Elements of Writing a Mystery Novel

Like anything, a mystery novel is composed of different parts, which are referred to as elements. Each are critical in capturing the readers interest. If your story is searched and well written, it is sure to be a winner. By now, you are probably wondering what the elements are. They are the science, plot, characters with settings and writing technique.

First is the science. This needs to be accurate due to the fact several mystery novel readers are wired versus forensic techniques. They can see through phony stuff in an instant, and you want to avoid that. If you can write a good story and have correct science then your book just went from decent to great.

Next is the development of the plot. This will make or break your story. It is crucial to have a plot that makes sense, is intriguing, and has many twists and turns to keep the reader not knowing what is going to happen next. The more they do not know what is coming the more suspense you will create and of course in a mystery novel, suspense is everything! If there was a part to really focus on, it would be the plot!

Following is creating the characters with stories settings. It is important to really develop them and make them something authentic. You want to have the audience relate them. This will increase the connection with the reader and makes it easier for you to write the rest of the novel. The more you know about your character, the easier it is for you to write about them. After the characters, the setting is extremely important to set the atmosphere for the story.

Lastly, the element of writing technique is significant when constructing your mystery novels. This is simply because this is part of what creates the emotion within the reader. It is good to include literary elements such as similes, personification, and metaphors. It is good to also include more advanced techniques such as suspense and foreshadowing. These are big keys when writing a mystery story. What is even more important is what is called red herrings. These will make reader think the story is going one way when it is actually the other. Incorporating these will enhance your story and make for a better read.

If you can have all these elements intertwined into your story, you are on the right track to write a great mystery novel!

The Many Uses of a Biochemistry Analyser

A biochemistry analyser is a term which can refer to any number of different instruments used to analyze and measure the characteristics of various samples from biological sources. All types of biochemistry analyser are commonly used in life sciences laboratories and medical settings, where they provide data which is essential for a wide range of research, diagnostic and even product development applications (such as in the pharmaceutical industry).

The study of the chemical processes which go on inside of living organisms encompasses a wide range of different disciplines and an even wider range of uses, all of which fall under the broader umbrella of biochemistry. Among the most common uses for a biochemistry analyzer are to determine the structure and function of biomolecules including nucleic acids, lipids, proteins and enzymes.

It is in fact in the study of the chemistry of reactions catalyzed by enzymes in which a biochemistry analyser is particularly useful. These applications include applications involving study of genetics, protein synthesis, metabolism on the cellular level, signal transduction and other biochemistry applications with a bearing on the development of new and improved medical care and pharmaceuticals to treat diseases with a genetic component.

Automation has made changes in the way that many laboratory work is carried out, allowing for many traditionally time consuming tasks to be streamlined to permit higher throughput. There are now a variety of different automated biochemistry analyzer instruments which are available. These instruments are designed for a wide range of different applications in the life sciences laboratory or for diagnostic purposes in medical settings. These automated biochemistry analyser devices can measure the concentration and/or determine the characteristics of specific substances in a sample very quickly and with a minimal amount of operator intervention.

With an automated analyzer, there are usually dedicated autosamplers in use along with the instrument or in many cases, even an integrated autosampler. These further simplify the task of biochemistry analysis and since the safety of laboratory personnel when working with biological samples is often a concern, also make the modern, automated biochemistry analyzer much easier and safer to use.

In larger medical laboratories, such as those at hospitals, there are dedicated biochemistry analyser systems in use, often multiple ones designed to perform different common tests needed at healthcare facilities. These often include tests for levels of albumin, glucose, enzymes and creatine levels in the blood or serum. These tests may be performed by measuring conductivity, colorimetry, turbidity and any number of other methods.

There are also many other specialized types of biochemistry analyzer used in laboratories and clinics. Laboratories which perform immunology applications in particular use analyzers in immunoassays as they look for antibody-antigen reactions in biological samples. Other specialized types of biochemistry analyser include those designed for the measurement of osmolarity and osmolality, DNA /RNA detection and labeling and almost too many other important medical research, life sciences and drug development applications to list. Everywhere that the qualitative or quantitative analysis of biomolecules in samples from living organisms is critical, you will always find some sort of biochemistry analyzer at use as an indispensable tool to laboratory personnel.

Wrinkle Free Garments

Ironing the garments is considered a myth today. Our time-starved people want to spend minimum after cloth-care. Ironing the garments has lost the heat after the developments in wrinkle-resistant fabric finishes. Wrinkle-free finishes has hit the market of casual men's trousers in just five years.

The Wrinkle free quality of garment has been labeled various terms like Wrinkle-resistant, wrinkle free, durable press and permanent press. The industry also uses these terms for several finishing agents that have been appended to fabrics to avoid or reduce the amount of wrinkles.

Today's drive of wrinkle-resistant informal wear is not just a reprocessing of the dry, brittle durable press in wash and wear finishes of yesterday. The most modern wrinkle-resistant fabrics are newly devised products that were born of modern technology.

These wrinkle-resistant finishes were favored in the early 90's when they were inserted into men's all-cotton trousers. The finishes have given the root industry a new life on lease. Hagger and Farah are the first companies that introduced wrinkle-resistant pants to their bands. In 1992, Hagger introduced a line called "Wrinkle'Free" all-cotton pants. The line made a big impression on the market and by December 1993 Haggar gained 76 percent of the market in that class. Savan line is Farah's edition of the wrinkle-resistant pants. These lines of finishes were flattened with Duck Head and Levi Strauss Dockers.

Wrinkle-resistant garments are not free from problems; various troubles like attraction to grease and oil, fabric debasement and environmental interests are connected with these garments. Although, most of the problems have been reduced, companies are continuously ignoring techniques to better the properties. To improve the aesthetics is the biggest improvements.

Wrinkle-resistant garments should inevitably exist in wardrobes. After rejuvenating the bottom industry, the finish has hit the other segments of menswear industry like woven and knitted dress and sports shirts, jeans and suits. Wrinkle-resistant clothing incorporates even the children's attires and areas of womenswear market. The success of the finishes on garments will result in extra progress in other markets.

Due to the escalation of formal wear in the work place, the wrinkle-resistant industry has secured new heights in garment industry. Wrinkle-resistant garments are not only at department stores and mail order catalogs but also at stores like Wal-Mart and Kmart. The home furnishing industry has secured the wrinkle free concept by adding the finishes to sheets.

