not appear to have any loot left of any of his robberies; although, locally it was rumored that from time to time he would spend money that appeared to have been printed during the '20s or' 30s.

Finally, I turned off the tape recorder and thanked him for helping me with the details I needed for my paperback Western. Returning to my car, my mind was awhirl with the stories I had just heard. The thought of writing a book on the old outlaw had never crossed my mind and I was very sincere in telling him I was a fiction writer and not a biographer. But what a story he told!

The following week I put the cassette tapes in a safety deposit box thinking the information might be useful for a future writing project. A few years later, I transcribed the tapes, added my notes and filed the interview away. Then while working on another book I came across the interview file and knew I had to write his story-but the complete story, not just what Willis had told me in the interview. As I found out this was a much bigger project than I had anticipated. I tracked down several hundred newspaper and magazine articles on Willis and his brothers, court records and police reports. Then, where I could, I interviewed the few remaining people who actually knew and had first-hand knowledge of Willis Newton.

Along the way, I unearthed some startling evidence that dispelled the myth that Willis and his brothers had never killed anyone in the commission of their numerous crimes. This is the first time that this fact has been brought to light.

When I had finished the research, I knew I could write his story. With some minor editing, culling some of the blatant racial references and over abundances of profanities, I tried to keep his words to me intact. I do not espouse demeaning racial terms regarding any ethnicity of people-whether it is the Irish, Jewish, Hispanic, African, Italian, or other deprecated populaces.

In a few instances, I had to structure his accounts for clarity. He spoke in a rapid fire jailhouse prose using a wide range of criminal jargon that sometimes was difficult to follow. Wherever possible I strove to retain his colorful phraseology, using the common expressions of the day.

In writing the Willis Newton book, I omitted most of his repeated self-justification for his actions in which he took great pains to paint himself as a gallant criminal-in the Robin Hood vein. It is true that he robbed from the rich but he got very little to the poor. In a few of his accounts, he did describe giving the "hard money" (silver coin) to some poor and downtrodden farmer that had helped him. In addition, he repeated the idea that he never meant to harm anyone in the robberies; "all we wanted was the money." There is no doubt that Willis Newton was shaped and stamped by the rough economic conditions of the southwest in the late 1890s and early twenty century. Yet at the same time, there were hundreds of thousands of other people that strived to work hard and become solid citizens of their communities. It was his choice to go after the "easy money."

In poring over hundreds of newspaper reports and magazine articles, I was stuck with how much of the story varied with what Willis had told me, sometimes substantively. At the same time I found that the news, in their rush to get their story out, misspelled names, got their facts wrong, under or estimated estimated dollars of loot taken, and had a very difficult time keeping the Newton brothers' names straight -Willis and Wylie (aka Willie or Doc) deal with them fits.

A few weeks before Willis Newton died, he was admitted to the hospital in Uvalde, Texas for tests on a multitude of physical problems. After he had been there a few days, I went by his room and visited the old outlaw. I knocked on his door and he managed a weak, "Come on in."

When I entered his room, I saw a very emaciated version of what I had seen in March of that year. Rail thin and covered with a crimson rash on his legs, Willis cocked his head sideways and demanded, "Who are you?"

I politely reminded him that we had talked at his home earlier and that he had given me advice on robbing banks and trains. He nodded his head and stared up at the ceiling, "Yeah, I remember now."

I told him I was sorry to see him ailing and in pain. He replied by saying, "Yeah, I'm headed to the bar ditch. got my mind. Only crazy people kill themselves but I is not crazy. "

Realizing that his time was about up I asked him if he had any regrets or was sorry for anything he had done in his life. He cocked his head sideways and raised his head up off of the pillow glaring at me. "Hell no," he screeched at me. "I've still been doing them things but my body's done played out on me. If I was 20 years younger, I'd be running guns across the border into Mexico and bringing drugs back! is not ashamed of anything I done! "

So much for contrition and redemption.

I did not know how to respond and remained quiet. After a moment he stared at the ceiling again and added, "The only thing I'm sorry about is that $ 200,000 those who left in that bank when they got spooked. getting out before we get caught. ' Hell, we left $ 200,000 just sitting there on that counter.

The next day they moved Willis to a hospital in San Antonio where he died on August 22, 1979. Fierce and defiant to the bitter end he died the way he had lived-as an outlaw.

During my 1979 interview with Willis he went into great detail about the times he had spent in jail or prison. In describing his first prison time he said, "I was jailed for 22 months and 26 days and then sent to Rusk (prison) for two years. ! " Then over the years he spent over 20 years incarcerated in some type of penal confinement. I never got to ask him the question: was it worth it?

My guess the answer would have been a resounding, "Hell yes!"

Spending a fourth of your 90 years of life behind bars severely seems worth it to me.

As I left Willis Newton's hospital room for the last time I spotted his physician who was a personal friend of mine. I asked him about Willis' condition and he confirmed what I had been told by the dying man. Then with a twinkle in his eye he asked if I wanted to see an X-ray of Willis' spine.

