Cessna 182 – Tips for a Smooth Transition

One of the first upgrades most pilots face is the one from basic training aircraft to something with a bit more performance and complexity. At one time the common transition was from a Cessna 152 to a Cessna 172, or from Piper Tomahawk to Piper Warrior. As those very basic aircraft disappeared from training inventories for a few years, it became much more common to start off in a 172 or something similar, pushing the first transition to a more complex aircraft such as the Cessna 182.

According to the FAA, the 182, with an engine of over 200 horsepower, is considered a high performance aircraft. To fly a high performance aircraft the FAA requires you log ground and flight instruction with a certified flight instructor (CFI). Though the amount of time is not specified by the FAA, instructors commonly indicate around 5 to 10 hours as the amount of time required- though that may vary significantly based on a student’s background and experience.

While the 182 is classified as a high performance aircraft, it does not fit in the complex category. Though it has two of the three requirements (flaps, constant speed prop, retractable gear), its fixed landing gear means it’s not considered a complex aircraft.

Though the FAA may not consider the 182 complex, beginning students may think differently. As mentioned, the 182 adds a constant speed prop and cowl flaps to the already familiar controls. More weight means different handling techniques, and a bigger engine means more attention has to be paid to its management. Overall, these additional elements give more weight to the importance of following checklist procedures.

As far as what the new controls mean, the prop RPM will be controlled by the blue knob. The throttle will go from controlling the RPM as in a 172 to controlling the manifold pressure. Most of the time in the 182, ground ops, takeoff and landing will be with the prop control pushed all of the way in. That will give you the most power available. In cruise flight though, that setting isn’t very efficient, so you’ll bring the blue knob back to a slower RPM, which will have the propeller taking a bigger bite out of the air. The settings for RPM and manifold pressure vary slightly from one model of 182 to the next, so consult the POH for your particular aircraft for the exact numbers.

When adjusting the engine controls the inevitable question will arise as to which control to move first. The easiest way to remember is that the blue knob will stay in more than the throttle. So, when you want to increase power, lead with the prop control. When reducing power (as in leveling off), lead with the throttle.
Bigger engines tend to foul more easily than their smaller counterparts- meaning the proper leaning technique must be adhered to. Proper technique is to lean during taxing and in cruise flight. On the ground it’s usually sufficient to pull the mixture out an inch or so or just a bit before the engine coughs. In cruise you can lean by fuel flow or cylinder head temperatures based on the equipment in your aircraft. Check the POH for detailed instructions.

The cowl flaps are another thing to remember. They control the amount of cooling air flowing over the engine. Cooling air is good when it’s hot or you’re slow or on the ground; but it increases drag the rest of the time. For the 182 the cowl flaps will remain open until you reach cruise flight, then they can be closed. They will usually remain closed until landing. As in all cases, follow the checklist.

As for handling, the 182 is heavier in both roll and pitch than a 172. Pitch will be the first notable difference as you’re rolling down the runway for takeoff and realize that it will take a decided pull to get the nose moving up. That same characteristic will come into play on landing as it will take a conscious effort to keep the nose wheel up longer than the mains. Proper trim, which is more important in heavier planes, will minimize this effect. You should be trimming for hands off flight at all times. There are many 182’s that have suffered bent firewalls in testament to the importance of a good flare and proper trim.

The Cessna 182 is nothing to be intimidated by. It’s not much more difficult to fly than a 172, with the addition of some checklist items to keep in mind. After a few hours you will come to enjoy the increased speed, range and stability that it will give you.

Head YouTek Prestige Midplus Tennis Racquet Review

Every major racquet company has a flagfish racquet that is synonymous with the brand. Wilson has the Pro Staff 6.1 95, Babolat has the extremely popular Pure Drive, and Head has the Prestige. Originally introduced in the mid 80's as the Prestige Pro, the Prestige family of racquets has become instantly recognizable in the hands of such greats as Goran Ivanisevic, Marat Safin, Gustavo Kuerten, and young guns Marin Cilic and Stanislas Wawrinka. Head's newest incarnation of the Prestige line is the Yutek Prestige infused with Head's patented d3O technology and a classy new cosmetic. For this particular play test, I took out a new Youtek Prestige Mid Plus strung with a Polyblend at 57 lbs.

Anyone who has played or demoed a Prestige in the past knows that this racquet is geared for control and more control. Everything about the frame from its moderately low stiffness rating (which is 62 by our RA), thin beam, and dense string pattern (18×20) are geared for pinpoint precision, and this racquet does not disappoint. Starting from the backcourt, I could instantly feel that this racquet has superior stability and plow through on the ground. My ground strokes were deeper and more penetrating than racquets with less weight, and I felt no vibration whatever when connecting with well stuck balls from my opponent.