Our belief that wrinkle-resistant garments are costlier than finish-less ones is right; but for the most part they are moderately rated. All the products of wrinkle-resistant items do not give the same result. There are no inflexible courses of actions for manufacturers; since, it is suggested that customer should buy a popular brand that s / he trusts.

The wrinkle free finish (various other terms are "Easy Care", "Durable Press", "Wrinkle-Resistant", "Wash and Wear", "No-Iron" etc.) is achieved by cross-linking cotton. Permanent press finishes build cross-links between adjoining cellulose polymer chains; these provide cotton some flexibility and resiliency. Such cross-linked cotton can return to its earlier condition from deformity stresses and that wrinkles will not create.

Even today, DMDHEU is an important cross-linking force. With magnesium chloride as the acid catalyst to start a reaction, it creates cross-links in the formless areas of the fiber. Through the counteraction (> NCH2 => NH + HCHO), free formaldehyde is discharged. Insufficient curing also results into the discharge of formaldehyde at an extreme temperature. Various techniques have been evolved to define the amount of formaldehyde discharged, such as after-washing of cured fabrics, the insertion of formaldehyde scavengers like carbohydrazide to the bath, use of urea in the pad-bath or application through a spray, modification of DMDHEU to etherized, glycolated or methylated DMDHEU.

Options to DMDHEU are also being researched. Major choices are polycarboxlicacids, typically BTCA (1,2,3,4,4 Butane Tetra Carboxylic Acid) or citric acid. However, BTCA is not cheap to use and citric acid creates yellowing. Another technique has been to use polymers of maleic acid to create ester cross-links, and yet another to fix a quaternary group through an epoxidation counteraction to the cellulose chain to create cross-links. Research on all these options is in progress. Commercially, it is the remodeled DMDHEU (glycolated or methylated) that is most used now. The item is pre-cushioned to check untimely curing and also pre-merged with a catalyst. Today the catalysts with the basis of Magnesium are accepted most. When curing times are scanty, citric acid or aluminum chloride can also be compounded to speed up catalysis.

Following is a standard method for a pre-cure or post-cure finish:

DMDHEU (45%), 2-20% of weight of DMDHEU but not less than 1% owb; wetting agent. 0.1% owb; and softeners, 2-8% owb.

The wetting property lets the fiber internally penetrated, so that cross-linking may occur all through the fiber cross-section. A high-density polyethylene brings back some of the missing tear force and abrasion resistance by displacing lubrication. It also possesses a collaborative effect with silicone or fat-based softeners to create an agreeable hand. Among the silicone softeners, counteractive polysiloxanies with silanol functional end-groups (Fig 2) perform as elastomeric finishes providing better wrinkle resistance, good dimensional firmness (smooth drying properties) and exceptional soft handle with good sewing ability. They can also decrease free formaldehyde discharge by re-establishing part of the resin. Various types are available today: Pretavyl VP 1601A by Boehme Filatex Inc., and siltouch RS by Yorkshire Chemicals.

Types of Technology for obtaining "wrinkle free" finish
The dominant application techniques currently employed are based on the following processes: pre-cure; post-cure; garment-dip; spray (metered) application; and Vapor phase.
In pre-cure, the fabric is processed with resin, dried and cured in flat open-width form. This fabric can be used to manufacture garments that stand firm against wrinkling through wearing and have a soft look after washing and tumble drying. Since the cross-linked fabric defends any attempt to press in wrinkles, it will be impossible to bring in sharp long-lasting creases. Generally, such fabrics are applied in the womenswear market for some skirts, casual trousers and shirting where smoothness is the main benchmark.

A post-cure process provides a choice to manufacture a garment with soft drying and wrinkle resistant agents along with sharp creases that have a lasting effect for the life of the garment. In this treatment the resin is padded onto the fabric and discharged at low temperature (as in the Koretron process). The fabric is then cut, garment constructed and creases pressed into the garment. An extreme temperature treatment in this make up is given to cross-link resin. Although this procedure provides exceptional results, it has not been doing well with garment producers because of apparel limitations of colors, styles and fabric weight, and the requirement for a direct connection among mills, garment manufacturers and retailers.

To improve this procedure, a company in Japan applied a post-cure finish to fabric that was mercerised in liquid ammonia, giving excellent easy care properties together with the soft handle of non-cross-linked cotton. Liquid ammonia mercerisation is a process applied at ultra-low temperatures and it generates deconvolution of cotton, smoothing of the surface, swelling of the fiber to a circular cross section, enhanced absorbency, firmness and shine, and a very soft touch.

The other three alternatives are useful to finish the fabric only after it has been composed into a garment. In the garment-dip method, garments are fabricated from non-resistant fabric, then infused with a resin process similar to that applied to the post-cure process, extracted to about 65% wet pick-up and then tumble dried to 8-10 % moisture stuff, a critical factor that is determined using a moisture meter.

In the spray method, the resin is smeared by spraying it onto the garment during tumbling in an encoded revolving tool. A microprocessor is applied to gauge the accurate quantity of chemicals and to monitor the rotation time, expected wet pick-up, spray rate and process time. Like post-cure process, the garments are then pressed and cured. The process is more and more applied to both menswear and womenswear with the market moving towards washed-down appearance and softer handles.

In the vapor phase process, the fabric is dried and finished at the mill, cut sewn; before cross-linking, it is press into garment form. Gaseous formaldehyde is then used with an acid catalyst in a particular chamber oven. The garments are later processed to create cross-linking. Then the surplus moisture is drained. The formaldehyde itself creates the cross-links (conventional resin will always have unreacted N-methylol clusters that can hydrolyze to discharge formaldehyde). Manufacturers of shirts and other lightweight garments are using the treatment today. Neverheless, it is apparently not easy to manage, possibly resulting in uneven processes and higher strength losses.

Choosing fabric for "wrinkle free" finish

The garment finisher generally does not produce its own fabric and it may have to cope with unwelcome damages in tensile strength, tear strength and abrasion resistance in the fabric when cross-linking. Due to the added value, garments are returned since low strength might prove to be costlier than fabric returned.

For manufacturing an up-to-standard wrinkle-free garment, various safety measures must be taken in fabric choice:

. The root fabric must possess enough strength to put up with 40-60% loss in tensile and tear strength and still hold sufficient strength to provide a garment of satisfactory wear life and lastingness.
. It must also possess exceptional absorbency to let resin enter the very center of the fibers and create cross-links. Surface adhering resins do not give any useful results and are incompetent and causing waste.
. If the fabric is dyed, the dye must be able to hold acid catalysis and high temperatures. Sulfur dyes, which are recognized to produce acid upon storage, are to be completely avoided.
. Residual extractable on the fabric (like starch from size) can counteract with resin and minimize its influence; a high amount of size removal is so critical.
. Fabric pH should be between 6.5 and 7.0 with an alkalinity of less than 0.05% (expressed as sodium hydroxide).