Sure, I had no idea what to expect.

We went to a nearby viewing room and he slapped a film on the lighted viewing board. There was a very distinct spot located near the spinal column. "That's a German Luger slug he's been carrying around for about 30 years. Some old boy shot him up in Oklahoma."

As I gazed at the image, the physician concluded by saying, "And destroyed if that old outlaw is not going to be buried with it!"

I guess you could say it was a fitting eology-of sorts.

Wound Dressings – Hydrofibers

Hydrofiber dressings are a relatively new concept in dressings, and can be very cost effective because they can be worn for several days at a time. In this article, we will explore how and when these dressings can be used.

Product Overview

Hydrofiber dressings gel upon contact with moisture, locking in fluid that is absorbed by the dressing. In this manner, they help to maintain a moisture balance in the wound bed that is not too wet or too dry, protecting the edges of wounds from becoming macerated. They provide a passive method of wound control by filling in dead spaces where bacteria tend to proliferate. The addition of silver to some of these dressings can provide antimicrobial protection for infected wounds. The main component of these dressings is sodium carboxymethylcellulose. These dressings may come in a sterile, soft non-woven pad or as a ribbon dressing.

Indications

  • Partial thickness burns
  • Diabetic foot/leg ulcers
  • Pressure ulcers
  • Traumatic wounds
  • Surgical wounds left to heal by secondary intention

Contraindications

  • Hydrofiber dressings containing silver should not be used on those patients sensitive to silver
  • Not compatible with oil-based products, such as petrolatum jelly

Advantages

  • Can be used with compression bandages
  • Can be used on dry wounds (wet with sterile normal saline)
  • Conforms to irregularly shaped wounds easily
  • Comfortable for the patient to wear
  • Easy to remove; painless and does not damage granulating wound tissue
  • Can be worn for several days, therefore these dressings can be quite cost-effective
  • Helps to balance the inflammatory response
  • The addition of silver provides sustained antimicrobial response over time

Disadvantages

  • Secondary dressing may be needed for wound that are highly exudative i.e. oncologic wounds

Hydrofiber dressings have been shown to be effective in the management of both acute and chronic wounds, as well as wounds that are infected.

For dry wounds, the dressing should be moistened with sterile normal saline, and then an occlusive dressing that traps moisture should be applied as a secondary dressing, such as a transparent film. For wounds that are extremely moist, a secondary dressing to “catch” any excess fluid should be applied.

References:

Bowler, P., Jones, S., Parsons, D. & Walker, M. (2004). Microbial properties of a silver-containing hydrofiber dressing against a variety of burn wound pathogens. Burn Care Rehabilitation, Mar-Apr; 25(2), pg. 192-196.

This article on the use of hydrofiber dressings continues our series on dressings types and use. We hope that you find these articles informative. Perhaps, as you read these articles, you will discover that you have an interest in becoming certified as a wound care specialist. If so, please visit WoundEducators.com to find out more about how you can take the next step in becoming an expert in wound care management.

The Nike Dunk – Shoes Designed For Basketball

Nike, Inc. launched the Nike Dunks in 1985 as a line of product positioned side by side the Nike Terminator. The plan was to bend the basketball shoe market a bit introducing colors instead of the usual white pair with black swoosh. They had their eye on the target and Nike knew what to do.

Designed for basketball

The Nike Dunks were really intended for the basketball players. Nike had the shoes designed with a lower profile outer sole compared to the previous shoes. The objective was to offer shoes that are lighter in weight, closer to ground, and equipped with better paneling for improved performance. The improvements were made so that the player could attain optimum pivoting and blocking.

To market the new line, a program called the College Colors was launched in various colleges and universities. Selected schools were signed up for exclusive Nike sponsorship. The jerseys were to be matched with the Dunks that will be provided for by Nike.

The eight schools that were chosen for the Dunks program included University of Maryland, St. John's University, Syracuse University, Villanova University, University of Iowa, University of Kentucky, University of Michigan, and University of Nevada.

The production for the Nike Dunks was put on hold for some time until Nike re-launched the line in 1998. The new Dunks had tongues made of nylon and arch support – those were the signature styles that differentiate them from the present releases. The shoes exhibited the classic university colors but new colors were also released.

Unexpected niche in skateboarding

In the early 2000s, the skateboarding market started to peak. Although many skaters already started to use the Dunks even during the 90s, it was not until 2002 that Nike launched the Nike Dunk SB, which targets the skateboarders.

Skaters or riders got attracted to the Dunks because of the same features that made them very good basketball shoes. The skaters needed shoes that will be comfortable for them as they ride their boards. The lower profile design of the outer soles made it possible for them to feel the board better. What made the basketball players move freely and function effectively on the court were the same features that made the skaters perform better with their skateboards.

