Cessna 182 – Tips for a Smooth Transition

One of the first upgrades most pilots face is the one from basic training aircraft to something with a bit more performance and complexity. At one time the common transition was from a Cessna 152 to a Cessna 172, or from Piper Tomahawk to Piper Warrior. As those very basic aircraft disappeared from training inventories for a few years, it became much more common to start off in a 172 or something similar, pushing the first transition to a more complex aircraft such as the Cessna 182.

According to the FAA, the 182, with an engine of over 200 horsepower, is considered a high performance aircraft. To fly a high performance aircraft the FAA requires you log ground and flight instruction with a certified flight instructor (CFI). Though the amount of time is not specified by the FAA, instructors commonly indicate around 5 to 10 hours as the amount of time required- though that may vary significantly based on a student’s background and experience.

While the 182 is classified as a high performance aircraft, it does not fit in the complex category. Though it has two of the three requirements (flaps, constant speed prop, retractable gear), its fixed landing gear means it’s not considered a complex aircraft.

Though the FAA may not consider the 182 complex, beginning students may think differently. As mentioned, the 182 adds a constant speed prop and cowl flaps to the already familiar controls. More weight means different handling techniques, and a bigger engine means more attention has to be paid to its management. Overall, these additional elements give more weight to the importance of following checklist procedures.

As far as what the new controls mean, the prop RPM will be controlled by the blue knob. The throttle will go from controlling the RPM as in a 172 to controlling the manifold pressure. Most of the time in the 182, ground ops, takeoff and landing will be with the prop control pushed all of the way in. That will give you the most power available. In cruise flight though, that setting isn’t very efficient, so you’ll bring the blue knob back to a slower RPM, which will have the propeller taking a bigger bite out of the air. The settings for RPM and manifold pressure vary slightly from one model of 182 to the next, so consult the POH for your particular aircraft for the exact numbers.

When adjusting the engine controls the inevitable question will arise as to which control to move first. The easiest way to remember is that the blue knob will stay in more than the throttle. So, when you want to increase power, lead with the prop control. When reducing power (as in leveling off), lead with the throttle.
Bigger engines tend to foul more easily than their smaller counterparts- meaning the proper leaning technique must be adhered to. Proper technique is to lean during taxing and in cruise flight. On the ground it’s usually sufficient to pull the mixture out an inch or so or just a bit before the engine coughs. In cruise you can lean by fuel flow or cylinder head temperatures based on the equipment in your aircraft. Check the POH for detailed instructions.

The cowl flaps are another thing to remember. They control the amount of cooling air flowing over the engine. Cooling air is good when it’s hot or you’re slow or on the ground; but it increases drag the rest of the time. For the 182 the cowl flaps will remain open until you reach cruise flight, then they can be closed. They will usually remain closed until landing. As in all cases, follow the checklist.

As for handling, the 182 is heavier in both roll and pitch than a 172. Pitch will be the first notable difference as you’re rolling down the runway for takeoff and realize that it will take a decided pull to get the nose moving up. That same characteristic will come into play on landing as it will take a conscious effort to keep the nose wheel up longer than the mains. Proper trim, which is more important in heavier planes, will minimize this effect. You should be trimming for hands off flight at all times. There are many 182’s that have suffered bent firewalls in testament to the importance of a good flare and proper trim.

The Cessna 182 is nothing to be intimidated by. It’s not much more difficult to fly than a 172, with the addition of some checklist items to keep in mind. After a few hours you will come to enjoy the increased speed, range and stability that it will give you.

Ideas for Simple Halloween Party Games

With Halloween only a week away, we thought we'd share some ideas for simple spooky party games that your little monsters will love to play, and that take slightly little effort to organize:

• Ghost Hunt – cut out ghost shapes from white paper or card (allow approximately 4 – 5 per guest). Hide them around the house and garden and get your little guests to find them. (If you have different age groups of children, you may want to give the youngest ones a head start.) The child who finds the most ghosts is the winner. This is also a great game to play near the end of the party and you will not have to provide filled party bags either. Stick a small treat to each ghost before hiding, give each child an empty party bag and let them fill them with what they find.

• Ten-Pin Pumpkin bowling – part-fill 10 similar size plastic bottles with a small stones and gravel, so that they stand, and do not fall over too easily. (If you have time, or are feeling creative, you can also decorate them to look like monsters.) Draw a scary face on a mini pumpkin – this will be the bowling ball. Line your bottles up and let the children take it in turns to knock them over with the pumpkin, keeping score as they go. The child with the highest score is the winner.

• Yucky Dip – scoop out a pumpkin and fill with cooked, cooled pasta. Add small packets of sweets or wrapped tricks and mix well. Invite your little guests to take turns at the yucky dip – be warned this can get messy!