Choice of equipment

Producers and researchers are continuously evolving tools to serve to this specialty section. But they are still perplexed if these new machines – specifically presses and curing ovens – are worth the investment. While selecting the technology, many features such as type of product (shirt or trouser), WR procedure, time, vacuum, temperature and chemicals must be taken into account.

The two most decisive factors working behind "A" quality pressing of 100% cotton and permanent press garments are temperature and control of cycle. Presses should be prepared with high-heat, cast aluminum

garments are temperature and control of cycle. Presses should be prepared with high-heat, cast aluminum heads or with additional electrical heaters to provide a processing temperature about 150 degrees centigrade. Since the temperature sets out the curing procedure and monitors the overall smoothness, it is very important to manufacture permanent press garments. Typically, presses active in garment factories function within the range of 116-125 degree centigrade will not provide a perfect finish.

Hoffman and Vapor-press International have introduced the latest range of pressing machines wherein microprocessor monitors both temperature control and pressure applied accurately. A feature called head-hesitation holds up the head lifting so that creases are not formed on the garment – such creases can set forever while curing. As a safety measure, a head positioning set up lets the head lift by an inch (after pressure is applied) allowing a vacuum to dry the garment completely. Pre-timely interference by mechanics is a major problem in garment factories. This complication is enhanced by an Operator Penalty System that counts penal points every time an operator attempts to disrupt the cycle.

Curing is generally performed in hot-air-box or tunnel ovens. A tunnel oven is faster but needs a specific amount of garment development and a material handling system to and from the tunnel. Airflow design in these ovens monitors temperature variations, movement of the garment and wrinkle relaxation, and is there before the most significant selection standard. Pladrest Heating Ltd., founders in this line of work, has surfaced with a series of ovens to permanently press garments. The air velocity is regulated at last, in as much that temperature variation has been shot down to a noticeable 3 degree Centigrade over a single garment. Evolutions are also on the go to improve microwave-curing technology. As against average convection curing, the temperature increase in microwave ovens is supposed to be faster, consistent through the fiber cross segment, and to give a minimum damage to the fiber.

How To Speed Up The Spore Game On Windows PCs – Working Spore Speedup Tutorial

One of the most popular online games of the moment, Spore, is unfortunately causing a lot of problems for PC gamers. This game is considered to be one of the most extremely advanced and enjoyable games around, but in many instances, users are reporting setbacks while playing this game on their PCs. Most of the time the problem is that Spore loads or runs at a very slow pace in the computer and users are getting incredibly frustrated with it. If you experience this, you have to check out what is causing this trouble. There are a number of methods to counter this problem and make your gaming experience a more enjoying one.

Why Does Spore Often Run Slow?

When you play this highly exciting video game, it is annoying if the speed is not complementing the pace of the game. Fortunately, this game will be able to run much faster if you follow some easy steps and techniques, thus ensuring a more favorable playing experience. Some of the things you can do include:

  • shutting down the other programs that are running in your computer
  • updating Windows
  • ensuring that your registry is clean & fully operational

How To Make Spore Run Faster

To play Spore at a more acceptable speed, you have to first make sure all other applications or programs are closed. It may be very simple, but it is obviously a very effective solution to this problem. Most players play this game while simultaneously running other programs, which means Spore doesn’t have access to the resources it needs. All applications require a certain amount of memory space to be loaded up in the computer, and if you have several programs that are open, expect these files to compete for the available memory. At times, your computer will have problems allocating the memory that is needed by these applications to run at the same time. If this is happening, Spore won’t run as fast. Simply close down all these programs by simultaneously pressing CTRL, ALT & DELETE keys on the keyboard to open Task Manager. Select the Processes tab from the menu that shows up. Afterwards, remove the applications which have nothing to do with the Spore video game.

The next step that can be done is to adjust the settings of the game. Spore is a fast-paced game and the temptation is for you to crank the settings of the game to its maximum. Unfortunately, doing so can result in setbacks rather than enhance your game’s experience. Using the advanced settings means your computer has to use up more processing power, thus, giving it a little room for the game to run as smoothly as it needs to. The settings should be reduced and it should be to a level that is just enough for your requirements. To do this, locate the game’s “Settings” field and then look for the Video Options/Graphic Options and adjust to a lower level. Hopefully, you will notice an immediate difference in the speed of the game.

The final step is to ensure that your registry is clean. The registry is often the culprit that is affecting the game’s speed. It has been identified as the cause of a lot of errors with other programs because so many failures and breakdowns in your system happen here. The registry is the central database where the vital files, settings, and information are recorded. The operating system has to read the necessary files that are kept here to run all of its programs efficiently. Once this registry becomes damaged, you will notice problems and errors occur, including the slowing down of your PC. Applications may also fail to be loaded up. To ensure you fix this problem, you have to use a registry cleaning program. This registry cleaner tool will scan your system and eliminate errors and address issues that may hamper your computer’s performance.

Wall to Wall Carpet – More Options Than Ever

Wall to wall carpet has come a long way since the early beginnings of the chenille industry in Dalton, Ga. Carpeting is a floor choice that is still very popular today. Even with the surging market for hard surface products such as hardwood, ceramic, and luxury vinyl, carpeting remains a product that almost everyone still has in several rooms in the home. The decorating warmth that carpet gives is unbeatable when compared to other flooring options. The carpet industry has embroidered the desires of flooring consumers and continues to develop newer, innovative styles, types and constructions of wall to wall carpet that offer more options than ever.

Newer styles of wall to wall carpet have entered the market in recent years. Frieze carpeting is a relative newcomer to the carpet segment. Frieze carpet has tight twists in the yarn. These tight twists give the yarn strands an irregular look almost creating a trackless dimension. The twists also enable frieze wall to wall carpet to hold up extremely well over time against traffic and wear. The distant cousin of Frieze is Shag carpet. Sure, Shag carpeting was popular in the 1970's but today's Shag is slightly different. With yarn not so bulky in the newer styles of Shag carpet, the floor still has a deep, rich touch, but not overdone. Newer Shag and Frieze carpets also offer multi-tone color schemes which give added flexibility when decorating a room around certain colors.