Sneakerheads and their eye for fashion

Overlapping with the skateboarders, there emerged a pop culture where fashion was focused on the sneakers. This was also hyped up by the hiphop culture, which also started to flourish in the 90s. Sneakerhead refers to a person who collects shoes, which he intends to wear for purposes of fashion and everyday wear. Most often, the shoes of choice are those intended for sports like tennis or basketball.

The return of the Nike Dunks proved to be a successful more by Nike. With the new branch, Nike Dunk SB, the shoe line is now cashing in on their limited editions, which often sell at insane prices. The popularity of these special versions is attributed to the hype that is being given to the Dunks in the Internet.

Conflict Follows The Emotional Path of Lowest Resistance

Have you ever stopped to think why you respond to conflict like you do? This is not only interesting information, but very valuable information for anyone who finds conflict in their life … oh yes, that is ALL of us! I do not remember where I read this information, or I would give proper recognition, however, this is so good – I just have to share it.

What is conflict?

1. a serious disagreement or argument

2. incompatibility or at a variance; clash

What do we feel when we have conflict? We feel a range of emotions from anger, to fear, to hurt and so on.

The definition of emotion is: energy in motion

To add to that definition, emotional energy follows the path of least resistance. Where it has gone before it will go again!

Picture every emotion you have ever had. It was, indeed, energy in motion. And, we have all experienced the same emotions when we are in the midst of a conflict similar to others we have previously experienced.

Here is the part I find both fascinating and frustrating. Each time we find ourselves in a similar conflict – not only does our emotional energy follow the path of least resistance – but, each time that path is traveled the path becomes 10 times stronger! Picture a path through the grass that one person has walked down. Their may be very little evidence that the grass has even been walked on. But picture the same grass after ten people have walked on it and it is becoming quite compacted down. Picture once more that grass after one hundred people have walked on it. There is an undeniable path worn.

If we compare the grass to each time we have a particular emotional response … after just three times it has already had the equivalent of 100 people walking down that path.

It is not hard to see why, in the midst of conflict, we find ourselves having the same behavior, saying the same words and experiencing the same outcome.

I often respond poorly to conflict, but it is also possible to respond to conflict in better ways. Personally, I desire to turn the cycle around so that each time I experience the same, or similar conflict, the path I follow to ending (or diffusing) conflict becomes ten times easier.

Path # 1

Conflict occurs

Negative emotional arousal / response

Poor result

Emotional unrest

Path # 2

Conflict occurs

Positive (good / neutral) emotional arousal / response

Better result

Emotional rest

As a Christ follower, I am very aware that I am weak in my good intentions. That is why I count on God working in me to do this. I desire to change and He does the changing.

II Corinthians 12: 9 "… for my (God's) power is made perfect in weakness." – ESV

Philippians 2:13 "For it is God who works in you to will and to act in order to fulfill His good purpose." – NIV

Thank you God!

Yin and Yang Food – How Does it Affect You?

Did you know that Yin and Yang, the principle at the heart of Chinese philosophy, applies to Chinese food and cooking as well? In Chinese medicine, all food can be divided into four Qis: Hot, warm, cool and cold; or yang, mild yang, mild yin and yin respectively.

In general, yang food improves blood circulation and warms us up, but too much yang food (or eaten during the wrong season e.g. summer) will induce constant thirst, hot flashes, night sweats and constipation. In contrast, yin food quenches thirst, cleanses our systems and cools us down, but if eaten inappropriately it will lower our metabolism and weaken our bodies. In particular, according to traditional Chinese, pregnant women are traditionally advised not to eat yin food (e.g. crab, watermelon) as it may increase the chance of miscarriage.

So what are some examples of yin and yang food?

Grains and Beans

  • Mild Yang (warm food): glutinous rice, black rice, barley, sago, sorghum
  • Mild Yin (cool food): wheat, barley, green beans, buckwheat, millet
  • Right in the middle: Rice, corn (maize), sweet potato, sesame, soy beans, rice beans, oat, long beans, sweet peas, kidney beans, mung beans, lentil, broadbean

Meat and Dairy Product

  • Mild Yang (warm):beef, lamb (mutton), chicken, shrimp, lobster, mussels, goat milk
  • Mild Yin (cool): duck, abalone
  • Yin: duck egg, crab, clam, octopus, squid, escargots, raw food
  • Just Right: chicken egg and egg white, pork, scallop, fish, cow milk, yogurt

Fruits and Nuts

  • Mild Yang (warm): peach, almond, dates, lychee, long yan, lemon, papaya, pine nut, walnut, chestnut, cherry, mango
  • Mild Yin (cool):apple, pear, orange, strawberry, pipa
  • Yin (cold): Persimmon, pomelo, banana, starfruit, kiwi, water melon, sweet melon
  • Just Right: plum, pineapple, grapes, olive, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, coconut milk, peanut, hazelnut