• The Haunted Jar – fill a jar with small sweets or toys and shredded white paper (making a note of how many goodies you've put in!). Each child then guesses how many items are in the jar and the closest guess wins the goodies!

• Musical monsters – put on some spooky music, and get your little guests to move around like monsters. When the music stops they have to stand still – if they move, they're out of the game. The last monster standing still is the winner!

• Trick or Treat – cut up squares of paper. On half of the squares, write 'treat'. On the other half, write 'trick' on one side of the paper and a simple activity (such as 'cackle like a witch') on the other side. Fold the squares up and put them all into a bucket (or cauldron if you want to be inventive). The children then take it in turns to pull a piece of paper out of the bucket. If they pull out a 'treat', give them a small prize. If they pull out a 'trick', they must perform the task written on the back before receiving their prize.

• The Graveyard game – this is a great game to play when you want to quiet the party down. Your little monsters lie down in the 'graveyard' – the child who stands still the longest is the winner.

And finally, how do monsters predict their future? They read their 'horror' scope!

Lumber Dimensions – What You See is Not What You Get (Exactly)

It seems like buying lumber should be one of the easier steps in building a project. But if you're not familiar with lumber dimensions, you'll soon discover that what you see is not exactly what you get. Most boards measure somewhat smaller than the dimensions posted on the shelf. To understand what's happening here, we first need to make an important distinction between lumber dimensions for softwood, and lumber dimensions for hardwood.

Softwood Lumber Dimensions

Most of the lumber you see at home improvement centers is made of softwood – like pine, spruce, and fir. Softwood is marked and sold in "nominal" dimensions – a somewhat misleading number that is larger than the actual size of the board. The nominal size describes the size of the board when it first arrived at the lumber mill. However, before being shipped out, both the width and the thickness is shaved off by as much as 3/4 of an inch. Here are some of the more common lumber dimensions for softwood:

Lumber Dimensions – 1x Nominal

These boards lose 1/4 inch in thickness and 1/2 inch in width before leaving the mill. That means a 1 x 4 board is actually 3/4 inches by 3 1/2 inches.

Lumber Dimensions – 2x Nominal

These boards lose 1/2 inch in thickness and 1/2 inch in width before leaving the mill. That means a 2 x 4 board is actually 1-1 / 2 inches by 3-1 / 2 inches. You'll find a couple of variations from this basic formula across different sizes of softwood, so be sure to check a lumber dimensions chart for the complete list of board sizes.

Buying Hardwood

Hardwood follows a completely different set of rules for determining the size of a board. Unlike pine and spruce, hardwood is often sold in random widths, thicknesses, and lengths. Why? Hardwood is much too valuable to chop up into uniform pieces. This creates too much waste. Instead, lumber mills use as much of the hardwood tree as possible, which produces boards in a variety of shapes and sizes. Since no two hardwood boards are exactly the same, prices are based on a unit of measurement called "board feet" – a more accurate way of estimating how much wood is in a particular board.

The basic formula for estimating board feet is to multiply Thickness x Width x Length – and then divide that number by 144 (which gives you the total board feet). Of course, buying rough hardwood lumber in this fashion leaves plenty of work for you in the shop – like ripping, crosscutting, and planning all the boards before you even start the project. Most woodworkers prefer this approach, though. It lets them decide exactly where on the board they want to cut the individual project pieces, paying special attention to the location of knots, interesting grain patterns, and colors.

Dumpees Gone Wild – Think Before You Dump Your Lover

Let's face it …

Nobody likes to be dumped. Especially when you're madly in love with your partner, and had no idea whatever the relationship was in any trouble.

Not only do you have to get through the inevitable feelings of loss and disappointment, but you'll also have the cope with feelings of rejection, and sometimes even humiliation.

What are you going to tell people when they ask why the relationship ended? Can you face admitting you were dumped, or will you make up a story to save face?

While we all hate the idea of ​​being dumped by a lover, most of us would "Get over it" in the end, and could move on with our lives left with nothing more than a slightly bruised ego.

For some however, swallowing the bitter pill of rejection is just too much to take, and as you're about to find out can push some people over the emotional edge.

You're about to see what happens when "Dumpees Go Wild!"

The Ultimate Humiliation

In years gone by, seeing a woman throwing her ex's belongings from an upstairs window would have considered shocking, but that's nothing compared to the length jilted lovers will go to today to show their partners how unhappy they are with their decision to end the relationship .

Down in southern Texas a few years ago, a dental surgeon came home to find a note from his fiancée telling him she'd left him, and had moved out to live with her sister downtown.

He raced off in his Hummer to try and talk his lady round, but when he arrived at her sister's house he got the news that would tip him over the edge.

His fiancée was not going to be living there at all. She'd instead moved a few blocks down the street to make home with her new lover, a 60 year old truck driver!