Wall to wall carpet also has newer types to choose from than in recent years. Patterned carpeting, carpeting that looks similar to woven rugs, is a carpet type that is gaining popularity around home owners. With more and more homes being built with formal seating and entertaining areas, the look of patterned carpet has found a niche. Another new type of carpet is called high low. High low carpeting is a solid color design. The carpet has patterns that have been sculpted into the carpet by tufting yarns at different heights. Many types of designs from formal, traditional to contemporary are available.

Wall to wall carpeting also has new constructions that have been introduced in recent years. New yarns, called PET yarns, made from recycled coke and ketchup bottles, perform very well. Another new construction is Mohawk's Smartstrand carpet. Smartstrand's yarn is partly made from corn oils. Not only is Smartstarnd eco friendly, it is incredibly soft, stain resistant and super performing. Shaw has also introduced a new yarn called Cleartouch. Cleartouch is a continuous filament PET carpet that is stain resistant, has very little fuzzing, and is much more soft than many other PET yarns.

Reflective Foil Insulation

What is reflective foil insulation (RFI)?

Insulation is a material that is placed on the side of a wall that is internal to space being insulated. RFI is a reflective insulation that has the explicit objective of insulating the inside space from heat generated specifically by light-ie sunlight. You'll likely find reflective insulation at the closest point of contact in which the sun hits the so called membrane of the inside room. This location is key, because the insulation is reflective, ie it bounces light and heat in, generally, the opposite direction. So, if you place RFI at the bottom of your insulation stack, your this will likely produce a sort of greenhouse effect, where whatever heat does get through the initial layers of insulation, will be reflect by the outer reflective insulation but will likely be false enough to be trapped at a rate of 98% back inside the room.

RFI is cost effective; it's a light material, and builders like it because it's amiable in terms of shaping in hard or difficult contorted positions on more intricate roofing and insulation projects. RFI is typically made of aluminum, and is reliably light weight and physically easy to manage.

Again, the location within the stack of insulating materials should be at the top or closest to the point of contact, ie closest to the sun. RFI is known to reduce the amount of heat that lower lying insulating materials have to absorb by a rate of 15 to 65%, depending on the quality, the thickness, the engineering of the aluminum.

RFI is reliably cheaper in the Atlanta, Phoenix, Miami, and Los Angeles metros due to those locations' overbearing sun exposures during the summer, or even year round. Some fireproofing insulation comes built in with RFI; these products though are only found in roofing insulations, and less so with room to room insulating materials and products. Foam board insulation does not typically carry any RFI features, while mineral wool insulation never carries any RFI features.

Where can RFI be installed?

RFI is typically installed in and during roofing projects. Again, the objective is to place your RFI where the building will be seeing the most sun-or any sun for that matter. If you're on a tight budget, you really should not skimp on RFI, though. It's difficult to undo or redo, and when you get insured, you incorporated such features as RFI into your risk profile-ie your insurance agent will ask you if you have RFI installed, and where you have it installed. Same goes for tax credits related to energy savings, so called green initiatives, and sustainability programs in your area.

RFI is usually installed toward the top of your house, but your sun exposure is unique to your building, and should be analyzed and respected on a case by case basis. Your foundation, as unusual as it might be, could be a point of high sun exposure. You might have a sun or moonlight feature that is an opening at mid ground to your basement. You'll want to check this point for abnormally high sun exposure, especially if it's on the side of the property that bears the brunt of the morning or setting, or worse, lunch time sunlight.

When can RFI be installed?

RFI is installed when the property project is completed; it's typically installed soon after the frame of the project and building is completed, when there's a roof to speak of, and an insulating room to protect the exposed insulation material from the elements. The timing of RFI installation is key, since it's very difficult to go back and correct poorly timed RFI pieces-especially if the roofing project is one that's intricate, detailed, or unconventional.

RFI is a great tool to use, if you're missing in space, or if you're in an industrial space that does not allow for very many of the conventional insulating materials that aim to absorb. They're also great for outdoor use, where humidity and rains can spoil absorption based insulating materials, such as wool insulation. The general rule is that if your property and building project is over 1,000 square feet, you'll not want to do this project on your own, but rather have a professional contractor do this for you.

Choosing Between Timber Or Steel Frames and Trusses

When choosing between timber or steel frames and trusses for your kit home, there are several considerations to keep in mind. These considerations involve many factors such as the location of your kit home, the exposure to certain environmental and climatic conditions, and your budget. But whether you choose timber or steel, you can be assured you are buying a quality home to meet your family needs.

Do not Pester Me

Choosing between timber or steel frames sometimes comes down to considering the pests where you will be building. Termite damage in Australian homes costs home owners millions of dollars every year in repairs. A steel framed and trussed kit home provides extra protection against termites. There's not a termite in the world that can eat its way through steel! If you live in an area with termites, steel is the best choice for your home construction.

It should be stated that the framing for wood and steel is very similar. The differences are quite few. Steel does not have to settle like wood. That means steel framing is ideal for locations where there is a lot of moisture. Unlike wood, steel will not expand and contract when exposed to different moisture depths in the air. Although the wood used in kit homes is of high quality and always properly treated and sealed, wood is sensitive to moisture. A steel frame never has the possibility of warping, shrinking, splitting or twisting due to moisture.

I Can Handle That

Many people choose to build their own kit homes in order to reduce labor costs. Steel frames are already punch holed, weigh less and do not need to be chemically treated like wood. Owners who decide to build their own kit homes find these features important, because they make the job simpler all around.

One of the big advantages of steel construction is the fact steel beams are not as heavy as wood timbers. Yet steel is stronger than wood even though it weighs less. When you live in an area with high winds, steel framing and trusses provide extra protection against the weather.

Steel is also recommended for areas which are subject to frequent wild fires or are built in areas where the fire threat is high. A wood home is much more likely to catch on fire quickly, and once on fire, the damage is intensive. Steel framed home are better able to withstand fire threats and will sustain less damage than wood framed homes.

Another reason why steel frames and trusses may be desirable over wood in a particular home is the fact steel can span a longer distance than wood. When you custom design your home as an open floor plan, you may need to choose steel over wood to meet construction standards.

Do not Forget Wood

Complete all the advantages of using steel for framing and trusses, houses built with wood have pluses also. Wood costs less than steel so when termites or extreme weather are not problems, wood is a good choice. Wood is a versatile material for construction purposes also. You can easily adapt design any floor plan or house style using wood.

Choosing between timber or steel frames and trusses for your kit home requires an assessment of the environmental features of the area in which you will be building. But the one thing you can be sure of ….. the steel and wood kit home will be well built and enduring.