Moving into the net is where I really started to enjoy the feel of the new Prestige. For anyone who has had some higher level player frames from Head in the past (ie Radical, Prestige), there is a tendency for the racquet to feel something dead near the top of the racquet. For this reason, I sometimes struggle with my feel at net with my current racquet (Microgel Radical MP). This was not the case with the new Prestige. I felt that all of my volleys were crisp and accurate, even when I did not connect right in the center of the sweet spot. This was a big bonus for me as I actually picked up some free points at net that I would not normally get.

While I certainly enjoyed the Prestige from the backcourt and at the net, the racquet really excels when you start to serve. From the service line, I was able to crack hard flat serves down the "T" and slice some great looking serves out wide. With other racquets, I sometimes have to hold back in order to gain my control within the box, but I was able to let loose with this racquet and gain some much needed free points.

From my review you might think that this racquet is magical and will instantly make you a better player. While I certainly approve of this new version of the Prestige, here are some things to consider. First, the racquet is heavy in comparison to most of your other racquets in the market, and will be best suited for strong players 4.0-4.5 and up. If you are not used to playing with a racquet this heavy you can really start to feel the weight, especially if you have to go a third set. Second, this racquet provides you with control for days, but that means that you must generate most of your power from your swing. Nothing short or compact will work here; it requires those long loopy strokes. If this sounds like your kind of racquet, feel free to use the coupon at the end of this newsletter for a free week long demo of the new prestige!

Gel Nails – Protecting Your Nails From Overexposure to Chemicals and Allergic Reactions

Our body is composed of chemicals and so are our nails. In addition, our daily routine exposes us to chemicals at home, at our workplace, on the streets in the form of smoke, dust and virtually in all the products that we use. Used in proportion chemicals like creams, sprays and so on protect our skin from aging and damage and add to our beauty. Similarly, used in excess these same products may cause chemical over exposure and allergic reactions on our body.

Allergies are a reaction of our immune system and are a form of hypersensitivity where white blood cells get excessively activated and cause inflammation, redness, boils, fever. At a nail spa, the technician and clients are constantly exposed to chemicals which are used to treat the nails. These chemicals should be carefully used to prevent over exposure which may in turn damage the nails. The nail tech should therefore pay careful attention to each step in the nail enhancement technique ranging from preparation of the chemicals to application and finally the finishing.

Allergies can appear either in stages over a long period of time or immediately after a short exposure to some substance. Allergic contact dermatitis is a condition which develops as a result of skin sensitization over a period of time due to exposure of a substance for few days or years. It is characterized by blisters, itching, redness, swelling of the skin which is present in the area of contact of the allergic substance. Irritant contact dermatitis develops due to heavy short term exposure or a long low exposure to a substance. The chemical or irritant enters beneath the skin and reacts with the tissues to damage the skin. The result is itchiness, swelling, skin damage like blisters and scales.

As nail techs constantly come in contact with nail dust, gels, acrylics, primers, polish removers, they are susceptible to allergies and should take adequate precautions to protect themselves. Clients on the other hand can develop allergies to some nail treatments and products like gels, acrylics, removers which may cause skin and nail damage.

Some tips that nail techs should keep in mind to avoid chemical over exposure to them and clients are:

o Keep your salon clean – use clean linen for each client, see that all equipment is sterilized before and after use, trash bags are changed daily.

o Maintain personal hygiene – wear appropriate clothing to protect your skin from nail dust, wear a face mask to keep away dust and odors frequently changing it and never treat your worktable like a dining area. Undesirable chemicals may pass into your food and cause adverse reactions.

o Carefully prepare your work area before each client appointment so that you do not end up mixing the wrong chemicals in a hurry and causing damage to client nails.

o Use and store all nail care products as per the manufacturer’s instructions and do not try to mix unadvised quantities as this may cause mishaps like burns on the skin and damage to the nail plate.

o Only mix the amount of liquid you will need for application and never more. This will avoid wastage as well as limit the amount of harmful vapors which will be emitted.

o Keep your spa well ventilated to release any vapors and odors which may linger on after a nail job.

o Keep a small area around the cuticle free of any product to allow the application to settle firmly and avoid over exposure of chemical on the nail plate.

o Do not keep wet brushes on towels or indiscriminately wipe them with whatever comes your way. Instead use disposable towels.

Maintaining these basic hygiene standards will go a long way in preventing any allergies or chemical over exposures to yourself and your clients. High standards will also add immensely to your appointment book.

How to Soundproof a Bathroom

Bathrooms can be very noisy places due to exposed pipes, family members taking showers, blow-drying their hair and so on and so forth. Just because the walls in your home have insulation, including the ceiling does not mean that there is insulation in the interior walls to reduce the noisy sounds. In most cases, interior walls have no insulation at all.

