Cessna 182 – Tips for a Smooth Transition

One of the first upgrades most pilots face is the one from basic training aircraft to something with a bit more performance and complexity. At one time the common transition was from a Cessna 152 to a Cessna 172, or from Piper Tomahawk to Piper Warrior. As those very basic aircraft disappeared from training inventories for a few years, it became much more common to start off in a 172 or something similar, pushing the first transition to a more complex aircraft such as the Cessna 182.

According to the FAA, the 182, with an engine of over 200 horsepower, is considered a high performance aircraft. To fly a high performance aircraft the FAA requires you log ground and flight instruction with a certified flight instructor (CFI). Though the amount of time is not specified by the FAA, instructors commonly indicate around 5 to 10 hours as the amount of time required- though that may vary significantly based on a student’s background and experience.

While the 182 is classified as a high performance aircraft, it does not fit in the complex category. Though it has two of the three requirements (flaps, constant speed prop, retractable gear), its fixed landing gear means it’s not considered a complex aircraft.

Though the FAA may not consider the 182 complex, beginning students may think differently. As mentioned, the 182 adds a constant speed prop and cowl flaps to the already familiar controls. More weight means different handling techniques, and a bigger engine means more attention has to be paid to its management. Overall, these additional elements give more weight to the importance of following checklist procedures.

As far as what the new controls mean, the prop RPM will be controlled by the blue knob. The throttle will go from controlling the RPM as in a 172 to controlling the manifold pressure. Most of the time in the 182, ground ops, takeoff and landing will be with the prop control pushed all of the way in. That will give you the most power available. In cruise flight though, that setting isn’t very efficient, so you’ll bring the blue knob back to a slower RPM, which will have the propeller taking a bigger bite out of the air. The settings for RPM and manifold pressure vary slightly from one model of 182 to the next, so consult the POH for your particular aircraft for the exact numbers.

When adjusting the engine controls the inevitable question will arise as to which control to move first. The easiest way to remember is that the blue knob will stay in more than the throttle. So, when you want to increase power, lead with the prop control. When reducing power (as in leveling off), lead with the throttle.
Bigger engines tend to foul more easily than their smaller counterparts- meaning the proper leaning technique must be adhered to. Proper technique is to lean during taxing and in cruise flight. On the ground it’s usually sufficient to pull the mixture out an inch or so or just a bit before the engine coughs. In cruise you can lean by fuel flow or cylinder head temperatures based on the equipment in your aircraft. Check the POH for detailed instructions.

The cowl flaps are another thing to remember. They control the amount of cooling air flowing over the engine. Cooling air is good when it’s hot or you’re slow or on the ground; but it increases drag the rest of the time. For the 182 the cowl flaps will remain open until you reach cruise flight, then they can be closed. They will usually remain closed until landing. As in all cases, follow the checklist.

As for handling, the 182 is heavier in both roll and pitch than a 172. Pitch will be the first notable difference as you’re rolling down the runway for takeoff and realize that it will take a decided pull to get the nose moving up. That same characteristic will come into play on landing as it will take a conscious effort to keep the nose wheel up longer than the mains. Proper trim, which is more important in heavier planes, will minimize this effect. You should be trimming for hands off flight at all times. There are many 182’s that have suffered bent firewalls in testament to the importance of a good flare and proper trim.

The Cessna 182 is nothing to be intimidated by. It’s not much more difficult to fly than a 172, with the addition of some checklist items to keep in mind. After a few hours you will come to enjoy the increased speed, range and stability that it will give you.

Mid-Life Pregnancy – Mother Over 40, Delight Or Doom?

What do Geena Davis, Marcia Cross and Mariska Hargitay have in common? Well, besides being television stars, all three became first-time mothers after the age of 40. Mention a woman is pregnant and see people beam. Include the detail that she's above forty and watch the same beaming people frown and shake their heads. What is it about being over forty and pregnant that brings out such reactions in people?

By being a mom over 40, you are taking a risk. But so are you if you decide to go skydiving or parachute-jumping. There are risks in everything. From something as simple as crossing a road, risks are involved. However, doctors are always warning against 'older motherhood'. What are these risks? Here is a list which features a collaboration of the many and usual health scares that warn against becoming a mother too late.