Muscle Building – How to Build a "Sweeping Shape" to Your Legs

Nobody empathizes more with the skinny-legged guy who feels self-conscious about his underpinnings than I do. I grow up with sisters who laughed at my legs whenever I put on a pair of shorts. It was not until we were both adults that one of my sisters confessed: "Scott, I was jealous of your skinny legs when we were kids." Well, thanks for telling me now, Sis. "Do you realize the childhood trauma you could have spared me if you've revealed that before I hit hit puberty?" I asked with irritation.

When I reached high school, I finally talked myself in to not caring about my underdeveloped "wheels" and decided to show them off when I was getting in shape for the wrestling season. I was on the first quarter mile or so of an after school jog when I saw two attractive females walking home together from our school. I overheard one of them say "look at his legs". Then they both burst out laughing. I felt my face turn so friggin 'red that passersby in cars probably thought I was a stop sign.

It was early experiences like these that motivated me to build my muscles. And yes, I was really hell-bent on getting some respectable lower limbs beneath me. In my early twenties, I read all the bodybuilding magazines that told me to squat, squat, and squat some more. And what did I do? Well, I followed this simplistic advice. I did free weight squats until steam was coming out of my ears and members at my gym were scared to death that they were going to get called on to be my spotter. I performed my squats as heavy as possible and with full range of motion. I became a squatting machine.

So what were my results? To put it mildly: not commensurate with my efforts. Oh, I did build some size in my thighs, but not nearly what I wanted wanted to personally distancing myself from the "bird legs" which had been a focal point of my pubescent self-consciousness. What I really wanted was that unmistakable "sweep" in the appearance of my thighs when looking at them straight on. I wanted muscular contour that shows, even while wearing a pair of jeans, that I've got some serious power in the foundation that's holding me up.

In my many years of natural bodybuilding, I finally discovered what I think is one of the most effective thigh-building routines. It builds sweep in the thighs by intensely targeting both the inner and outer quadriceps muscles. When performed diligently and consistently, it will soon give you a feeling that your quads are vibrating in muscular power with each impact your feet make with the ground when you walk.

But what do I mean when I say "performed diligently and consistently"? What I'm alluding to is the number one rule for successfully adding muscle to any area of ​​the body; adequate tissue breakdown and recuperation. No specialized routine or sequence of exercises will produce positive results if we just haphazardly go through the motions of working out and taking some rest days between those workouts. We must pay close attention to how much tissue breakdown we're inflating on a muscle and how much rest time that particular muscle needs to fully recuperate. This varies from one person to another and even varies within the same individual from one time to another. Nowhere is this principle more important than when working the thigh and glute muscles, which measure a lot of tissue that needs recuperation between workouts.

That said, let's get to the meat (or muscle) of the matter for building a nice "thigh sweep".

Exercise # 1: Compound Movement for the Entire Lower Body

I believe in starting an effective thigh workout with a compound movement. It can be full squats with free weights, machine squats, or leg presses. Regardless of which you feel most comfortable with, you need to work the entire area, including the glute muscles, for power, size, and balance in your lower body.

I shoot for six to eight repetitions on all leg exercises (usually six). Neither I nor my clients have ever reaped much muscle gaining benefit by going after the higher reps. Some trainers hypothesize that it works the slow twitch fibers by doing so (thereby building all fibers). I've found that it builds lung capacity more than muscle size. If you want to have impressive workouts more than impressive muscles (or you want to be able to sprint up a mountain), then by all means, go for fifteen reps.

On squats as well as the following isolation exercises, I recommend doing four to seven sets – only the last one going near to muscular failure.

Exercise # 2: Horizontal Leg Press Machine with Feet Apart / Toes Pointed Out

After the squats, I target the Vastus Medialis (inner thigh) with very controlled presses on an Eagle Leg Press machine. I like to believe that this machine offers more control for this movement, but maybe I just feel like doing a lying down exercise after performing squats. At any rate, I position my feet wide apart on the platform, point my toes forty-five degrees outward, and do not go deeper than parallel with my thighs. I also do not lock my knees at the top of the movement, thereby creating constant tension on my trembling inner thighs.

Exercise # 3: Inner Thigh Leg Extensions

Many trainers do not realize that they can really hone in on the inner and outer thigh muscles (respectively) by doing leg extensions in a specific manner. For inner thighs, move the leg extension seat as far forward as possible, point your toes straight up, and then try to face the soles of your feet toward each other. It should feel like you're positioned in a "pigeon-toed" manner. As you bring the weight up and extend your legs, lean your upper body while keeping your feet in the position described. You will feel this in the Vastus Medialis (inner quadriceps).

Exercise # 4: Horizontal Leg Press with Feet Together / Weight on Heals

At this point, I go back to the horizontal leg press machine and target the front quadriceps. In order to really hit the Rectus Femoris (front quad), you should put your feet together on the platform so they're touching each other, with your toes pointed straight up (no angle). Lift your toes up off the platform so that your heals are all that's touching the surface. To really hit those front and outer thighs, you need to take your weight off your toes and put it on your heals. This shifts the stress from your hip and glute region and puts it on the front legs.

Again, only descend until your thighs hit the point of being parallel with the platform. Drive the weight back to the start top position and do not lock your knees. Try to keep continuous tension on the thighs.

Exercise # 5: Outer Thigh Leg Extensions

Similar to the inner quads, we can target the Vastus Lateralis (outer quads) with a bit of customized maneuvering on the leg extension machine. This time, move the seat back as far as it will adjust so that you're almost in a supine position as you reach your feet to the extension bar. Point your toes forward instead of upward. Keeping your toes pointed forward, extend the weight upward while putting out tension on your thighs, as if you are trying to spread your feet apart, but can not. This "feet-spreading tension" with your toes pointed as forward as you can point them while raising the weight will really isolate those outer quadriceps muscles.

So there you have it. Perform this front thigh workout (along with some leg curls for hamstrings) no more than once a week. Strive for higher weight volume levels through intensity of effort and adequate recuperation. With applied diligence, this routine will bring that coveted "sweep" to your upper legs.

Top Rated Mississippi River Bridges

Mississippi River, cited as the natural boundary for US divisions, either on west or east sections has made its mark in US popular culture. The construction of different Mississippi River Bridges carries several routes, and interstates made traveling a wonderful experience for the citizens. Until this very moment, new bridges are conscientiously being transported and carefully planned to help ease out traffic in other states.