There are many different ways you can soundproof your bathrooms including adding insulation or by doing a few simple maintenance things that are very simple. Insulating the interior walls is the best answer. If you would like to do to it yourself, there is a simple method even though you will need another person to help. You can choose to go through the bathroom wall or the other wall. In most cases, as long as the pipes are not in the wall that needs the insulation you can go through the bathroom wall. It also depends on how many walls you need to soundproof. In some cases, the guest bathroom may be beside not only the dining room, but also a bedroom to one side or the other. You may wish to insulate more than one wall to give the person in the bathroom a bit more privacy. No matter, what the case you will should be able to add insulation through the bathroom wall.

The best insulation to use is called cellulose insulation. Cellulose insulation is nothing more than shredded newspaper treated with fire retardants. This insulation can and will fill and pack the stud cavities. What you will need is a stud finder, bags of cellulose insulation, a drill, and an insulation machine. You can find all of these products at a home repair center or a retail store such as Home Depot. You may even be able to rent the insulation machine.

Now, find the studs. Next, drill a hole in between the studs on the wall you wish to insulate. Measure the nozzle on the insulation machine in order to know what size to make the hole. Drill a hole about 4 to 6 inches down from the ceiling. The insulation machine needs to be outdoors with the hose running in through the window or a door. One person will need to be outside with the insulation machine to operate the machine and fill the hopper with insulation and the other person holding the nozzle in the wall to fill the cavity with insulation. When the insulation is at the top of the hole, you will be done. Be careful not to overfill. Once you see the insulation coming out of the hole, stop the machine. You can now repair the hole and paint the wall.

If you are searching for easier ways in which to soundproof your bathroom, you will be glad to know there are a few ways that are very simple and are not that expensive.

Applying rough materials to the walls and ceilings can be a great way in which to soundproof your bathroom. Adding such things as paint with resins, wall coverings such as rough wallpaper, carpeting to floors, and even speckled paint on the ceilings can aid in soundproofing. Smooth surfaces allow noise to bounce around the room whereas rough surfaces to do not. If you do not wish to carpet the bathroom, you can use mats or rugs. These items will also reduce sound, but will not soundproof as well as insulating the interior walls. Another option is the use of a sound conditioners. A sound conditioner or white noise machine will help mask all types of bathroom sounds. The sound machine should be placed outside of the bathroom door for maximum effectiveness. White noise machines produce sounds similar to those of a box fan or air conditioning unit and will help mask most sounds coming from inside the bathroom.

How to Promote Your Power Point Presentation for Your Network Marketing Business

Network marketing businesses are challenged by the changing internet scene to produce information accurately and entertaining. In the last article, PowerPoint presentations and their use were discussed in some detail. Unfortunately, the promotional aspect was not and today's lesson will help unforgettable some ways to promote your presentations. They are powerful tools that combine many elements into one easy to digest format.

Going beyond publishing with Power Point

In a network marketing business PowerPoints, you can increase your authority and trustworthiness, if used with actual data. This type of content can help jump start a business that is looking to build a strong reputation. There are other kinds of presentations that maybe needed to help with sales and marketing. Some internal issues including training and for style guides. The style guides will help you develop appropriate content for your audience. As mentioned in the previous article you can add audio to the individual PowerPoint. While videos are great, presentations can slow things down and share a volume amount of information within the fingertips of your team.

After creating the presentation, you will need to host it. After publishing the Power Point, you should have an idea of ​​where you want to distribute the material on. This can be on social media, advertising platforms, email marketing or something else. You could even get it to help drive leads for you. Do not feel like you have to be limited on which channels to use. It's fine to use more than one channel to share your content on.

Measuring the success of your Power Points

Every aspect in network marketing requires measurement and monitoring. While some are more max than others, Power Points are one that need attention. If you're hosting the PP on a hosting site, they should have a data section. This section may not be great but it should tell you the view count, comments and other data. Other hosts may offer better analytical tools. You need to know if the PP is getting views and if it's sending traffic to your site. If the presentation has a call for action, you need to know if it's working.

Over time in your network marketing business you will learn what data is important and what is not. If you need help with marketing, there are some free and low cost solutions available. Take care and plan out each presentation carefully and make sure they are tailor to your audience.

05 Tips to Insure Your Rental Limo Car

When you reach somewhere with a limo, it not only gives you an exciting experience, but also creates a good impression about you among others. That is why many people want to hire any model of limo during an occasion. However, sometimes, cost seems to become a major concern among many people.

1. Region where limo business is located

The region from where you have hired limo is the major factor that helps to determine the charge. For instance, Limo Hire may be different from limo rental of some other cities. In addition to it, the number of passengers in limo may also determine your expenses because you have to choose the limo size, as per your need.

2. Services may vary as per the companies

Some of the Limo Hire Companies on offer only a single-way trip, while others may allow you to stop at different places. Again, some limo hire price rates include champagne, whereas others also comprise office premises and staffs. Thus, it is really important for you to make sure that you have chosen the suitable firm.