Pregnant moms will have an increased risk of getting high blood pressure and gestational diabetes.

Birth defects in the child – Down syndrome usually takes the lead here. A combination of mental retardation and physical abnormalities that are caused by the presence of an extra chromosome. Women usually have a 1-in-100 chance at age 40 and a 1-in-30 chance of having a child born with Down syndrome.

Miscarriage – 25% risk for women at 40

Placenta Previa – This causes extreme bleeding during delivery.

Foetal Distress – Increases if this is a woman's first labor.

Low Birth Weight – A preterm birth (less than 37 weeks of pregnancy) can be reduced by not smoking during pregnancy

Caesarean Birth – Usually a C-section will be advised when a woman is 40 and over.

Moment of fear

Alright do not despair just 'cause you read that and already are pregnant and over 40. Sure complications may arrise due to age. But think about it. Complications could also arise from the habit of smoking you had as an impulsive teenager or when you were in your twenties, drowning your weekends in flavored martinis. Age certainly is a component in the production of a healthy baby; however, it is not the main determining factor. Many people over 40, all over the world, have given birth to babies, regardless of whether it's their first or second or third third (think: Jane Seymour, Emma Thompson, Susan Sarandon). How did they do it and continue to? You have to do your part to improve your pregnancy. Quell your fears with these tips!

Get a good amount of exercise before, during and after your pregnancy. Consult your doctor on what type of exercise you can do during the different terms of your pregnancy.

Follow a healthy diet. It's good for you and your baby.

Optimal prenatal care – Ladies, I can not stress enough on the importance of this.

What about after the kid has been born? Mid-life crisis VS Parenting duties?

Come on ladies. Having a child is an indication by itself, regardless of age, that you have reached mid-life and a crisis will soon happen, is not it. We kid, we kid (no pun intended).

But what is the real problem here? Creaking knees and popping ankles sounding off as you chase after your little one? Mid-life Mom, those problems pop up all the time due to lack of exercise. Think of the positive issues involved with you being an 'older' mom.

Goodbye isolation – While most of your friends are having long-distance chats with their kids or wondering how university life is going for their children, you are having fun discovering new things with your itty bitty baby.

Career's made – Most young mothers would be busy juggling career and baby but you … you've already made your career mark!

Wisdom – With age, come wisdom (we hope!) So wiser decisions regarding you, your child and your family may be made.

Being a mother is a blessing. Being a mother at an older age is an even bigger blessing. Do not let the worries and concerns shadow the most beautiful time of parenthood. Take it in stride and who knows, pretty soon you might out beat the youngger moms and be the 'cool mom' on the block!

Best Brow Enhancing Products of the Day

Looking good is about looking good from head to toe, and today eyebrows are the hottest feature to focus on. This is necessary because well groomed brows give your face a polished and focused look, while bushy, overgrown brows make you look unkempt and make people think you have a mono-brow instead of two eyebrows.

Here are some eyebrow products that you must have in your eyebrow makeup collection for the perfect brow shape:

• Tweezers
The ideal pair of tweezers works best on any type of facial hair, thick or thin. They are perfectly aligned and point flawlessly. Good tweezers are super efficient at grabbing the short, dark eyebrow hairs that most blunt and clumsy tweezers find difficult to forgive, giving your eyebrows sharp and precise arch lines.

• Brow Shaping Color
If you are looking for eyebrow makeup that grooms your brows without making them look artificial, then go for brow shaping color. With a mascara-like brush, the believable color is ridiculously easy to apply as you can just brush the color onto your brows naturally. It just enhances your natural eyebrow shape, makes it fuller and darker without making your brows look like they have been hideously penciled in.

• Brow Wax and Powder Combo
Get a compact with a wax and powder combo for your eyebrows. These two components are the best eyebrow products as they blend in seamlessly with your natural brows without looking made up. The combination is fake proof and lasts until you decide to take it off. Available in a myriad of complexion friendly shades, your brows would thank you for using this product.

• Powder Eyebrow Pencil
A powder pencil gives you the best of both worlds when it comes to eyebrow makeup. It is the best tool for you if you are not steady with a brush but still want your brows to have the soft look powder gives. The texture of the pencil is unbelievably soft and smooth and the color and staying power are both exceptional. Unlike typical pencils, powder based brow pencils do not give your brows a waxy, shiny look.