He decided to pay his ex and her new man a visit, but instead of using the front door, he violated his Hummer straight through the front window of the house, and into the shocked couple's living room!

Of course he was arrested, but I think he made his point.

Last year saw a controversial story of revenge hit the headlines when a man jilted by his woman paid for a huge billboard to be put up near their home in New Mexico, claiming his ex girlfriend had had an abortion, not a miscarriage as she'd claimed.

While the truth behind that story remains a mystery, it's not the first time dumpees have used billboard advertising to embarrass those who dared dump them.

A couple of years ago over in the UK a woman plastered her local town with adverts with a picture of her ex-boyfriend and the text, "Ladies, this man is a cheat and he's rubbish in bed!"

Although the adverts were dropped down within the week, I think it's fair to say her ex would have been recognized on more than one occasion.

Do Women Do It Best?

When it comes to wild dumpees getting virgin revenge, guys do some pretty extreme things to make their point, but in 2006 a 23 year old from New York went as extreme as you can get. Punishing her boyfriend for cheating and planning to leave her by slicing off his genitals, only to find out his infidelity was a lie!

It was late winter, and while out at a Christmas party Jenny was cornered by one of her boyfriend's so-called "friends".

This friend proceeded to tell Jenny how he spotted her man out with different women, and had overheard him telling someone he planned on leaving her in the New Year. It was later discovered the guy had made up the story in a bid to split the couple up. He had a crush on Jenny and wanted to come across as the knight in shining armor.

Heartbroken, and slightly the worse for wear after a number of vodkas, Jenny charged out of the bar in tears and made straight for home, where her unwitting boyfriend lay sleep.

It was only on feeling the shooting pain of a cold metal blade across his manhood that he woke up to Jenny's uncontrollable screams. It was suggested he actually got away with deep lacerations, and some minor tissue damage. Thank goodness he was not a deep sleeper!

It's not known how much truth there is in the story, or whether it's just a myth to scare men from being tempted by the fruit of another.

One thing's for sure, in a world where dumpees will go to extremes to get their revenge, you should think very carefully before you decide to dump your other half.

Is the relationship really that bad?

Could your problems be sorted out with better communication?

If you think the time really has come to end your relationship then our very serious advice is to be completely honest and open with your partner about your feelings. Let them down gently, and do everything in your power to ensure their pride is not too poorly damaged.

Do the dirty on them and you could find your face plastered all over town, or even worse you'll be calling in the builders to replace the front wall of your house!

Acrylic Trimmers – Essential Inventory of Dental Supplies

Dentistry involves a variety of procedures carried out to maintain oral health and restore or replace damaged teeth. Some of these are:

• Tooth whitening to remove stains
• Bonding to take care of chipped or cracked teeth
• Enamel shaping to modify teeth
• Veneers to cover the front side of the teeth that are worn or stained
• Braces to correct crooked or crowded teeth

To carry out these treatments effectively, the dentist needs quality dental equipment and instruments. These are the tools that help to examine, adjust, restore and extract teeth and treat the area around them. Every dental clinic must maintain an essential inventory of dental supplies to ensure that the patient can be offered quality treatment. These can be:

• Anaesthetics and drugs
• Instruments like hand pieces, burs and abrasives, acrylic trimmers
• Impression materials, cements and liners
• Cleaning and infection control products
• Restoration materials
• Dental equipment related to surgery
• Disposable bibs and gloves
• Endodontics materials

Prosthetic dentistry deals with the restoration or replacement of teeth. As a specialist area it focuses on recreating teeth that are missing or severely damaged using precision dental equipment.

This involves procedures related to fixing the following:

• Fillings to treat cavities
• Crowns to cover teeth fully and restore their function
• Bridges to replace missing tooth or teeth
• Dentures that replace a missing tooth or a complete arch
• Implants to replace one or more missing teeth

Dentists usually try and prevent the loss of teeth by maintaining the oral structure to promote oral health. For example, if a crown is required, besides treating the damaged tooth, its appearance is also taken care of with a variety of non-metal options ranging from acrylic, composite, ceramic and porcelain.

The most common materials for dental crowns used to be porcelain or gold. Gold was invariably used for teeth at the back of the mouth while porcelain was used on the front teeth for its aesthetics and similarity to a natural tooth.

Today a number of alternate materials are available. These can not only withstand more stress without wearing out the other teeth but also look natural. At the time of fixing the crown, the dentist must be careful while working with acrylic as it is a clear material.

A material of choice in dentistry

Acrylic is very popular for a variety of reasons and is used for a number of things like making impression trays. It is used as a tooth colored veneer to cover the surface of the tooth directly or on the crown covering the tooth to be restored. After the tooth is ready for the crown, a temporary crown made of acrylic is often used before the permanent crown is fixed. Using an acrylic trimmer, the crown is shaped carefully and used until it is ready to be replaced with the permanent crown.