3. How much time you have enjoyed the car?

The amount of time, for which you have continued your journey with limousine, may also enable you to know the price for car hire. Your trip may be for 2 to 3 hours. Most of the Limo companies generally set a time frame for their limo rental service. You know that the companies expend something in order to keep up the vehicle's condition. However, renting the vehicle for less than 2 hours may not include such kind of expenditure.

The charge that you have to pay covers the time period for which your limo has been waiting before your arrival, and this period is calculated just after your limo reaches your gate.

4. Model of limousine

The charge for Limo Hire is set in accord with the limo design that you have chosen. All limo patterns and designs are not the same, and so, it is better to know the price for hiring every limo model. This simple step may help you to enjoy limo ride affordably.

5. Season of hiring and your own purpose

It is known to all the prices of any product increases during a particular season, when there is a high demand of that item. The same thing may be said in case of the limo. It is particularly during prom and wedding season, the limo hire companies may charge a bit higher price. However, you will be able to make the deal more cost- effective by hiring multiple limousines at a definite time.

However, if you are now hiring a magnificent limo for bridal ceremony, the price may be affected with that event because a wedding limo is decorated with the use of ribbons, flowers, bows and many other things. The specific charge may be related to your own specifications.

Thus, find the rate of limo hire, considering all these above mentioned factors.

The Many Benefits of a Retractable Cord Reel

If you’re tired of electrical power cords laying all over your home, garage, or office, it’s time you start shopping for a reliable, high-quality extension reel. While there are many types of extension reels available, among the most durable and convenient types to use are retractable reels. Outlined below are some of the most attractive benefits of retractable cord reels, and why these are highly useful for any home or office setting.

Organize electrical cords and extension wires

A retractable cords reel keeps electrical cords in place, especially when not in use. In general, it is used to wind cords, cables, and wires – especially electric cords and extension wires – in one place. There are several types of extension reels, including regular, hind wind, wall mounted, bucket, and retractable reels. There are other similar types as well. Since a retractable cord reel does the winding on its own, organizing all your cords and wires is almost effortless.

Self-stop or self lock features

Since retractable reels are self-winding it’s easy to assume that these are complicated to use. However there are features which keep the cords from winding themselves while you are using them. A self-stop mechanism automatically locks the cords in place so that you can use the wires conveniently and safely. After using the cord, one tug will send the cord winding on its own, keeping the electric wires in an easily accessible but organized place.

Ensure safety

Dangling or scattered electrical cords are a potential hazard, especially if you have small children in your home. Loose wires all over the floor may also cause stumbling accidents. A retractable electric reel that winds the cords and keeps them in place helps you ensure safety and orderliness around your home or office.

Versatile

Many retractable reels are designed to suit a variety of settings. These reels are always handy to have around the home and the office, but they may be useful in vehicles, boats, hospitals, and health care clinics as well. There are models specifically made for medical use, or those designed merely for use indoors. These retractable power cord reels may be mounted on different surfaces, from walls and floors to benches and ceilings.

Electrical cord reels can come in many different types but a retractable cord reel, such as the Coleman Cable Retractable Electrical Light/Power Cord Reel, makes keeping and winding your cords a simple and effortless task each and every time.

What You Need To Know About A Fireplace

If your home already has a fireplace when you move in, you may not be familiar with all the benefits that come with owning a fireplace. They not only look exceptional when lit but they can also be the main source of heat if the power goes out. If you do not have a fireplace in the home, you may want to consider putting one in. It's fast and easy and you can design it any way that you want.

Fireplaces have been used for years. They were the only way of heating years ago. Fireplaces were created to include a firebox and a flue where the smoke and gas could escape. Fireplaces kept people warm when the cold was too much to handle. It was also used to relax and watch as the fire flickered in the night. Later on, a fireplace mantel made a fireplace more attractive and became a place to set lanterns, display art or place to decorative items.

There are different types of fireplaces. The masonry fireplace is made from brick or stone. Tiles could be used to line the flue which could keep the chimney from being corroded with soot from the fire. Manufactured fireplaces are another type of fireplace that is reinforced using metal pipe that runs up and outside of the chimney to ensure safety and to protect the lining of the chimney. The different designed fireplaces can range from the traditional square fireplace to a round fireplace with a large or small opening. Because the fireplaces are made to fit the home they do not come in a particular size. When the power goes out you will always have access to heat. You need to be able to keep wood close to the home that has been cut and split to fit inside your firebox. The firewood will need to be kept dry so you can use it immediately when you need it.

When you use a fireplace, make sure there is nothing around it that can cause a fire to get out of hand. To start a fire put newspaper or little bits of wood on the bottom of the fireplace. When you strike a match, put the match to the paper or bits of wood and wait until they are burning. You may need to fan the flame a bit in order to allow it to grow. Once the small flame is bigger and hotter it will allow the wood to heat up and catch fire. Although it may catch fire quickly, your fire is being maintained inside the firebox.