Vegetables

  • Mild Yang (warm): spring onion, garlic, leeks, coriander / parsley, onion, pumpkin
  • Yang (hot): pepper
  • Mild Yin (cool): tomato, celery, egg plant, choy shum, spinach, asparagus, artichoke, cauliflower, tofu (including soy milk), gluten, lotus root, winter melon, cucumber, mushroom, needle mushroom
  • Yin (cold): bok choy, arrowhead, water spinach, watercress, bamboo shoots, seaweed, straw mushroom, bitter melon, water chestnut
  • Just Right: carrot, potato, taro, mushroom, turnip (very mild yin), black fungus (very mild yin)

Other Food and Ingredients

  • Mild Yang (warm): spices such as young ginger, clove, dill, rosemary, sage, turmeric, thyme, horseradish, cayenne, nutmeg, wild pepper, cumin, star anise; stimulants such as alcohol, coffee, black tea and other caffeinated drinks; red sugar, ginseng
  • Yang (hot): Cinnamon
  • Mild Yin (cool): green tea, honey, beer, chrysanthemum tea, mint
  • Yin (cold): Soy sauce, soy bean paste, salt

How Does This Apply To Us?

According to the Chinese, each of us are born yin, yang or somewhere in between. For example, if you always crave for spicy food you may have a “yin” body; and if you love watermelon anytime in the year you are likely a Yang.

Your health condition can also indicate the yin-yang balance of your body. Constant cold hands and feet? A Yin; Get soar throat easily and have a quick temper? A Yang. Seasonal and geographic variations will also affect our preference on yin and yang foods.

The Advice

  • When cooking yin food (applies to most veggies), add yang ingredients such as garlic, spring onion, ginger and coriander.
  • Eat seasonal food: let the nature guide us how to eat.
  • Balanced diet: if we eat a wide variety of food, the yin and yang will balance out.

Brick Paver Design – How it Works

Professional landscape designers or architects have methods for choosing the best brick paver design to harmonize with the surrounding area of ​​your property and structure.

Brick pavers are used around swimming pools and as pathways through landscaped gardens, and well as areas with vehicular traffic. Landscape architects consider brick pavers to be a flexible pavement because of the methods and materials used to install them. It is further considered to be a flexible pavement because it can be used in so many structural and design oriented environments.

Color combinations and blended paver colors can be used to heighten the aesthetic results of a paver installation.

Here are some design considerations:

– Pavers come in different textures. Using combinations can add visual interest and give the paver installation a very custom look.

– Wood or stone structures complemented by brick pavers will add an overall warm atmosphere.

– Generally, it is best to use pavers one to two shades lighter than the structure to avoid competition for attention with the structure.

– In keeping with this idea, for brick homes or buildings, the use of pavers lighter than the brick is recommended or the use of some kind of cobblestone.

Brick paving has been used for centuries of years for sidewalks, patios, and plazas, among other areas. Brick paving is flexible since it is compacted with layers of aggregate. As the pavers compact with use, the end result is an interlock, which holds the pavers in place. This brick interlock is very stable over time, which is evidenced by the pavers installed hundreds of years ago that are still in good form and with us today.

As a landscape designer's vehicle, brick has aesthetic appeal that exudes both elegance and warmth. You can choose to install a popular pattern such as running bond, herringbone, basket weave, and there are many other ornate patterns.

To select the most appropriate design and material for your property and structure your brick paver layout will require careful planning.

How Much Should a Logo Design Cost?

How much does it cost to get a logo designed for your business? The correct answer to this question is anywhere from nothing up to hundreds of thousands of dollars.

You could generalize and say that you get what you pay for. This statement would be true 70% of the time but there are definitely many cases where people spend a lot of money and get rubbish and cases where people spend only a little and get a real branding jewel that works wonders for their business. So it is worth putting some thought into the process of choosing a designer.

Here are some factors that will affect the price that you pay for a logo.

1) The free model – Do it yourself logo design templates are available online for little of no cost. You can throw something together with some clip-art, customize the name and you're away laughing. The downside is that you will not be able to trademark the design and without schooling in good design practice your results will likely be amateurish. Some cheaper logo companies will put something together for you but they will sell the same logo many times over so you are not getting something original that can be copyrighted. Going for a custom logo design is the best option as you will have a designer put something unique together that is taylor-made to your company branding needs.

2) Meeting face to face – If you go for a local designer you will benefit from face to face consultations to discuss the project but this comes at a price. Online logo design firms cut costs by avoiding coffee drinking sessions with clients and will still understand your needs from the briefing form that you fill out online. Web based designers also cut overheads by working in back offices instead of fancy design studios.

3) Location of the company – Western designers usually understand how to brand western companies better than foreigners, however there are some great designers in places like the Philippines and India who will work for much cheaper. The problem here is that if you are sued for trademark infringement you will not be able to take legal action against them if they are outside the US. Local designers will always confirm that you will indeed own the rights to your unique logo design.