Acrylic trimmers come in different shapes and sizes and are used for cutting and trimming various dental materials. They are generally pear shaped and used with a dental hand piece for grinding down acrylic bases or managing the thickness of the denture from the outside. The most popular ones are tungsten carbide acrylic trimmers.

With good quality dental equipment, supplies, instruments and medicaments, dentists help maintain oral health.

Meaning of a Tribal Dragon Tattoo

For years we have seen the popularity of a tribal dragon tattoo grow and it does not look like slowing down either. Dragons are mythical creatures that can have many different meanings, depending on which dragon you decide for your tattoo. Being a mythical creature gives the tattoo artists a wide range to work with when designing your tattoo and it also gives people the opportunity to have a unique tattoo, increasing their popularity dramatically. A tribal dragon tattoo is very often associated with strength and power, which has made it very dominant in the art of tribal tattoos.

The more common tribal dragon tattoos are of the eastern, the western and the imperial dragons. The meaning of an eastern dragon is the nicest of all, they represent kindheartedness, good fortune and they are believed to be a protector. While the meaning of a western dragon is quite the opposite, being seen as an evil, greedy, fire breathing creature. Neither the western nor the eastern dragon have wings, the only one believed to have had wings is the imperial dragon or lung. The meaning of an imperial dragon is quite unique, it believed to have unrivaled wisdom and power which has made it the primary of the four benevolent spiritual animals in Chinese culture. The other 3 of the 4 benevolent creatures are the phoenix, the unicorn and the tortoise.

So, if you're thinking about getting a tribal dragon tattoo, it's a good idea to take these meanings into consideration. Whatever you see yourself as being kindhearted and a protector, as wise and powerful or a little more on the evil side, there are tribal dragon tattoo ideas and meanings for everyone.

Wound Dressings – Composites

Composite dressings are dressings that combine the advantages of multiple layers, providing more than one function in wound care management. Each layer of dressing is physiologically distinct. To learn how to use these dressings, and when not to, read on.

Product Overview

Most composite dressings have three layers. The bottom layer is usually composed of a semi-or non-adherent material, which allows moisture to travel though to the next layer while preventing the dressing from sticking to the freshly granulating tissue of the wound bed. The middle layer is generally composed of an absorbent material which pulls moisture away from the wound bed, keeping it moist but preventing maceration of the skin. It also helps to inhibit bacterial growth and assists in the process of autolytic debridement. The outermost layer protects the wound from bacterial invasion and allows air to circulate. The outer layer also prevails moisture from leaking through to the top layer of dressing, allowing for less frequent dressing changes.

Indications

  • Partial- and full-thickness wounds
  • Wounds that have minimal or heavy exudate
  • Wounds with granulating tissue
  • Wounds that are necrotic (have necrotic tissue)
  • Wounds that have a combination of necrotic and granulating tissue

Contraindications

  • Patients who are very dehydrated
  • Patients who have fragile skin ie. the elderly

Advantages

  • Can be used as both primary and secondary dressings
  • Can be used on a variety of wounds with varying degrees of exudate
  • Easy to remove, as the bottom layer is usually non-adherent
  • Prevent maceration of the surrounding skin
  • Have antibacterial properties
  • Facilitates autolytic debridement
  • Shape well to different wounds on different parts of the body
  • Can be cost-effective, owing to less frequent dressing changes

Disadvantages

  • Some of these dressings are not appropriate for use on infected wounds (check the manufacturer's directions for use)
  • Composites with an adhesive border require that there be intact skin around the wound edges
  • Some insurers will not reimburse for these types of dressing when they are used as secondary dressings

As each of these dressings are different, it is important to read the manufacturer's instructions for use. They should be changed when scheduled, or when recommended by the manufacturer. To learn more about these dressings and others, you may want to consider becoming certified as a wound care specialist. The benefits to you and your patients are immeasurable, and WoundEducators.com is dedicated to helping you take this all-important step in your career. Because Medicare and other government entities are now holding health care professionals responsible for outcomes in wound care, the time has never been better to consider becoming a wounded care specialist, able to handle any type of wound you may encounter in your practice.

Post And Beam Home Plans – Shear and Shear Failure

Shear failure with post and beam home plans is much more difficult to envision than bending failure. In fact, with light frame construction, shear failure seldom comes into play, whereas it is an important consideration for heavy timber framing, particularly with a very heavy load such as an earth roof or a steam train.

One good way of explaining shear is to think of it as a combination of compression and tension stresses. Remember that the top surface of a beam is in compression, the bottom surface is in tension, and the centroid (middle part of the beam) is neutral (so also called the neutral axis.)

Some authors, without explaining the relationship between shear and tension and
compression stresses, describe shear as the tension for all of the wood fibers of the beam to "shear off," particularly at the edge of the post or wall support. While not complete, the analogy is true enough for our purposes, and may be easier to
understand than lots of stress analysis.