• The Complete Brow Shaping Kit
Eyebrow shaping kits make grooming your brows really easy. They are simple, easy and cheaper than buying individual products. These usually contain brow powder, highlighter and brow stencils. The stencils work best for people who are not that good at makeup since they are foolproof and shape your brows to perfection with minimum effort.

• Eyebrow Masks
Eyebrow masks are great if your natural eyebrows are sparse or have not been growing properly due to illness or accidents. They come with fillers, stencils, templates and diagrams so that you can completely reshape your brows, make them look as natural as possible and enhance your natural beauty.

How to Build a Raft

Who can forget Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn's raft? Is not it amazing that two young kids know how to build a raft? Is building a raft really easy that even children like Tom and Huck can do it?

Here are the instructions on how to build a simple raft:

1. Collect all the materials needed in building a raft.

Gather seven to eight logs. As much as possible the logs should be of the same size in length and thickness. The more they look alike the better the output of the raft would be. The base logs should at least be 12 feet in length and with diameter of 12 inches. Two or three support logs would be necessary for support in the locking system of the raft. The supporting logs should be at least seven to eight feet long and have a diameter of at least four to six inches.

A rope is also needed in order to tie the logs together.

2. Bring all materials near the shore before construction.

Create an outline on how to build the raft and arrange all the materials near the shore. Begin by cutting out the dove-tail notch on each end of the base logs. The notches at the bottom should be wider than the notches at the top. The depth of the notches should at least be two inches and the width should be at least four to six inches at the bottom. Make sure that the notches would suit the dimensions of the support log.

Afterwards, cut and shape the support logs with three sides that would match the notches. Carefully measure the cutting and be precise.

3. Find a place where it is easy to launch the raft.

For raft launching, place the constructed raft in a location where it would be easy to push the raft to the water. Once that matter is figured out, bringing the logs together (side to side). Arrange in a straight line the notches. After this, lock the notches with the support logs.

Then, tie down the supports of the raft. Glue can be used to add strength to the raft. A niche could be added to act as a controlling wheel and this can be placed on the raft's rear end.

To create a dry footing for the raft's floor, add some bush. Also, hooks can be added on the raft's surface to tie down possible luggage during long trips. After these finishing touches, building a raft is already done.

In building a raft, the cost is not an issue. Logs can be found lying about in one's area. Rope and other materials are sometimes available in the house and can be bought at reasonable price. That's why Huck and Tom were able to sail with a raft. All they have is the skill on how to build a raft and the materials they got for free.

5 Instructional Design Fundamentals – Simplified

Instructional Design (ID), simply stated, focuses on enhancing learning. From this short yet straightforward explanation, it follows that ID fundamentals are based on the way learning occurs. Derived from these fundamentals are strategies and teaching methods that trigger the most effective learning in the most efficient manner.

Here are the 5 ID fundamentals that budding instructional designers can use –

1. Understand learner's needs – Before beginning to prepare any instructional material, identifying the learner's requirements is of utmost importance. It is difficult to proceed if you do not have any information about what is to be achieved. Knowing about your audience background and learning outcomes sets the path for developing the training material. Most importantly, it helps outline the topics that need to be addressed.

2. Capture audience attention – People learn about new things for various reasons, be it a new found interest, seeking solution to a tricky situation or purely enhancing skills for personal and / or professional gains. The bottom line is, new learning does not begin until there is a pressing need to learn. This means, when you begin developing instructional material, first bring out the need and you will never fail to grab your audience's attention.

3. Move from simple to complex – Spare a thought for how humans learn about new things. Novel learning starts when one became interested in a topic. To know more about this new topic, one generally reads about its basics before moving to its complexities. People relate new information to what they already know and build upon existing knowledge base.

Knowing about the way people learn clearly points to the way you as an instructional designer should put forth information. Once you know the learners' current level of understanding and the objectives that they want to achieve, develop training material that moves from simple to complex ideas. Present easy-to-recall information such as definitions, examples, and non-examples before graduating to further details.

4. Move gradually – When was the last time you actually learnt something by zipping through its basics? Probably never … Speed ​​at initial stages of learning takes learners only so far.