4) Service level – The more expensive package you go with the more will be included. Take note of how many designers will work on your case, how many unique initial concepts you will be offered and how many chances you will have to request small changes (rounds of revisions).

Ask about the guarantee policy before you go ahead and order. Find out if they will offer a complete redraw if you do not like the concept or if they will refund your money in the case that you do not like what they present to you.

Delivery time can vary between companies and other factors can affect pricing such as the format that you get your files in.

5) Design Quality – Definitely the most important factor in determining how much a logo design should cost. If you are paying top dollar and plan on spending over $ 1000 you should first seek proof that you will end up with value for money. Check out their design portfolio, ask for references from other customers, find out how experienced and qualified the designers really are and even seek evidence that they have won some design awards or competitions.

Think about why you need the logo. If its just for a website or a short term project you should be fine with some of the cheaper service providers. If, although you are building a future fortune 500 mega-corporation then you may want to spend at least $ 300 to $ 400 and possibly a lot more.

Usually you can get a reasonable good custom logo design for between $ 25 and $ 200. The high end operators will tell you that you can only get junk at this price level but in my opinion they are wrong. It is possible to get a great logo online for a low price.

How much should an online logo design cost? As much as you are prepared to pay. But do not kid yourself that price is everything.

What Causes Fruit Flies?

Knowing what causes fruit flies is the key to eliminating them. Not many people would normally care where fruit flies came from, unless they had them in their home and were trying to get rid of them. In a nut shell, anything that is fermenting will attract these tiny flies. This includes fruits, vegetables, anything moist like mops and dirty rags, and of course alcohol. These are known as breeding places for fruit flies. They can smell something fermenting from very far distances away.

If you have anything like this in your home, they will be drawn in. Fruit flies originally come from out side, but will quickly make a new home for themselves in your home if you're not careful, especially if there is a change in temperature and it begins to get colder outside. Once they find the perfect spot, the can lay up to 500 eggs, in which those eggs, in a few hours, transition into adult fruit flies. The fruit fly only has a 10 day life span, so they develop extremely quickly from the egg to the larva and then ever the adult fly.

This is why you one day had only a few flies around, and then the next day, there are hundreds! Multiply this scenario by 500 and you can easily see how an infestation can occur. It can happen very fast, so the quicker you can eliminate them the better. Once you know what causes these pests, and where they breed, you can start focusing on those areas when you begin your eliminating process. Getting rid of their breading spots will help decrease their ability to reproduce, and make it easier for you to rid them from your home.

Newsboy Hats and Ivy Caps

[This is article # 8 in a series on Iconic Hats. It joins The Top Hat, The Bowler, The Fedora, The Cowboy Hat, The Beret, The Baseball Cap, and The Fez.]

Newsboy caps and ivy caps – variously known as flat caps, baker boy hats, driving caps, golf caps, English caps, eight-quarter caps, etc. – date to pre-World War I and historically are associated with the working classes. In pictures from this period, as well as in literature, one finds factory workers, employers, construction workers [there is a famous 1932 photograph by Charles C. Ebbets of construction workers on a beam over NYC – Lunch Atop A Skyscraper- where most are wearing a newsboy or ivy cap], etc. wearing variations of cloth caps. Because this headwear was cut-and-sewn primarily from either cotton or woolen fabrics, variations were plentiful and a man could easily distinguish himself from the next by his choice of color, material (eg tweed, herringbone, etc.), or style ( cut. Furthermore, these caps were inexpensive when compared to the full size hats of the day like bowlers, top hats, or fedoras, so a person could own more than one and, if so inclined, change his hat from day to day. Because of the small size, soft nature, and portability of these caps, their popularity spread to young professionals, college fraternities ("ivy" cap as in Ivy League), sportsmen ("golf" cap as worn by the likes of Bobby Jones and Ben Hogan), etc. A man accustomed to dressing up for work during the week with a full size hat, could now wear this informal cap on the weekend signaling his "time off" while he pursued leisure activity without stepping down in class.

Today, the popularity of ivy and newsboy hats is perhaps second only to its ubiquity in the early 20th Century. The English-born Kangol 504 cap helped to revitalize this style in the mid to late 1990s. Movie stars, musicians, golfers, fashionistas, skate boarders, people young and old, can be found on a daily basis wearing a newsboy or ivy cap frontwards, backwards, or sideways .. Those who determined that this was "my style" quickly learned that the variations of this headwear style are virtually limitless. Many – like my father – make a hobby of collecting caps and make sure to pick up one or two while traveling in the British Isles or Europe.

Important Tips For Laminating the Paper to Wood

Lamination is the process that the two materials will be united to be one. Laminating your paper to wood is the technique that is very useful for displaying the photographs or even other essential documents. Glue is one of the easiest ways in laminating the paper to wood. Paper is the tricky material to work with just like the laminate material, as it will be fragile, and the glue may eat away at it over the time. The non-acidic glue of the archives is the great type to work with when you are laminating paper, as it will keep the paper from yellowing or even aging quickly. Here is more information for you.