However – and this is the strange and interesting part – the structure at the top is actually stronger on shear. The effect of the sliding feature of the wood fibers over the neutral axis is increased, because the compression stresses on the top surfaces of the two spans are causing a tremendous tensile stress at the top of the rafter directly above the girder.

Think of it: If the two spans in the post and beam home plans are each trying to pull away from each other, because of the load on each span, those wood fibers at the top of the rafter (over the center) are working really hard not to break on tension.

All of this translates to lower shear strength at this location. In the top picture, shear stresses over the supports are clearly the same at all four shear locations, expressed by the fractions l / 2 in each case. But, in the bottom picture, the shear stresses are expressed as% at the walls at the right and left but increase to Ys where the long rafter is supported by the girder in the middle.

The upshot is that shear strength is gained by using two ten-footers instead of a single zo-footer supported in the middle. It is also true, as we have said, that bending strength is slightly diminished in the former example, and deflection is increased – but if the weak point in the engineering happens to be in shear, the former example may be better.

This situation may work in our favor, when you consider that two ten-footers are much easier
to handle – and certainly less expensive – than a single twenty-footer.

Deflection

Deflection is similar to bending … But different. Bending concerns us most when it translates into bending failure, which is a bad thing. With deflection, we can tolerate certain amounts of it in certain circumstances. Springiness – or stiffness – in a floor is a characteristic of deflection. When dealing with post and beam home plans know that cracking plaster on a ceiling, or separation of covered sheetrock joints, is an indication of excessive deflection.

American Mobsters – George Leonidas Leslie – King of the Bank Robbers

George Leonidas Leslie started out in life as one of the privileged class. Yet, he wound up a criminal, known by the New York City Police as "King of the Bank Robbers."

Leslie was born in Cincinnati in 1840. His father owned a brewery and Leslie started out as an academic, graduating from the University of Cincinnati with honors and a degree in architecture. After both his parents died, Leslie sold his father's brewery, cave up his architectural career and moved to New York City. There he fell in with a bad crowd and decided he could make a good career in robbing banks. It is estimated that in the ten years period spanning 1874-1884, Leslie was responsible for 80% of all bank robberies committed in the United States, taking in cash estimated to be between 7-12 million dollars.

In New York City, Leslie posed as a man about town with considerable means. He belonged to the most exclusive clubs and was a regular theater-goer and a patron of the arts. He used his guise to gain access to various bits of information that make his bank-robbing life most profitable. Leslie would often spend as many as three years planning a bank job. When he found a bank to his liking, Leslie would try to get the blueprints of the interior of the bank. If this were not possible, he would visit the bank posing as a depositor, and with his experience in architecture, he would draw up rough plans on the inside of the bank himself. Sometimes Leslie would have one of his gang members get a job at the bank as either a night watchman, or a porter, so that Leslie could get the exact specifications, and make and model of the bank vault.

After obtaining this valuable information, Leslie would buy a duplicate of the bank safe. He spent days and sometimes weeks, perfecting the art of opening the safe. He shied away from using dynamite to crack the safe, deciding that would cause too much noise and lead to being detected. Leslie method of opening safes including boring a hole underneath the dial, then using a thin piece of steel to manipulate the tumblers into place. To cover almost any contingency in robbing a bank, Leslie had a set of burglar tools specially created for him that cost the staggering sum of $ 3000, which was more than most people earned in several years.

To perfect the job he was planning, Leslie sometimes set up a room, in a loft he rented downtown, to resemble the inside of the bank he was planning to rob. There Leslie, and the men who he selected for that particular bank job, would spend considering amounts of time practicing exactly how the bank robbery should develop. Leslie would darkened the lights and watch his men go through their maneuvers in the darkness, then critique their work. His cohorts consist of various known criminals like Jimmy Hope, Jimmy Brady, Abe Coakley, Shang Draper, Red Leary, Johnny Dobbs, Worcester Sam Perris, Bill Kelly and Banjo Pete Emerson.

In May of 1875, Leslie decided to rob the Manhattan Savings Institution at 644 Broadway. Leslie, through his "inside man" at the bank, Patrick Shelvin, found out the make and model of the lock on the bank's vault. He procured an exact model from the manufacturers, Valentine & Bulter, and spent six months perfecting the opening of the lock. On October 27, 1875, Shelvin let Leslie and his crew into the bank at night. When their work was done, they had stolen $ 3.5 million in cash and securities, almost $ 50 million in today's money. No one was arrested until May, 1879, and as a result Jimmy Hope and Bill Kelly were kissed and sent to prison. Abe Coakley and Banjo Pete Emerson were also arrested, but were acquitted at trial. Leslie was never arrested and his involvement in the robbery was not known until after his death.