One of the most popular bridges crossing the Mississippi River is the Rock Island Government Bridge built in 1856. It was the first bridge across the Mississippi River to connect Rock Island, Illinois, Davenport, and Iowa. It has two sets of railroad tracks above auto lanes. This was the bridge rammed by Effie Afton and went up in flames. Abraham Lincoln defended the railroad against a lawsuit filed by steamboat interests and navigation.

Stone Arch is the first bridge upstream built in1883 for Great Northern Railway. It connects Mississippi River and Saint Anthony Falls. It is now used for pedestrian and bicycle bridge.

Eads is the most historic and one of the oldest bridges. It is a combination of road and railway bridge. It was the first to use steel through cantilever construction. It was responsible for the caisson disease or bends outbreak because it used pneumatic caissons. The construction killed 15 workers and injured 77 people.

Poplar St. Bridge, also known as the Popular St. Bridge, was completed in 1967. It is the busiest downtown bridge with 120,000 vehicles passing over it daily. It is a steel girder bridge with 8 lanes.

MacArthur is a narrow truss bridge with a monster curve. It is one of the oldest bridges built in 1917. It is now used as a rail traffic bridge.

Martin Luther Bridge was built in 1951. It is the second newer bridge, also known as the Veteran's Bridge. It has an overall length of 4000 feet with a cantilever style. It was refurbished during the 1980's.

Santa Fe Bridge is also known as the Fort Madison Bridge. It is the largest double deck swing span bridge in the world. It was completed in 1927. It serves as an automobile traffic bridge. It is owned by BNSF railway.

Hernando de Soto Bridge is known for its unique structural letter shape. The arches shaped the letter M and it made it into Guinness Book of World Records. It carries Interstate 40 connecting Memphis, Tennessee and Arkansas. It opened in 1973.

Memphis and Arkansas Bridge is the longest Warren truss bridge in the US. It carries Interstate 55 to Memphis. It is a cantilever through truss bridge, which opened in 1949.

Frisco is the longest cantilever truss railroad bridge in North America. It was opened in 1892. It was formerly known as the Memphis Bridge. It has an overall length of 4,887 feet.

Clark Bridge is also known as the Super Bridge. It is a cable stay bridge built in 1994. It was named after William Clark. It carries Route 67 with an overall length of 4,620 feet.

Norbert Becky is the first bridge to use light emitting diode lights. It is also known as simply Becky Bridge. It was completed in 1972 carrying Iowa Highway 92 and Illinois Route 92. It has an overall length of 3,018 feet.

Black Hawk is also known as the Lansing Bridge. It is a cantilever trough truss bridge with an overall length of 1,653 feet. It was named after Chief Black Hawk, an appointed war chief. It is listed in Historic American Engineering Record.

Julien Dubuque Bridge Connects Dubuque, Iowa and Illinois. It is an uninterrupted steel truss arch bridge. It carries 2 lanes of US Route 20 with an overall length of about 5760 feet. It is also listed in National Register of Historic Places. Last June 2008, it got stuck by 15 barges.

Savanna – Sabula Bridge is a steel truss through deck bridge carrying US Highway 52. ​​It has an overall length of 2482 feet. It was opened in 1932.

Bridge 9340 is also known as I-35W Mississippi River Bridge. It was the one that collapsed in August 1, 2007 killing 13 people and leaving many others injured. It was an 8-lane steel truss arch bridge with an overall length of 1,907 feet.

Important Tips to Know Before Living Aboard a Boat and Dropping Out of the Rat Race

Many people have thought about dropping out of the rat race and retire to a live aboard boat in order to experience the simpler life and travel to exotic places. There are many benefits associated with this type of lifestyle, and waking up in the morning to the smell of the salt air and friendly neighborhood tropical birds looking for their morning breakfast in your backyard are definitely in the top two! Once you've made the decision to live aboard a boat, then there are several more choices that you need to decide on.

What type of boat will it be, a mono-hull or a catamaran? What is the length of hull that you're looking for? How much money are you prepared to invest into the boat and where will you dock it? There will be so much less space than what you're used to in a house, and storage places will come at a premium. Some boats have more space than others, and you will soon find that out when you start attending boat shows around the country or world. How much comfort are you willing to give up for a life of adventure on the high seas?

Mono-hulls are usually what people think of when boating comes to mind, but they do have plenty of drawbacks. They have a deep keel in order to help as ballast and to keep the vessel upright, which is highly useful if you are out on the ocean! But because of this keel, there will also be a great amount of rocking and rolling from side to side as waves hit the boat. If you are not used to this motion, you could very well end up with a bad case of sea sickness that will spoil your cruise. Mono-hulls do tend to have more space onboard for living and storage however, because the shape of the hull is very conducive to that in relation to depth. You will immediately realize though, that the width or beam leaves much to be desired and is often narrows with regard to the total length.

In my opinion the hull of choice is the catamaran, which is a much wider or beamy vessel, and some of the larger boats are so stable in rough weather that a champagne glass sitting on the galley table will not tip or fall over! The ideal length for a cruising catamaran to comfortably accommodate a married couple is anywhere from 36 feet to 55 feet, and the price goes up quite a bit each foot that is added on. A catamaran is designed to sit on top of the water more than a mono-hull, and is usually much wider in beam. For example, the typical 50 foot mono-hull might have a 12 -16 foot beam, but a 50 foot catamaran may have a 26 – 30 foot beam! This really leads to stability in very rough seas, with a huge reduction in the side to side rolling of the mono-hulls. A catamaran has two hulls with an open space between them for the seas to pass through and usually the galley and living area sitting out of the water between the hulls. This leads to good visibility above the water, and a nice wide area for cooking, eating, and entertaining yourself and guests. Some models will have the galley located down in one of the two hulls to create even more living space above. The sleeping areas, cabins, and heads are located down in the hulls on either side of the boat, and depending on the size can normally accommodate up to 4 couples.

The biggest drawback I've personally seen with catamaran boats is the "turnaround room" when standing down in the hulls. I always do an "elbow test" when down in the hulls, which means that I am standing with my hands on my hips and my elbows out and then I stand in one spot and turn around in a circle. If my elbows touch or knock anything, it's a very cramped space! Unfortunately, most of the vessels I've tested had this drawback, but I did find one 52 foot South African boat that passed this test. In fact, there was so much living area and storage space on this boat that I call it a "condo catamaran"! It was pure luxury, with up to six cabins on a normal layout, or for the discerning owner they can have one whole hull just for them which is described as the "owner's layout". This is the layout that really appeared to me, and will provide much closet space and a very private living area for those long voyages with guests. I encourage everyone who is looking for the perfect vessel to go to as many boat shows as they can so they can personally check all the various factors involved and to see if it's something you can live on. The Miami International Boat Show will usually have plenty of both mono-hulls and catamarans for viewing and comparison.