For the first step, you can sand a wood piece with the 220 grit sandpaper in order to remove all rough edges. After that, wipe the wood with the damp cloth when you have finished in getting rid of the dust. Then, wait for your wood to dry.

For the second step, you need to put the acrylic medium glue at the back of your paper and also position it on your wood board. The acrylic medium glue will hold the paper to the several of surfaces and can also be used in creating the texture. If you cannot find the type of this glue, your can use an acid-free liquid glue.

For the last step, you should paint the surface of your wood with the layer of your acrylic medium glue. You can use the smooth, downward strokes in applying the glue. You need to wait for it to get dry and then sand it with the 220 grit sandpaper in removing the bubbles. After that, paint the other layer over the surface and then wait for it to get dry. Remember to sand it in removing all bubbling in the surface.

Buttons – History and Facts

When did buttons begin to be used? What was used to secure clothing before them? Some history and facts about the button:

  • Button-like objects have been found in the Indus Valley of ancient Pakistan and date back to around 2000 B.C.E. These were not used for fasteners, but for ornaments. Before they were used for fastening, pins, leather lacing and belts were used to secure clothing.
  • Before buttons could be used as fasteners, the button hole had to be devised. Evidence dates the first button and button hole closure systems to the 13th century in Germany. This may have been a solution to the problem of how to secure clothing that was becoming more and more form-fitting, without having to resort to sharp pins.
  • As with most anything that is new, they became a fad. Buttons and button holes covered the clothing of the well to do. The number of them and what they were made out of became a status symbol. It has been rumored that King Louis XIV of France spent over $5 million on them in his lifetime.
  • Ever wonder why men’s suit coats have non-functioning buttons sewn on the sleeves? Some say they are just for decoration, but there is also the story that King Frederick The Great of Prussia started the practice in the 18th century. The rumor goes that after an inspection of his troops, he ordered that buttons be sewn on the sleeves of their coats to discourage them from wiping their noses on them!
  • The Scovill Manufacturing Company in America made a set of gold buttons with the profile of George Washington on them that were presented to Marquis de Lafayette during his U.S. visit in 1824.
  • With the increased cost of ivory in the 19th century, button manufacturers began to make them out of a nut from a specific kind of palm tree in South America. This is called vegetable ivory, or corozo. When the nut is dried, it is a very reasonable facsimile for genuine ivory, and is still used today.
  • The first buttons made from celluloid, one of the first types of plastics, were made in the 1860’s.
  • Before World War One, most button manufacturing was done in Europe, specifically England. After the war, the United States became the center of button making until modern times.

Do I Have a Blown Head Gasket? – Critical Blown Engine Symptoms

You're sitting in traffic, minding your own business, when suddenly you see it: a cloud of white smoke drifting out from underneath your car hood.

Does this mean that you've got a blown head gasket on your hands?

Or how about this scenario: you open up the car hood to take a look at your engine, and you notice that the head gasket appears to be slightly warped. Does this mean that you have a blown head gasket? Or should it be considered normal wear-and-tear on a car, especially if it's an older model?

You do not need a mechanic to properly diagnose this problem; in fact, if you spot any of these symptoms while you're driving, then there is a high possibility that you've got a blown engine:

Early Symptoms

In order to prevent major motor problems – and saving yourself a surprise bill from your mechanic! – then watch out for some key preliminary symptoms, which arise when the head gasket is about to fail. Your car will often overheat, white smoke will appear from the exhaust and there will be a slight rumbling sensation when your car's idling.

Blown Engine

If you have not heard these preliminary symptoms, then watch out for the big-time signs: your car overheats, your air conditioning blows out hot air or your heater blows out cold air, there are clouds of smoke coming from underneath your hood, your car will roughly shake while idling, or it will not start at all. In either case, take a look underneath your hood at your engine. A warped or slightly bent surface can easily be fixed by a mechanic for a nominal fee; however, a crack in the block surface will indicate that the head gasket needs to be replaced altogether.

Another major symptom of a blown motor is oil running into your coolant. If your vehicle has been running it is very important to allow your car to cool before you remove the cap of your radiator. This may take 20-30 minutes. Then use a rag to remove the cap. If your fluid looks like chocolate milk, then you definitely have a blown head gasket.

If you engine repair, be sure to take your vehicle to an experienced mechanic with a stellar reputation and customer service.

Electric Smokers – Healthy and Versatile Cooking Units

Electric smokers are considered healthy and reliable cooking devices suitable for both residential and commercial needs. These units primarily consist of different temperature controls vital to cook various types of meat, fish and vegetables. The products can also be used as warming ovens to heat food. The units are now being highly preferred for barbeque needs when compared to other conventional smoking techniques. Similarly, there are digital smokers that use an infrared heating source to control the overall temperature. These are not only best to smoke food but can be used for cold, dry or hot cooking requirements.