Leslie reputation drew to such gigantic proportions, he was often called in as a "consultant" by other bank-robbing gangs. It was believed he received more than $ 20,000 just to travel to San Francisco to look over plans for a local bank heist.

Yet, if Leslie had one weakness, it was for the affections of women. He began an affair with the girlfriends of one of his cohorts, Shang Draper. On June 4th, 1884, Leslie's decomposed body was found lying at the base of Tramps Rock, near the boarder line between Westchester and the Bronx. He was shot twice in the head. Police speculated that Leslie was killed by the jealous Draper in a house at 101 Lynch Street in Brooklyn, then his body was carted away to Tramps Rock by three of his associates, who had been seen near Yonkers at the time the body was discovered. But there was little evidence of the crime and no one was ever arrested.

The Meanings Behind Eagle Tattoo Designs

When you are looking at eagle tattoo designs, there are various meanings behind them. After all, everyone from the Americans to the Egyptians has been known to worship eagles. To some, eagles represent the sun. To some, they represent freedom and liberty.

As I said, it represents liberty to a lot of people, including people in the armed forces, who often sport them. They are also said to signify wealth, strength and power. In combination with other things, such as flags or banners, eagle tattoo designs can be the ultimate patriotic symbol.

Bald eagle tattoo designs might be a good choice if you want to show off your pride in or love for the United States. That is because bald eagles have been a symbol of freedom in the United States since the country was established, practically. Because of that symbolism, they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States.

It is also important that you realize that some cultures, such as the Native American, believe that they are religious in nature. To Native Americans, eagles are almost magical. They are considered to be the king of the birds.

It can also represent a soaring spirit. You might consider getting one if you have high goals in life. That way, you can show off your inner eagle.

Men choose eagle tattoo designs to declare their independence. Eagle tattoos represent strength and a bit of a loner quality. So, if you want to show your independent side, you may want to get one.

When it comes to choosing from designs out there, it is not that simple. There are many possible tattoos to choose from. So, you should not just simply choose any design without any consideration.

The good news is that there are many easy tattoo galleries and websites on the Internet to help you make your choice. As an online gallery member, you will have access to thousands of possibilities. Remember, too, that the designs can come in many sizes, colors, shapes and with many different fonts. So, eagle tattoo designs can be fully customized to suit you and give you the perfect tattoo that you can enjoy for years.

Characteristics of Sound

Sound in brief but remarkable terms is a vibration, that our ears perceive by the sense of hearing. Most commonly vibrations travel to our ears via the air. The ear then converges these sound waves into nerve impulses that are sent to our brains, where the impulses become sound. To say all that in a more technical language: Sound "is an alternation in pressure, particle displacement, or particle velocity propagated in an elastic material" (Olson 1957). Sound is also a series of mechanical compressions and rarefactions or longitudinal waves that successfully propagate through media that are at least a little compressible. What causes sound waves is known as "the source of waves". Examples of sounds sources is: A violin string that vibrates upon being bowed or plucked.

The four characteristics of sound are frequency, wavelength, amplitude and velocity.

The frequency of sound is the number of air pressure oscillations per second at a fixed point occupied by a sound wave.

The amplitude is the magnitude of sound pressure change within the wave. Basically this is the maximum amount of pressure at any point in the sound wave. A sound wave is caused literally by increases in pressure at certain points causing a "domino effect" outward, the higher pressure points are the crests in a sound wave , and behind them are low pressure points which tail them. These are known as the troughs on a wavelength graph. Sound's propagation Velocity depends largely on the type, temperature and pressure of the medium through which it propagates. Because air is almost a perfect gas, the speed of sound does not depend on air pressure.

The frequency range of sound that is audible to humans is approx. between 20 and 20,000 Hz. This range of course varies between individuals, and goes down as are age increases. Sounds will begin to damage our ears at 85 dBSPPL and sounds above approximately 130 dBSPL will cause pain, as a result are known as the: "threshold of pain". Of course again this range will vary among individuals and will change with age.

Humminbird Portable Fish Finder Review of the 110, 120, 130 and 140 Fishin’ Buddy Models

The Humminbird portable fish finder Fishin’ Buddy series currently has several models for purchase. They include, in ascending price, the Hummingbird 110, 120, 130 and 140 model units. As the model number and subsequent price increases, there are subsequent additional features that the lower models lack.

All models, except for the 110, have both a single beam down and side sonar at 240 feet and 120 feet, respectively. All have the same power output at 125 watts RMS (roots mean square) and 1,000 watts, peak to peak. They all have a built in temperature gauge, are waterproof, have a backlight, mount with a portable clamp, have a target separation of 2.5 inches and run on 6 AA batteries. Now let us discuss the differences between all 4 models.