To avoid fire popping out onto your carpet or floor you may need to use a safety screen. This screen can be placed directly in front of the fireplace in order to keep the flames from jumping out if you are not there to watch it. You also may want to consider glass doors to keep closed while your fire is burning and while there is no fire in the fireplace to keep the cold from going down the chimney and out into your home.

Top Rated Mississippi River Bridges

Mississippi River, cited as the natural boundary for US divisions, either on west or east sections has made its mark in US popular culture. The construction of different Mississippi River Bridges carries several routes, and interstates made traveling a wonderful experience for the citizens. Until this very moment, new bridges are conscientiously being transported and carefully planned to help ease out traffic in other states.

One of the most popular bridges crossing the Mississippi River is the Rock Island Government Bridge built in 1856. It was the first bridge across the Mississippi River to connect Rock Island, Illinois, Davenport, and Iowa. It has two sets of railroad tracks above auto lanes. This was the bridge rammed by Effie Afton and went up in flames. Abraham Lincoln defended the railroad against a lawsuit filed by steamboat interests and navigation.

Stone Arch is the first bridge upstream built in1883 for Great Northern Railway. It connects Mississippi River and Saint Anthony Falls. It is now used for pedestrian and bicycle bridge.

Eads is the most historic and one of the oldest bridges. It is a combination of road and railway bridge. It was the first to use steel through cantilever construction. It was responsible for the caisson disease or bends outbreak because it used pneumatic caissons. The construction killed 15 workers and injured 77 people.

Poplar St. Bridge, also known as the Popular St. Bridge, was completed in 1967. It is the busiest downtown bridge with 120,000 vehicles passing over it daily. It is a steel girder bridge with 8 lanes.

MacArthur is a narrow truss bridge with a monster curve. It is one of the oldest bridges built in 1917. It is now used as a rail traffic bridge.

Martin Luther Bridge was built in 1951. It is the second newer bridge, also known as the Veteran's Bridge. It has an overall length of 4000 feet with a cantilever style. It was refurbished during the 1980's.

Santa Fe Bridge is also known as the Fort Madison Bridge. It is the largest double deck swing span bridge in the world. It was completed in 1927. It serves as an automobile traffic bridge. It is owned by BNSF railway.

Hernando de Soto Bridge is known for its unique structural letter shape. The arches shaped the letter M and it made it into Guinness Book of World Records. It carries Interstate 40 connecting Memphis, Tennessee and Arkansas. It opened in 1973.

Memphis and Arkansas Bridge is the longest Warren truss bridge in the US. It carries Interstate 55 to Memphis. It is a cantilever through truss bridge, which opened in 1949.

Frisco is the longest cantilever truss railroad bridge in North America. It was opened in 1892. It was formerly known as the Memphis Bridge. It has an overall length of 4,887 feet.

Clark Bridge is also known as the Super Bridge. It is a cable stay bridge built in 1994. It was named after William Clark. It carries Route 67 with an overall length of 4,620 feet.

Norbert Becky is the first bridge to use light emitting diode lights. It is also known as simply Becky Bridge. It was completed in 1972 carrying Iowa Highway 92 and Illinois Route 92. It has an overall length of 3,018 feet.

Black Hawk is also known as the Lansing Bridge. It is a cantilever trough truss bridge with an overall length of 1,653 feet. It was named after Chief Black Hawk, an appointed war chief. It is listed in Historic American Engineering Record.

Julien Dubuque Bridge Connects Dubuque, Iowa and Illinois. It is an uninterrupted steel truss arch bridge. It carries 2 lanes of US Route 20 with an overall length of about 5760 feet. It is also listed in National Register of Historic Places. Last June 2008, it got stuck by 15 barges.

Savanna – Sabula Bridge is a steel truss through deck bridge carrying US Highway 52. ​​It has an overall length of 2482 feet. It was opened in 1932.

Bridge 9340 is also known as I-35W Mississippi River Bridge. It was the one that collapsed in August 1, 2007 killing 13 people and leaving many others injured. It was an 8-lane steel truss arch bridge with an overall length of 1,907 feet.

The Top 3 Tricks Horse Owners Can Use To Unspoil A Barn Spoiled Horse

It's been weeks since you walked riding. Now you have time to ride this afternoon and there is not one one gonna stop you. Excited, you saddle up your horse and get on him. You get about 50 feet from the barn and your horse turns around and goes back – and you can not stop him. Why? You have a barn spoiled horse. This is a common scenario for novice horse owners.

Here are the top three tricks to solve the barn sour problem.

Teach your horse that you have control over him. Once your horse gets it in his mind that you can make him do what you want him to do, you have control over him and can so make him leave the barn. One way to get control over him is to use a training technique called doubling. When you double your horse you teach him you can control him.