Another factor or decision that you'll have to make is whether it's going to be power or sail. That usually depends on your background and where you plan on boating to. For those people planning on doing an around the world trip, they might seriously consider purchasing a sailboat because it's going to be much cheaper and there really are not as many boats that can carry enough fuel for those trans oceanic voyages. For those people planning to stay closer to shore or mainly coastal travel may look for power boats, even though the fuel will still be an issue for most trips. There are a few boats that are designed for long range expedition voyages that are less than 55 feet long, and they can carry enough fuel to comfortably transit the Pacific or any other intensive cruise. However, for a power boat of this size, be prepared to spend close to a million US dollars or more for a brand new boat. By far the vast majority of around the world cruisers will opt for a sailing vessel, either catamaran or mono-hull. Catamarans tend to be more expensive due to the size and desirability of them, and they also may have higher marina fees associated because of their widths. In fact, a good percentage of them may not fit in some marinas due to how wide they are, and will have to anchor out in the harbor and use a dinghy to travel back and forth to the shore. This can be very time consuming and tiring, especially when traveling back and forth with many packages of food, drinks, or other items needed to rest the boat. These are the types of things you'll need to think about before you decide on and purchase your live aboard boat.

Are you an experienced sailor or boater, or will you need to arrange for some classes to learn more about being on the water? There are plenty of Coast Guard Auxiliary or Power Squadron facilities around in the US that can provide the appropriate training needed to safely operate your new vessel. It's very important to feel comfortable with the operation of your boat, and take it offshore for short excursions as often as you can before you embark on any long cruise away from shore. Become an expert, after all, your life will be at stake! Be prepared for any situation, whether it's medical or mechanical, and know what to do to fix it. Take a marine mechanic course, because if your boats engine breaks down far out at sea you'll want to know what to do to correct the problem. You will not be able to just bring the boat into the nearest shop at that point!

There will be many decisions that you'll have to make before choosing and purchasing your new boat and probably training you'll need in order to safely operate it, but the benefits of this lifestyle more than outweigh the negatives. You will need to be prepared for a total changeover compared to living ashore, because of the cramped conditions and inconveniences associated with boat living. Choose wisely, learn all you can before you buy, and get ready for the time of your life! It's what you've always wanted, so get out there and take the plunge!

Importance of Town Planning

For the construction of a new town, town planning is important art. Earlier towns were used to emerge by themselves. But now a proper planning has been done to avoid any problem in the future. A properly planned structure helps in utilising the land capability and it’s resources to its maximum.

For establishing a town it is necessary to select a site. To select a site a proper land survey is required. This survey includes the selection of area which is most suitable for the residential. Environment, location nearby to city, connecting distance with the highways and all such things are considered during the selection. An enough space in large acres is required to establish a new town.

A properly planned structure helps in utilising the land capability and it’s resources to its maximum. Now-a -days all of us are so much busy that we do not want to run here and there for any other things. Either these are schools, hospitals, market, parks etc., everybody seeks to it that all the facilities are in most nearby locations. The designing includes all these things.

. The designing is done by the team of experts. As it requires a mixture of art and science, therefore this unit includes surveyors, engineers, architectures and consultants. They all work to develop an organised plan. Drainage system, road construction, water facilities, electricity grids, transportation facility, all are important factors which are kept in mind while construction. In fact all measures are taken for protection of town from natural changes like earth-quakes, and floods. Architectures and planners design the map in such away that the available space is used in the best way. And all systems can be located within the same location. Consultants provide the initial town planning advice, so that the project can be taken ahead smoothly. And give their services time to time for its smooth and rapid development.

No town will prosper if it is not meeting with the expectations of people. Therefore the planning should be creative enough which can attract the attention of public. This beauty along with all facilities fulfills the feeling of civic pride among people. And purpose of these towns to give improve quality of life is also solved.

If planning is not done then houses may emerged before installation of electricity grids and water supply systems. Hospitals can be raised at the unapproachable area and industries may raise before installation of the transportation system. And it is important to keep in mind that town planning is not limited to the development of streets and civic amenities. It’s motto shall be encompassing all the facilities with aesthetic surroundings and to provide the better standards of living to the people.

Georgian and Victorian Grand Entrance Doors

For homebuilders planning a Georgian or Victorian style home, one of the most important element decisions will be choosing a grand entrance door, the distinct signature of a home's character. Whereas windows are considered the eyes of a home, the grand entrance door is the open, welcoming embrace, the gateway to the warmth within. Of course, the entrance door also must serve to be a barrier of a kind, to both unfriendly visitors and unkind weather, and the need for strength and security is just as important as a stylish appearance. Before choosing a period door, consulting with a bespoke joinery that specializes in period reproduction style doors would be a wise decision. Both Georgian and Victorian style doors are meant to give a grand first impression, and they are designed to enhance the overall appearance of an entry.

Georgian architecture is a broad term defining all styles created during the reign of the first three King Georges of England between 1750 and 1820. The three most important elements of the period of design and construction style were proportion, symmetry, and elegance. The elegance leaned toward simplicity, however, and ornamentation was muted. More emphasis was placed upon solidarity, and Georgian dwellings tended to be so sound constructed that many remained standing in their near-original state centuries later. In keeping with a balanced façade, great attention was given to the doors and windows. The grand entrance door was especially important as the principal feature of a Georgian home.

Doors were usually set back at least four inches from the brick, stone or timber front. They were very sturdy, thick-timbered doors, but usually simple in design with four or six panels, and they often had a semi-circular or semi-elliptical fanlight above the door, which is a window with glazing bars that radiate out like a fan. Later Georgian doors became more ornate, with more intricate transom windows and sidelights adorned with tracery. Fine examples of Georgian style grand entrance doors with beautiful fanlights and sidelights can be found in London on Portland Place, in particular on the west side, numbers 27 to 47, south of Devonshire Street.