Bradley smokers institute one of the leading brands that allow enjoying gourmet-quality food as served in BBQ outlets. These can be used by novice and professional smokers in an effortless manner. The units designed in powdered epoxy steel feature an aluminum interior, hot plate, advanced feeding system and adjustable racks to store food in large quantities. These aid hot smoking at temperatures ranged between 180-250 degrees while cold smoking between 60-80 degrees F can be used for items like bacon, salmon ham, cheese etc. Bradley and Jim Beam are commonly regarded as top brand smokers in the industry.

Benefits of using digital and electric smoking units:

The smokers are extremely flexible in use and enable to make flavorful and tasty smoked meat, roasted corn, turkey, pork chops, fish, vegetables, steak either indoors or outdoors. The units facilitate to smoke food in a healthy and nutritious manner without the use of oil or other fats. Large meats generally require longer time to smoke while medium-sized fish or meat like chicken legs, sausages take less time. Shrimps and smaller sized food items can be smoked by placing them in containers to prevent them from becoming dry and hard to eat. On the other hand, meat or vegetables when soaked in brine help enhance the flavor and also retain the moisture levels. Furthermore, wood-flavored rubs in apple, cherry or hickory along with other seasonings can be used depending on the required taste. Some of the models include a wood box that offer the same effect as placing wood or charcoal on the grill top.

Additionally, the devices assist in even cooking as the temperature levels are digitally managed eliminating the need to adjust the vents as needed in charcoal or gas models. These are safe to use and do not emit any harmful pollutants in the air. The tools are also cost-effective and avoid the need of purchasing charcoal or wood on a regular basis. Above all, these can be easily cleaned and do not require clearing any messy ash or other debris. As a result, digital and electric smokers are ideal cooking source to enjoy delicious and freshly smoked food.

VADODRA – The City With Glorious History And Natural Splendor

Situated on the banks of Vishwamitri River, Vadodara is a significant tourist destination in Gujrat. Previously, known as the capital city of Gaekwad, it now embraces some of the most beautiful cultural heritage sites. The city of Baroda, prominent by the name Vadodara, has seen the reign of several rulers, many of which build magnificent palaces, scenic lakes and blossoming parks. King Sayaji Rao III was one of the most dynamic rulers and proved himself a first-class planner. Today, the cosmopolitan culture and modern outlook of the city along with a blend of rich culture makes Baroda a fantastic place for holidaying with family.

The growing industrial sector and prominent center for academics has helped Vadodara to earn recognition in the recent years. The monuments here exhibit incredible architecture and reveal the glorious past of the city. Many tourists from different parts of the world choose this destination to spend a wonderful holiday. Distance between Pune and Baroda is approximately 587 kilometers and people can easily book taxi to make their journey comfortable.

Vadodra – The City of Culture

During the 10th century, Baroda was ruled by Chalukya dynasty followed by many other rulers and then finally by the Maratha General Pilaji Gaekwad. In the reign of General Gaekwad, Baroda saw major developments and only after this period, modern era of the city came into existence. However, King Sayaji Rao III, during his supremacy introduced many developments and socio economic reforms that proved fruitful and thus the city earned the title 'The City of Culture'.

Festival of Nine Nights

The festival of nine nights, Navratri is very grandly celebrated and is illustrious in Baroda. People offer prayers to Goddess Durga, make special snacks, decorate their homes and dance all night. The famous dance form called Garba fills people with a lot of enthusiasm and encourages them to dance past midnight. Huge grounds are especially taken on rent, decorated with lights and prepared for the occasion. Diwali, Holi, Uttarayan and Ganesh Chathurti are some festivals which are celebrated with great enthusiasm and excitement.

City still raises the culture, which can be easily witnessed at places like Vadodra museum, Maharaja Fateh Singh Museum, Picture Gallery and Nandlal Bose murals of Bhagvad Gita at old Kirti temple. Best time to visit this place is during winters, when the temperature is little chilly and provides relief from the scorching heat of summers.

Places To See

Kadia Dungar Caves – The Buddhist caves came into being during 1st and 2nd century. The caves accommodate seven different caves with monolithic lion Pillars and a stupa made of bricks at the foot hills.

Maharaja Sayajirao University – Considered as one of the most recognized educational institutions with a remarkable archaeological department that enshrines findings from Harappan civilization, MS University is worth a visit. Departments of Performing Arts and Fine Arts have helped this institution to gain recognition.

Lakshmi Villas Palace – The palace was built in the year 1890 during the reign of Maharaja Sayajirao. Major Charles Mant and R. F Chisolm were appointed for the construction of this palace. It was ensured that the palace was built keeping Indian, Islamic and European architectural style in mind. Today, tourists can experience Indo-Saracenic folklore in the entire palace and revel in the magnificence of this royal palace.