It does not take long before your horse will know you can control him. Be careful when doubling though. If you do it too much at a time you can over do it. Your horse could get so sensitive to you doing it that he may try to anticipate it. If he sees your hands making the slightest movement that looks like you're about to double him, he may double himself. Thus, just double him four to six times a day on both sides. He'll quickly learn you have control.

The next thing you can try is this: Make it dang hard to do the wrong thing – and make it real easy to do the right thing. Here's what I mean. A while back my horse did not want to leave her buddies or the barn. We'd get about 100 feet away and she'd turn around and bolt back. She'd stop in front of the barn expecting me to get off, remove the saddle and tack, and put her back into the corrals.

By my barn is two hay stacks. There is a space between them big enough to go through and do figure eights around the hay stacks. So every time she'd go back I would make her work, and work, and work at running figure eights around those hay stacks. Then I would test her to see if she had enough and would leave the area.

The first seven times she ran back. Each time we came back to the barn we'd run more laps around the hay stacks. I could tell she was getting tired. But the eighth time I walked her away from the hay stacks I noticed she went quite a ways before turning to go back.

When we went back again we ran more figure eights. Only this time I could tell we did not have to do too many. I walked her out and away from doing the figureights and I suddenly had a horse who decided that it was sooo much nicer going for a walk away from the barn rather than doing a bunch of crummy ol 'figure eights. We had a nice ride that day and she was in no hurry to get home.

The last thing to do is this: Ride. Ride a lot. Do not wait for weeks or months in between riding. Try to ride at least once per week for three or four hours. Preferably, try to ride at least twice a week for a few hours at a time. (Ideally, you should ride everyday. But that's hard to do with today's time constraints) Doing that your horse will get in his brain that you're going to ride and he's going to leave the barn and there will be no argument. In fact, if you want to have a great horse the biggest secret is this: Ride the heck out him!

So if your horse is barn spoiled you can try doubling it to show you are in control. The next thing you can try is making the wrong thing difficult and the right thing easy. Make it dang hard for him to go the wrong thing and very pleasant to do the right thing. And lastly, ride your horse often. Two to three times a week if possible.

Importance of Town Planning

For the construction of a new town, town planning is important art. Earlier towns were used to emerge by themselves. But now a proper planning has been done to avoid any problem in the future. A properly planned structure helps in utilising the land capability and it’s resources to its maximum.

For establishing a town it is necessary to select a site. To select a site a proper land survey is required. This survey includes the selection of area which is most suitable for the residential. Environment, location nearby to city, connecting distance with the highways and all such things are considered during the selection. An enough space in large acres is required to establish a new town.

A properly planned structure helps in utilising the land capability and it’s resources to its maximum. Now-a -days all of us are so much busy that we do not want to run here and there for any other things. Either these are schools, hospitals, market, parks etc., everybody seeks to it that all the facilities are in most nearby locations. The designing includes all these things.

. The designing is done by the team of experts. As it requires a mixture of art and science, therefore this unit includes surveyors, engineers, architectures and consultants. They all work to develop an organised plan. Drainage system, road construction, water facilities, electricity grids, transportation facility, all are important factors which are kept in mind while construction. In fact all measures are taken for protection of town from natural changes like earth-quakes, and floods. Architectures and planners design the map in such away that the available space is used in the best way. And all systems can be located within the same location. Consultants provide the initial town planning advice, so that the project can be taken ahead smoothly. And give their services time to time for its smooth and rapid development.

No town will prosper if it is not meeting with the expectations of people. Therefore the planning should be creative enough which can attract the attention of public. This beauty along with all facilities fulfills the feeling of civic pride among people. And purpose of these towns to give improve quality of life is also solved.

If planning is not done then houses may emerged before installation of electricity grids and water supply systems. Hospitals can be raised at the unapproachable area and industries may raise before installation of the transportation system. And it is important to keep in mind that town planning is not limited to the development of streets and civic amenities. It’s motto shall be encompassing all the facilities with aesthetic surroundings and to provide the better standards of living to the people.

5 Symptoms That Could Mean You Are Going Blind

Of all our senses I think most people would agree that vision is the one we would least like to be without. When you ask people the classic dilemma of whether they would rather be deaf or blind, at least 80% will say deaf. Without vision our lives would be very different from what they are right now. Imagine not being able to drive, work or get around without assistance. Our whole independence would be under threat and we would have to learn a whole new way of life. Having regular eye tests is one way of ensuring that you maintain your vision, as does understand what symptoms you must never ignore. Although there are exceptions and these symptoms do not 100% mean you will go blind, they potentially could be a sign of an impending visual threat. The following lists the visual symptoms you should never ignore:

  1. Flashing lights: If you notice flashes of light in your vision this could indicate a retinal tear or retinal detachment, which if left untreated could lead to blindness. Although flashing lights can also relate to some innocuous physiological changes within your eye, it is best not to take the risk.
  2. Floaters: About one third of the population have floaters to some degree and they are more prevalent if you are short sighted. Floaters that you already have are not of any concern but you should always seek medical advice if you ever notice any new floaters. Like flashing lights, they can relate to either a retinal detachment or a normal physiological change within the eye. When flashes and floaters occur at the same time, there is an even great chance that you are having a retinal detachment.
  3. Distorted vision: The easiest way to describe distorted vision is if you look at something with a straight edge, such as a door frame, it will look wavy or curved. This symptom could signify that you have macular degeneration which needs to be seen as soon as possible by an Optometrist. The quicker you are seen the more likely is the chance that something could be done about it.
  4. Blurred vision: If you notice any sudden reduction in vision, then you should immediately consult with an Optometrist. Sudden blurred vision could refer to a whole range of eye health problems. Do not assume that it is just your glasses that need changing and do nothing about it. Acting quick improves the chances of successful treatment.
  5. Blind spots: If you ever notice a blind spot in your vision you must seek medical advice immediately. This could refer to a problem with your eye or possibly something going on in your brain.

Whilst every one of these symptoms may turn out to be a false alarm it is not worth taking the risk of leaving it to chance. An Optometrist will be able to fully assess the health of your eyes and decide what course of action to take next. Treatment saver is a website that allows you to learn about everything from eye health to laser eye surgery.

Leather Furniture Consumer's Guide – Abbreviated Version

Planning on buying leather furniture? Did you know there are different types of leather? Which is best for you? Read on and learn some important tips to keep in mind when shopping.

Start by thinking about the usage patterns you expect with your new leather pieces. Will the furniture be placed in an active, "high-impact" setting with children, pets, food and drinks galore? Or, is your home a quiet, "low-impact" environment?

Quality leather is a remarkably durable material that will offer many years of comfort. However, the right type of leather should be selected based upon how you expect the furniture to be enjoyed. As a leather furniture repair and restoration specialist, I repeatedly hear from my clients how their sales person, designer, etc. never told them the leather would stain, fade, tear, etc. So, avoid these problems by learning a few simple keys and asking a few simple questions. To understand the issues let me take you through a mini-primer about leather.

There are two ways of painting upholstery grade leather — with dyes only or with dyes and pigments. Leather colored strictly with a dye is referred to as unfinished, whereas pigmented leather is classified as finished. So, what's the difference?

If leather is colored only with dye then there is no protective coating. It is sometimes referred to as "pure-aniline" leather. (Aniline is a type of dye that colors leather.) This leather is soft, supple to the touch. Its color is rich and deep as dyes are translucent and they penetrate, often completely through the leather. The leather's natural beauty is accentuated by the dye giving the furniture a luxurious look and feel. Only the finest hides can qualify to be unfinished, so unsurprisingly, it's the most expensive category. However, there is a dark side. This class of leather stains easily (these hides are highly porous) and the color fades, in some cases very quickly. (UV's the culprit.)

Finished leather is colored with the same aniline dye as unfinished leather however these hides go through a secondary coloring process. A pigmented coating (finish) is applied that is chemically engineered specifically for leather. It has to flex and allow the leather to breath so it has unique attributes that differentiate it from common wall paint. Pigmented leather finishes are opaque, creating a colored film on top of the hide. The color coating is then augmented with a clear coat forming its primary protection. This clear coat also dictates the sheen, from gloss to matte. Quality finished leather may not feel as soft and supple as unfinished, but will be able to withstand the rigors of an active household. It will not stain almost as readily. It's easier to clean, and fades so slowly, you'll never notice it.

Your first key is placement. Simply put, active, high impact environment like a family room, media center, conference room, dining room, etc. dictates finished leather. A low impact home, with UV tinted windows and little threat of staining can indulge the beauty of unfinished leather.

The next step is to consider your budget. This is where your expectations are appropriately set. There are two primary considerations, the leather and the frame.

Top-grain leather is the most durable, but will cost more. This is the epidermis of the skin which offers vast majority of the hide's durability. Split-hide leather (leather "split" from the epidermis) will not stand up to the test of time in an active household, but as a low grade is generally more affordable. If you want a piece that will last a long time, then you must insist on top-grain leather.

The internals or guts of the furniture should be considered. Is it constructed using hard wood appropriatively joined with tight, solid fits, or is it slapped together with cheap press board, staples and cardboard? (No kidding, cardboard.) Clearly, solid construction will cost more, but offer many years of trouble free service.

Color selection is something else to think about. The lighter the color, the more maintenance it will require to keep the leather looking new and clean.

Finally, is it all leather or did the manufacturer sneak in some vinyl? Vinyl and all its fancy name derivatives like leatherette, leather-mate, leather-match etc. is a synthetic, not the real deal. It will not feel or wear like leather. It's less expensive than leather, but simply does not have the durability of quality leather.