A sound instructional design typically eases learners into complex ideas. It steadily builds on the basic conceptual knowledge, taking them ahead with sufficient hands on practice, and then finally to a stage where they can apply newly acquainted knowledge to assess a given situation and come up with solutions.

5. Solidify – "Practice makes one perfect." That's because practice solidifies the learning process. Same holds true for an effective instructional design as well. When developing training, in addition to presenting necessary information, include a healthy mix of practices and tests. Provide relevant feedback, summarize and give tips. All this helps solidify new learning so the learners retain it for a really long time.

Wound Dressings – Composites

Composite dressings are dressings that combine the advantages of multiple layers, providing more than one function in wound care management. Each layer of dressing is physiologically distinct. To learn how to use these dressings, and when not to, read on.

Product Overview

Most composite dressings have three layers. The bottom layer is usually composed of a semi-or non-adherent material, which allows moisture to travel though to the next layer while preventing the dressing from sticking to the freshly granulating tissue of the wound bed. The middle layer is generally composed of an absorbent material which pulls moisture away from the wound bed, keeping it moist but preventing maceration of the skin. It also helps to inhibit bacterial growth and assists in the process of autolytic debridement. The outermost layer protects the wound from bacterial invasion and allows air to circulate. The outer layer also prevails moisture from leaking through to the top layer of dressing, allowing for less frequent dressing changes.

Indications

  • Partial- and full-thickness wounds
  • Wounds that have minimal or heavy exudate
  • Wounds with granulating tissue
  • Wounds that are necrotic (have necrotic tissue)
  • Wounds that have a combination of necrotic and granulating tissue

Contraindications

  • Patients who are very dehydrated
  • Patients who have fragile skin ie. the elderly

Advantages

  • Can be used as both primary and secondary dressings
  • Can be used on a variety of wounds with varying degrees of exudate
  • Easy to remove, as the bottom layer is usually non-adherent
  • Prevent maceration of the surrounding skin
  • Have antibacterial properties
  • Facilitates autolytic debridement
  • Shape well to different wounds on different parts of the body
  • Can be cost-effective, owing to less frequent dressing changes

Disadvantages

  • Some of these dressings are not appropriate for use on infected wounds (check the manufacturer's directions for use)
  • Composites with an adhesive border require that there be intact skin around the wound edges
  • Some insurers will not reimburse for these types of dressing when they are used as secondary dressings

As each of these dressings are different, it is important to read the manufacturer's instructions for use. They should be changed when scheduled, or when recommended by the manufacturer. To learn more about these dressings and others, you may want to consider becoming certified as a wound care specialist. The benefits to you and your patients are immeasurable, and WoundEducators.com is dedicated to helping you take this all-important step in your career. Because Medicare and other government entities are now holding health care professionals responsible for outcomes in wound care, the time has never been better to consider becoming a wounded care specialist, able to handle any type of wound you may encounter in your practice.

Where Can We Find Art In Our Day-To-Day Lives?

After the controversial appearance of Marcel Duchamp’s “Fountain” in 1917, the world began to understand that art is not only to be found in a painting or sculpture, but rather can be made from anything around us. Later the enormous success of Pop art developed this theme. In other words, artists showed us that art is everywhere and we just need to train our eyes to see it and discover the potential in our world.

It is some time since art was exclusively the province of galleries and museums. While these remain main centers for art-lovers, the growth of street art, performance art, land art and many other innovative kinds of art have meant that it really can be something we see as we walk down the street, a part of our ordinary lives.

The world continues to change, and we become more demanding in our desire to bring some form of art to normal life. Furniture is carved or molded in unusual and creative ways, light fixtures can become works of art, while we expect a print if not an original work on many of the free walls we see on a regular basis, from our own homes to our offices to the doctor’s surgery.

Art rules our minds, it surrounds us on all sides. Going to work you can listen to a favorite piece of music through your earpieces, you can be inspired by a billboard or a piece of public art, or even recent graffiti. At lunch you may visit a gallery with a friend, or watch an art house film in the evening. One single day can include exposure to – and, if you are aware of it, appreciation of – so many different kinds of art.