Victorian style architecture broadly encompasses any building or style created during her reign from 1837 to 1901, and much is constructed in brick, stone, and timber incorporating an eclectic mix of other architectural styles and motifs. The Victorian period designers and craftsmen were quite fond of ornament, patterned details, plenty of trim, and bold colors. The homes most often had bay windows, ornate string courses, decorative gables and keys, interesting brickwork, and elegant grand entrances. Stained glass became popular, especially among the affluent, and soon became a standard inclusion of many Victorian doors. The carved panel work became more stylish, divided into four to six sections, and great attention was given to gleaming brass door furniture. The mortise lock, developed during the Victorian era, replaced the rim lock. Fanlights and glazed upper panels replaced the above-door fanlights, but sidelights remained popular.

Both Georgian and Victorian grand entrance door styles have their own unique features and historical significance. When building a period style house, it is important to research and understand the architectural elements inherent in the period door design to match the home's architecture accordingly. A respectable bespoke joinery can assist homebuilders in choosing the right grand entrance door and in keeping true to history.

Art of Egypt – The Hyksos and the New Kingdom

The Hyksos, literally "Shepherd Kings," were a group of tribal Canaanite tribes who somehow migrated to Egypt. These races were Israeli in origin, and whether they invaded or just moved in, historians held divided opinions on that. However, they unanimously agree that from 1650 BC to around 1550 BC, Egypt was ruled by dynasties that were not essentially native Egyptians.

Those kings, mostly Semic in origin, and superior to the Egyptian techniques of warfare, moved in with a host of cutting edge technology (body armors, chariots, spears, etc), but almost subdued the minority and the elegant Pre-Hyksos Art of the Egyptians. Hyksos, in its basic character, was a more primitive form of art, to say the least. It was the art of the hunter-gatherer, as opposed to the "avant garde" Egyptian motifs of yesteryears.

Although the Hyksos used Egyptians artisans, their art was apparently rudimentary. Pottery, painting, and, especially, architectures fall prey to this primitive wave. In fact, when they moved in, the Pyramids were already half a century old. The Hyksos Art however, was way behind the finesse of Pyramid architecture, even at that point of time. Clay figurines of this period, called the "Second Intermediate Period," demonstrated an utter disregard to form, proportion, and color. That the Hyksos were different from Egyptians could not have had any more evidence evidence than these sculptures. The difficulties of Hyksos were crude, and mostly mud baked, as compared to the superior stone temples of the Egyptians.

Almost after a hundred years of reign, the Hyksos Kings were finally driven out by Ahmose-I, who ushered in the era, the "New Kingdom" (1550-1070 BC). In this period, the entire Egypt was united under a single Pharaoh and the Hyksos were untraceable on the Egyptian territory. New brands of dedicated artisans, termed as, "Servants in the place of Truth," were intended to decorate the tombs of the kings of this era. Magnificent rock tombs of the Pharaohs became the landmarks of this golden era of Egyptian Art and architecture.

Although Thebes remained the cultural heart of this "New Kingdom," these artists built a set of exquisite tombs, at a place now known as Deir el-Medina. Recognition to the individual artist names, an uncommon practice in the ancient societies, became famous norm in this rule. For instance, from the old records it has been established that an artist named "Khonsu," was the master architect of a major of royal tombs. Most art-loving monarchs of Egypt namely, Thutmose, Nefertiti, and Tutankhamen belong to this era, which, in a way, was a period of Egyptian Renaissance. In this melee of re-birth of Egypt, most evidences of Hyksos Art were either destroyed or chiseled out. This stands as an unfortunate reminder of the vengefulness from the most noble of the artists of the ancient era, the Egyptians.

Brick Pointing Techniques For New and Old Brickwork

Brick pointing is the method of applying a small amount of mortar into the face joint between bricks. These bricks can either be newly laid ones or old brickwork. In new brickwork, pointing is done to apply harder mortar to increase weather protection on the exposed faces. In old brickwork, the method is used to repair the mortar joints that have been eroded by exposure to various elements.

For laying new and old brickwork, there are several techniques that need to be followed in order to do the task properly.

On new brickwork, brick pointing should be done at convenient intervals. Breaks at convenient points must be held to allow sufficient time for cleaning out the surface mortar of the section. The mortar in the joints should be scraped to a depth of about 12 mm from the brick surface. A wall can only be pointed when it has been completed.

In terms of old brickwork, the important brick pointing techniques include chipping out the old mortar and pointing it to a right depth. The standard depth is 12 mm from the brick surface. In removing the old mortar, angle grinders are often used. Take note that the process will cause a lot of dust, so you better wear face mask and goggles as you do the job.

Once the wall is ready to be pointed, the brick pointing techniques for the mortar follows. Make sure that the joints are wetted first before being filled with the pointing mortar.

Make a fairly stiff mix of the mortar and put a small amount on a hawk. In cutting off slithers of mortar, a small pointing trowel can be used. Hold the mortar up on the edge of the trowel and press it into the joints to be filled. Then, carefully draw the blade backwards. Repeat the steps until the mortar is flushed with the face of the bricks.

Do the brick pointing techniques by filling the vertical cross-joints first, followed by the horizontal bed-joints. When more than a square meter has been filled, finish it using the required style.

Scaffold Towers

Scaffold Towers have been around for hundreds and thousands of years, dating as far back as the Egyptians using them for the pyramids, and the Chinese using them for the Great Wall of China, for use by people to build houses and all different types of buildings . Scaffolds are also used for repair on said buildings, cleaning, and other jobs that one may need to reach higher than one story. Scaffold towers are used on almost every construction site today, and are made mostly of metal, making them strong, light weight, and easy to assemble, compared to the wooden scaffolds that were used before the 1930s.

The smallest scaffold towers are approximately five feet tall, they are good for doing work on the outside of a house or other small building. Scaffold towers can get much taller than five feet however, and can be built to accommodate just about any buildings needs. The largest scaffold recorded was 650 feet tall, it was built around the New York City Municipal Building by Regional Scaffolding & Hoisting Company, and stood in place from the years 1988 to 1992. Another set of famous scaffold towers were the towers used to repair the Statue of Liberty, and they were just over 150 feet tall. Scaffolds are not only used for building, cleaning or repairing buildings, they are also sometimes used on apartment or office buildings, as fire escape routes.

Scaffolds can be bought through companies that sell pre-made scaffolds, which tend to be on the smaller side, or through companies that sell the parts to put your own scaffold together. There are kits with instructions on how to build particular scaffolds, or you can also purchase piece by piece and construct your own scaffold, depending on your needs and know how. Scaffolds can have little to no flooring, or they can have huge sections with floors on them which you can walk upon or set tools and other items on for your convenience. Always remember when you are around a scaffold tower, or using one, your safety is of utmost importance, always exercise caution and care. Please wear safety equipment at all times.