So, based on your budget, set your expectations correctly and think about how the piece will be used. Then when you shop ask the following questions.

1. Is the leather finished or unfinished? Remember to consider placement and usage patterns.

2. Is it top-grain leather? If it is not, it will not have the durability you think you're getting.

3. Is it all leather or is some of it vinyl? Do not be duped.

4. How is the frame constructed? Remember the story of the three little pigs? If it's going to last, it has to be well built.

With the answers to these questions at least you'll know what you're buying. For more information, go to this web-site advleather.com/

An Introduction to Laminate Flooring

Laminate flooring is becoming increasingly popular due to its appearance and
durability. The heavy duty construction and ease of installation make laminate a
wise choice for any home or business.

Every individual who has watched a home improvement show or considered
replacing his matted carpet has heard of laminate flooring. Laminate is the
latest entrant into the flooring industry, and arrived by way of Europe.
Europeans developed the original laminate products, and use of the flooring has
been widespread throughout the continent. Now, as is customary with European
innovations, the United States has done on to the idea and is quickly making
laminate a staple in most flooring stores.

Appearance

There is a great deal more to laminate than what meets the eye – literally.
The surface of laminate flooring is designed to appear like hardwood, and
recently some laminates are designed to appear as stone or tile, complete with
the presence of grout. Laminate is designed to imitate almost every wood grain
from maple to mahogany. High quality laminates, at first glance, appear almost
identical to hardwood as they are designed in planks complete with the grains
characteristic of real wood.

But what the eye sees as it sweeps the broad expande of smooth laminate
flooring is actually only the top two layers of laminate – the decorative layer
which contains the desired appearance, and the prefinished top coat which
offers the outstanding durability laminate is known for.

Manufacture

Laminate flooring is comprised of four layers. As previously discussed, the
top two layers offer the desired appearance and the protective coating. The
center, or core, of each plank or section is comprated of high or medium density
fiberboard. This center layer offers the support necessary for high volumes of
foot traffic. The final layer, or backing, binds the laminate together and
provides additional strength and durability.

When examining a section of laminate flooring for quality, take notice of these
layers. High quality laminates will have thicker individual layers than its less
desirable counterparts.

Benefits

The most touted benefits of laminate flooring are ease of installation and
durability.

Installation is simple with most brands of laminate flooring. Unlike
hardwoods which typically require glue or nails, laminate
is assembled by fitting sections together in a snap lock. This means the
laminate is designed to fit together like a large puzzle and sits directly on
the sub floor. These factors make it simple to install and a great home
improvement project for any individual with basic carpentry skills.

Durability is the key selling point of laminate flooring worldwide. The
unique construction and tough top layer make laminate almost indestructible.
High quality laminates are almost impossible to scratch or stain. Most can
withstand burns, and they are water resistant. The prefinishing of laminate makes
it tough enough to withstand extensive amounts of foot traffic,
and does not warp or fade with age. Laminate is quickly becoming a timeless
addition to any home.

How to Build Six Pack Abs – 4 Amazing Tips to Get an Awesome Stomach

Many women find six pack abs sexy. In fact, for some women, six pack abs are the ultimate symbol of male sexiness. It's no wonder that a lot of men are busy spending their days in the gym doing various exercises in the hope of creating those six pack abs. Sadly, many of those men will fall short in their quest of getting great abs, because they do not have a clear idea on how to build six pack abs most effectively. Here are 4 amazing tips on how to build six pack abs effectively.

Vary your exercises – Human muscles stop responding positively to workouts if they're always trained with the same repetitive exercises over and over. So to get your abdominal muscles to develop properly, you need to vary your exercises. Try to change your workout routine every 3 or 4 weeks. This way, you'll also get to avoid the boredom of a repetitive workout.

Do cardio workouts – You should perform cardio training 3 times a week for 30 to 40 minutes each time. There are many cardio workouts that are fun and effective such as running, swimming, biking and hiking. Cardio workouts are useful to help your body burn fat and maintain a healthy metabolism. Make sure you consume carbohydrates within 30 minutes of a cardio workout to replace the calories you burn in the workout.

Include plenty of protein in your diet – The next tip on how to build six pack abs is to eat lots of protein. Protein is the basic building block of muscle tissue, so even if you spend a lot of time exercising, your ab muscles will not develop properly unless you include plenty of protein in your diet. Protein also makes you feel full longer and speeds up your metabolism, so your body gets to burn fat faster and more effectively.

Consume lots of vegetables – The last tip on how to build six pack abs effectively is to load up on the vegetables. Vegetables are calorie free, so you can be sure that eating lots of vegetables will help you prevent hunger but will not cause your body to store extra fat. Vegetables are also good for your health since they contain lots of nutrition that are important for the body.