The Humminbird 110 Fishin’ Buddy is the most basic unit of the series at an entry level price. The current manufacturer’s suggested retail price (MSRP) is $119.99. For just under $120 you will have a portable fish finder that will find fish, but not have all the bells and whistles of the more advanced models. Most anglers looking for a cheap fish finder will be completely satisfied with this unit.

Up one level from the 110 model is the Humminbird 120 fishfinder with a MRSP of $169.99. So for fifty dollars more, what do you get? You get a higher resolution screen, 8-level grayscale instead of only 4-level and side sonar in addition to the single beam down. Is the screen resolution and added grayscale worth another fifty bucks? Perhaps not, but the side sonar is definitely an added bonus.

Next in line is the Humminbird 130 portable fish finder with a MSRP of $219.99. What do you get for yet another fifty bucks? An even higher resolution screen, 16-level vs 8-level grayscale and a 24-40 inch telescoping transducer pole as opposed to the 24 inch fixed pole on the two previous lower models. The transducer extension will be especially helpful for those who plan to use their fish finder on different sized boats, canoes or float tubes.

Then there is the top of the line, the deluxe Humminbird 140 Fishin’ Buddy with a MSRP of $269.99. For yet another fifty dollars you can have a color screen. Everything else on this unit is the same as the 130 model. Most users say the black and white screen works well enough for them, but for those of you who really want the added contrast of a color screen, than you may want to consider this unit. The color screen will help to distinguish between vegetation types, fish schools and individual fish.

For a portable fish finder, Humminbird does offer a pretty good deal with this series no matter which unit you choose. There are other brands to consider such as Norcross Hawkeye F33P, the Garmin 140 or 300c and even the Humminbird Piranhamax 230 portable fish finder. It depends upon which features are important to you and what you are willing to spend. Whatever model you choose, having a portable unit will now allow you to find fish wherever you want to go.

Learn Ninjutsu – 3 Substitutes For the Ninja’s Metsubishi "Blinding Powder"

For the student who wants to learn ninjutsu – the art and practice of Japan’s shadow warriors – there can be a lot of confusion, and even legal concerns, when it comes to mastering some of the Ninja’s more traditional weapons. However, with the right teacher to guide you through the process of mastering this powerful martial art, you should have no problem in bringing these proven and time-tested techniques, tactics, and strategies into the 21st century.

One of the Ninja’s weapons is known as metsubishi (also pronounced: “metsubushi”). This is conventionally known as “blinding powder” – the stuff that makes the “smoke screen” effect.

On a more advanced level, metsubishi is actually a category of techniques known as “sight removers.” And, while the “blinding powder” with the same name serves this purpose, there is more to this powerful weapon and strategy than meets the eye (so to speak).

This article offers several substitutes for the Ninja’s blinding powder. Instead of carrying around a packet or container of this highly irritating substance, there are some very common, everyday items that can be pressed into use in your defense that will accomplish the same job. They include.

  • 1) Loose change.
  • Remember, the ninja of ancient Japan did not have the same items or technology that we have today. So, reaching into a pants pocket and pulling out a handful of loose coinage, would have been impossible for a Ninja warrior who was wearing a kimono or some other form of classical dress that, either way, lacked both pockets and money as we know it today.

    Throwing a handful of coins at your attackers face may not create a Ninja-movie smoke screen, but the weight and impact of the coins will certainly give him something to worry about while you are either countering or making your escape!

  • 2) Grass or gravel.
  • Combined with the Ninja’s taihenjutsu (“body-changing art”), metsubishi can take many more forms than simply items that you can carry on you. Imagine your opponent’s surprise when he suddenly feels a wad of grass blades or the stinging of gravel hitting his skin – things that you picked up during that roll you used to avoid his previous advances!

  • 3) Sugar, salt or pepper.
  • Rather than egg shells filled with a specially mixed powder, the modern ninja has small packet of salt, sugar, and pepper available to him. In a restaurant or other similar situation, you could secretly grab a few of these readily available packets. And while the attacker is moving in or wasting time with threats, you could be subtly tearing open the packets and readying them for when he initiates his attack.

Remember – Just because our Ninja ancestors used a powder made of ashes, sand, and other irritants, doesn’t mean that we have to limit ourselves to the same thing. The power inherent within the martial art of Ninjutsu, is it’s focus on concepts and principles – not on set techniques.

This allows you, the modern ninja warrior, to adapt to any situation and have just the right technique that best fits the attack. As a teacher once told me, “flexibility is the key to longevity.” He wasn’t a Ninja teacher. But he certainly summed up the philosophy of the Ninja’s art!

Spray Foam Insulation – Open and Closed Cell

Spray Foam Insulation is a two-component system typically consisting of petroleum oils, plastics, and resins. The polyurethane foam comes in two different forms, open cell and closed cell foam. The polyurethane spray foam is an extremely versatile material that is available in a variety of final physical properties and densities. Although the two types of foam are very similar in their chemical structures and their characteristics and capabilities differ in many ways, which makes it necessary for the user to understand the differences of the two materials so he or she can determine which is the right foam for their particular application.