Nazarbaugh Palace – Nazarbaugh Palace was considered as the guest house for the royal family. Built in the year 1721, the palace is made of white stucco and preserves solid gold and silver guns. It also exhibits the clothes embroidered with precious stones, seed pearls and jewels of Gaekwad family, which are worth watching.

Makarpura Palace – Built by King Khende Rao in 1870, Makarpura Palace was the summer palace that exhibited Italian style of architecture. Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III renovated the entire palace. These days, Indian Air Force uses the location for various trainings and therefore, this palace is not open to public.

Ankottaka – Located on the banks of river Viswamitri, Ankottaka or Akota is a small town that is well known for 68 bronze images of tirthankars, which were discarded from this site. Currently the images are placed in Vadodara Museum. During 5th and 6th century, Akota was known as the key center for Jains and Jain studies.

Sayaji Baug – Maharaja Sayajirao III built the huge park in year 1879. Park embraces a planetarium, zoo, toy train, a flower clock, an astronomy park and 45 hectares of garden grounds. It is also known by the name Kamati Baug and is worth a visit.

Sri Aurobindo Niwas – Located at Dandia Bazaar, Sri Aurobindo Niwas is a popular ashram that attracts many people from different parts of city. The niwas houses the remnants of the yogi, Rishi Aurobindo Ghosh and is open for people to meditate.

Dabhoi – Early known by the name, Darbhavati is a primeval fortified town that has a lot of significance in Jain scriptures of Grinar. The fort of Dabhoi is a perfect example of rich cultural heritage in Baroda. It embraces four main gates namely, Hira Bhagol, Vadodara gate, Champaner gate and Nandod gate. The town is also known as a pilgrimage center for Jains and incorporates 6 other temples.

Chote Udepur – Located at the border of Rajasthan, Chote Udepur is one of the princely states that accommodate an assortment of ancient temples within the periphery. Jain temple found here is known for its unique Victorian architecture and contributions a lot of tourists every year. While visiting Chote Udepur, Kusum Vilas Palace, Prem Bhavan and the tribal market should not be missed. Furthermore, a trip in the narrow gauge train is a must watch while visiting Baroda.

Things To Do

The city rich in its culture attracts thousands of people every year from all around the country. There are many museums, palaces and caves in and around this place where tourists can experience the rich culture. Festival of nine nights, Navratri is celebrated with great enthusiasm in Baroda. During this time, the entire city is full of colors, decorated with lights and is a delight to see.

Why Are We So Fascinated By Koi Tattoos?

One of the principal reasons people get tattoos are in order for them to symbolize something significant in their lives through art on their bodies. It is quite literal like wearing one's heart on one's sleeve or back or where it is one happens to have a tattoo placed. That is why tattoos of koi fish are so popular. It is because these fish are laden with symbolism in the Japanese and Chinese cultures from which they come.

The meanings associated with koi are generally those of perseverance, aspiration, advancement, non-conformism or downright good luck. Perhaps this is because there is an ancient Chinese koi myth about these fish being the only one of their kind to swim up the waterfall towards the "Ryumon" or dragon gate at the upper edges of China's "Huang He" (Yellow River). It is at the dragon gate that it is said, the carp were transformed into dragons. From hence also comes the Japanese idiom, "koi-no-taki-nobori" or "carp swimming up the rapids," which is used to describe success in life sometimes in the same way that we use, "going against the grain."

Tattoos of koi fish are also taken to mean "love." This may be due to an old Japanese chronicle called the "Nihonshoki" which tells of how the Emperor Keiko fell in love with Princess Otohime (meaning Shy and Modest princess) and tried to make her visit him at Kukurinomiya Palace. The Emperor was known for taking pleasure in viewing his koi pond at the palace for this was common practice among the aristocracy of the Heian period (794-1185 BC). To the emperor's delight, the princess who happened to share his same pastime, could not help but finally pay him a visit. This paved the way for romance, all thanks to the koi fish.

Another symbolism for tattoos koi fish is that of masculinity, bravery and heroism. In Japan, koi are called "bushyi-go" or "Japanese warrior fish" because of their serene and determined manner of swimming, sometimes even jumping out of water. It is also said, that much like a samurai, koi fish do not flinch under the knife.

Tattoos of koi fish are often accompanied by backdrops of streams. To some, a koi swimming upstream or in rough water might mean one is struggling with a challenge. If the fish is swimming downstream it may mean that one has failed that challenge. Oftentimes however, koi representations are those of victory. Which is why even celebrities such as Cherliize Theron and her mother both sport the same tattoos of koi fish after their successful battle with cancer. Others like the late Alexander McQueen had a koi tattoo on his chest; popular singer John Mayer also wears one on his right shoulder.

Finally, a depiction of five golden koi may mean increased wealth or good luck, five being considered a lucky number in the East. This would be reason enough for anyone to have these beautiful carp close by. By having tattoos of koi fish one can be certain this is always the case.