Leonardo da Vinci said that there are three types of people: those who see, those who see when they are shown, those who do not see. Contemporary art tries to attract the attention of all these kinds of people, even the last type. Modern art is sometimes bright and flashy, but at the same time it is unexpected, it appears in displays we would never have thought about before.

Art is a way of finding beauty in the world, and adding a sense of joy to our lives. However it can also act as a way of dealing with the problems of existence that have bothered humanity for millennia. In a more abstract sense, it can influence the way you live and make your life itself a recognized thing of value. Somerset Maugham believed that life is an art, that every person creates a work of art just by living.

This is a powerful thing – in letting art become a part of our life and allowing it to form our lives, we can live in a world where everything can be art, or the inspiration for art, and where everyone can in some sense be an artist.

Polystyrene Insulation – Foam Board Insulation

Foam Board Insulation is based on covering indoor or outdoor surfaces of building in order to prevent heat losses to the surrounding.

There are several material used for the production of these foam core boards, of which Polystyrene is the most widely used.

Polystyrene is an aromatic polymer made from styrene monomer. Polystyrene is among the most used types of plastic for general use. Chemically, polystyrene is a long-chain hydrocarbon, with every other carbon molecule connected to a phenyl group. Discovered in 1839, polystyrene became ubiquitous, being used in the production of a variety of objects both for general and industrial use.

Polystyrene, in its foam form proved to be a very good thermal insulator and damping material. This quality made it well suited for the production of foam core boards used in foam board insulation, and also for the construction of non-weight bearing structures.

The foam boards made from polystyrene foam are of two main types, differenting by manufacturing process and by the properties they exhibit.

The one most widely used form of polystyrene foam core board is Molded Expanded Polystyrene.

Molded Expanded Polystyrene is a closed-cell material, which, molded in desired shapes is used for making various items. The most common use of Molded Expanded Polystyrene is packaging material, taking advantage of its excellent damping qualities.

Making foam boards from MEPS, implying mixing unexpanded polystyrene beads with a blowing agent and pouring the mixture into a container which is heated to allow the beads to expand. The expanded beads are injected into a pressurized mold, transforming them to foam. The foam is then shaped to make the boards, which is used for the foam board insulation.

The second type of boards is those made from Extruded Expanded Polystyrene, or XEPS. While similar to MEPS, XEPS is made by liquefying polystyrene pellets mixed with several chemicals and then adding a blowing agent which forms gas bubbles. This thick liquid is then extruded trough a die, and after cooling is cut and shaped as needed.

Acoustic Jazz Guitars – Some Fascinating Facts

Acoustic guitars produce sound by acoustics through vibrations of its six strings. They have a rich history; Spain has a big contribution in developing it. The art form of jazz music has been around for quite sometime now. The jazz guitarists choose their instruments very carefully as they want a clean dry note with little or no effect. They go in for acoustic guitars of a specific kind.

Brief History Of The Instrument:

Let's first try to look at the history of the acoustic jazz guitars. Cithara is the earliest form of modern acoustic. Romans introduced these instruments, after that Moors developed the shape and made it a four string one. The six string guitar lute was very popular in Europe. The Spanish introduced a guitar like instrument Vihuela, which looked like a guitar but had to be tuned like a lute. This was then developed further and it took the current form. Modern acoustic guitars are of different types: twelve string guitar, classical guitar and bass guitar etc.

Classical guitars: They consist of nylon strings which are played by the fingers.

Twelve string guitars: This is made of six courses of paired up strings. It is a guitar often used for playing rock and roll, jazz and folk music.

Acoustic bass guitar: There are only four strings in this guitar; these strings are made of steel.

There are several types of acoustic jazz guitars like the Russian, Portuguese guitars, flat top and arch top guitars, extended range guitars etc.

Jazz Players' Guitar Selection:

There is a wide selection of instruments available for jazz players. Traditionally, they are hollow body semi acoustics, though it's not always like that. These tend to favor P90 or hamburker style pick-ups to produce the desired sound. Earlier, only acoustic guitars were used for jazz. However from 1940s, many guitar players started using the electric guitar on a regular basis. They used an archtop electric guitar with magnetic pickup.