The open cell spray foam insulation contains a density of 0.5lb. per cubic foot. The greater the density of the foam the heavier, or stronger it will become. This particular type of polyurethane foam is referred to as "Open Cell" because of the nature of the chemical reaction during the installation process. When the polyurethane foam is being applied the tiny cells of the foam are broken causing air to fill the "open" space inside the material, resulting in a soft or spongy material. The open cell foam carries an R-Value of 5 to 5.5 per inch (R-Value is the measure of thermal resistance, which can be found by identifying the ratio of the temperature difference across an insulator and the heat flux). 0.5lb. foam products use significantly less material than 2lb. foam products do when completing the same sized job, making them attractive to an individual concerned with preserving the foam material. Due to the fact that open cell foam requires less material, the cost of the project is much cheaper than it would be if you were to apply closed cell foam. Although, Open cell foam is an efficient and economic product it contains some disadvantages in regards to closed cell foam. One of the open cells disadvantages is it has a lower R-Valuer per square inch than closed cell foam does and open cell foam is vapor permeable requiring it to be covered with a vapor retardant material. Although, open cell foam has some advantages and disadvantages it has been recognized as an excellent insulator, air sealant and sound barrier.

The second type of polyurethane foam is referred to as "closed-cell" or "2 lb foam". The closed cell foam gets its name from its individual chemical reaction. During the installation process the tiny cells that are created during the chemical reaction are not broken and are packed together. These little cells are filled with gas allowing the material to rise and become an excellent insulator. As mentioned earlier the higher the foams density the heavier, or stronger the foam will become. This type of foam carries a density strong enough to improve the structural integrity of the building it is applied to. Due to the higher density of this material it requires the use of more material resulting in a higher project cost. Some advantages of this foam includes its higher R-Value per square inch compared to open cell foam also, this foam is vapor resistant cutting out the additional cost of the vapor retardant material that open cell foam requires and it has the ability to improve the structural integrity of the building it is applied to. One major disadvantage is the products exceptionally high cost. The closed-cell foam commonly carries the highest R-value of any insulation material on the market at a value of 7.5 per inch.

There are many things a home or building owner should take into consideration when considering the type of foam that should be used for their particular application. Although both types of foam are by far the best insulators on the market, each type of polyurethane foam possesses its own characteristics and capabilities. It is imperative for the user to identify which foam is right for them before applying the product.

Violins For Beginners – Maintaining Violin Quality

Maintaining the violin is necessary right after the purchase. This violins for beginners guide will teach you how to care for your instrument the right way.

Familiarize with the Common Causes of Damage

Violins for beginners are often low in quality. This is because first-time learners tend to purchase cheaper violins for practice purposes. Such type of instrument needs more attention than the expensive ones. It is necessary to know what causes the damage and how you can prevent it from happening.

• Violin bridge and bow breaks or cracks.

• The fingerboard is not properly glued together, making it prone to detachment.

• The tailpiece is susceptible to breaks. It easily snaps during extreme practice or when exposed to humid weather.

Extra time, effort and care are there before needed to maintain the quality of your musical instrument. It makes perfect sense to anticipate the care needed by your violin so you can use it for a longer time.

Do Not Store in Hot or Cold Environment

Violins easily break when exposed to a very warm or very cool environment. It is best to store them in safe cases than put them in attics or basements. These instruments are made of delicate materials which easily break in a hot environment.

Buy a Case

A high quality case can shelter your violin from breaks. It is necessary in keeping your instrument safe from accidents or from sudden change in temperature. Placing the violin on top of the sink or under your bed can add to the possibility of damage. Keep in mind that most violin damages result from the owner's negligence.

Know What Rosin to Buy

Rosin is necessary for the violin to produce sound. It causes friction when rubbed against the musical strings. The rosin is applied on the bow hair to provide the grip it needs. No sound will escape from the violin without the rosin.

Two types of rosin can be used in violins for beginners – the dark and the light rosin. The dark rosin is mostly used in cooler climates. It is softer than the light rosin. The latter, on the other hand, is harder but is not as sticky as the other type. Its use is recommended for warmer climates.

Purchase a Nice Set of Strings

Economic strings have poor quality. It snaps, cracks and warps easily.

Go to a Luthier

A luthier makes violins. In case of repair, visit a credential luthier in your place and have him fix your violin. A luthier knows how to treat or refurbish the damage on your musical instrument. If you do not know any, ask recommendations from friends and family. You can also scout the net for other legitimate sources.

Violins for beginners need proper care and attention. For more violins for beginners tips, browse our site and find out how to properly maintain your instrument.