But in 1990, there was a fresh interest amongst guitarist to go back to the acoustic jazz guitars. Now they were experimenting with archtop acoustics guitars with floating pick-up. European spruce, Sitka spruce and Engelmann spruce are mostly used for the resonant tops of flat-top or arch top models. Some guitar makers also use Red Spruce or Western Red Cedar for the acoustic jazz guitars. The archtop guitars most often have Quilted Maple and Curly Maple backs.

There are a small number of handmade flat-top and arch-top guitars. Mass produced guitars made by several manufacturers, are also available. Building a guitar takes six months for a jazz guitar. Builders spend time to choose the maples, spruces, exotic woods, building instruments. Finally they apply hand rubbed lacquer finish. Due to unavailability and high cost of premium quality tone wood, many manufacturers have started making guitars with alternate species of wood. All musicians agree that a good solid top is the base for good quality of the guitar's tone. Many jazz players prefer acoustic acoustic guitars with laminated sides and back.

A perfect guitar suitable to the different styles of playing jazz, takes time and fine artsmanship to achieve. Acoustic guitars are very interesting instruments; they are hassle free in handling and easy to carry. Before the invention of electric guitars, all guitars were acoustic. The terms classic guitar, steel string guitar, folk guitar, all are actually used for acoustic guitars. The various combinations of woods, strings, along with the design and construction elements contribute to the overall performance or tone of the guitars. Experts believe that tone of well-made acoustic jazz guitars improves over time.

Managing the Risks of RG22 Foam

The risk of using resin generated (RG) foam to fill redundant tanks on forecourts lies mainly in the assumption that it is risk free.

Resin generated foam, in its many forms – RG22, RG8 and RG30 – is now widely used on fuel sites everywhere. RG30 is used to encase fuel tanks for extra safety and contamination protection. RG8 is used for filling de-gassed tanks on a very temporary basis, as it is claimed that it can be completely broken down with water. RG22 is the most prevalent, as it is widely used for the ‘permanent’ filling of tanks.

RG22 was first developed at a time when the solid fill material of choice was a 20:1 sand/cement slurry. To fill every part of the tank successfully with this, contractors needed to open the top of the tank, pour in the slurry and agitate it; otherwise it would settle as a cone with space all around. Sometimes part of the forecourt had to be dug up if the manhole was in the wrong position.

The advantages of RG22 were that it was claimed to be safe, environmentally friendly and could be pumped in through an exiting pipe or a flange on the manhole lid. This made it a big favourite with petroleum officers and oil companies, some of which began to insist on its use.

It was also cheaper than slurry and much lighter, which meant that the eventual excavation of the tank was claimed to be easier and less expensive.

The introduction of foamed concrete has eroded some of these advantages, as it is much lighter than its predecessor and has similar flowing properties. This means that, for most fuel site uses, there is now a viable alternative to RG22 that meets the requirements of oil companies and petroleum officers.

The main reason that we need an alternative to RG foam is that it contains formaldehyde – a probable human carcinogen. In 2002, formaldehyde was placed on the US Report on Carcinogens 11th edition, compiled by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service and the National Toxicology Program; something that holds only moral power in the UK and EU.

In Canada Urea-formaldehyde foam, which also uses formaldehyde as a curing aid, was used to insulate homes, particularly timber framed houses, but this has now been banned by the Canadian government after occupants complained of runny noses and sore eyes.

Because formaldehyde is used as a curing agent, while R22 needs to be handled with care at all times, the highest health risk does not occur when the foam is pumped into tanks in its liquid state, but rather when the so called ‘permanently’ filled tanks have to be excavated and removed, to allow a site to be decommissioned and used for some other purpose.

The concerns are two-fold: handling the foam itself and exposure to the formaldehyde gas that is given off when the tanks are excavated and cut up for disposal.

Because of its alleged properties, we were as interested in using RG22 as anyone else when it first came out. Our doubts began when we started excavating tanks that had been filled with the foam and discovered how difficult and expensive it was to dispose of.

We discovered that RG22 can shrink, letting air get back into the tank, which reduces the safety effects of RG22 and speeds up corrosion. We later also discovered that it gave formaldehyde gas a place to gather.

We have excavated tanks less than three months after they have been filled with RG22 and the foam had already shrunk considerably. On the other hand, we have excavated tanks that were filled with RG22 two years previously and found that some of the foam was still in a liquid state.

When our people opened the tanks they found the fumes were often overpowering and anyone who was unfortunate enough to touch the stuff received an unpleasant and uncomfortable skin rash as a reward. All our people now use an all-over bodysuit and breathing apparatus when dealing with RG22.”

The lightness of the foam was supposed to make excavation easier, allowing the tank containing the foam to be lifted straight from the ground and onto the back of a lorry. Unfortunately we discovered that there are only one or two disposal sites that will accept tanks with RG22 still inside. Even then, they will only accept small tanks, and then only when they can be placed in a deep part of the landfill site.

We will only attempt the all-in-one approach when our client insists, as we prefer the more environmentally friendly approach of sending the metal of the tank for recycling. This means that once it has been removed from the ground, the excavated tank has to be cut away, with the metal taken to one site and the RG22 to another – usually a hazardous waste site.

We are not the only ones to have concerns, another company in our sector told us: “RG foam is fine if the tank was never going to be opened again; the problem is that, these days, eventually, many tanks will need to be removed, if the site is to be sold on for development.

“My concern is, when we cut the tanks open there is a very pungent smell of formaldehyde and often an irritated feeling in the throat and eyes.

“We now use a different technique where we try to use heavy machinery to open the tanks up, keeping personnel away from the excavation.

“It would appear that the problem lies in the fact that during the curing the foam emits a fair amount of formaldehyde gas, which is trapped in the tank, to be released only when it is cut open.

“Our workforce also initially noticed some irritation through exposure to the foam and, indeed, the manufacturers’ data sheet says it is a ‘light irritant’.”

This company believes the main problem is that, as well as being an irritant, the material is light and friable, so, if precautions are not taken, it can get under clothing or even be breathed in.

“However,” says the company, “this part of the problem can be dealt with if contractors are properly forewarned. Like any other risk, they can deal with it, if they know exactly what they are facing, by elimination, in the first instance and, where not possible, control techniques such as wearing protective clothing, gloves masks, eye protection etc.

“A bigger problem is that fuel sites undergoing decommissioning are normally bounded by roads and pavements, often in built up areas, so there is a danger that the light friable foam can easily be blown off the site. These days we don’t remove these foams on a day when there is any wind at all.

“However, as I said, the problems associated with the foam itself can be dealt with using some simple precautions, our real concern is the formaldehyde gas that is given off when the tanks are cut into, as they must be when a site is decommissioned.”

Experience has shown us that air pockets occur, where the gas tends to concentrate, leading to a burst of gas being released when these pockets are breached.

Proximity is the real problem. Once formaldehyde gas is vented to atmosphere it will disburse to a harmless level, but if you are close to the tank when it is cut it is more worrying.

Environmental and personal monitoring was carried out by a company in our sector, looking at the level of concentration of formaldehyde gas on fuel sites being decommissioned when tanks are cut open.

In one of these tests, formaldehyde sensors were placed at four strategic points on the site. Three produced results of under the recommended level of two parts per million, but the nearest sensor, located 3m from the tank, registered 2.07 parts per million, which exceeds the UK workplace exposure limits (WEL) of 2.0 parts per million, currently listed in HSE publication EH40/2005 Workplace Exposure Limits.

This indicates that steps need to be taken to protect anyone going within that distance.

We also believe that the two parts per million limit itself needs examination, as there is, in my opinion, no real evidence for this level, one way or the other. Much more research is needed.

The message is to be aware of the risks and take the right precautions.

The main problem is the respiratory system and the eyes, so we use a helmet, with a visor and a power assisted respirator.

Their message to petroleum officers and oil companies is to not get seduced by the alleged advantages of RG foam, to look at where it is appropriate to use it.

RG foams have their place in the mix, they should not be seen as the first resort.

It may be slightly cheaper to use RG22 to fill the tanks in the first place, but any savings are outweighed by the extra disposal costs and precautions that have to be put in place.

Hierarchy of dealing with hazards.

1. Eliminate

If the job is hazardous, does it really need doing?

2. Substitute

If the job is really necessary, then can the hazardous material be substituted with something more benign, such as slurry, foamed concrete or polyurethane, which is now being sold as a substitute in the US, but not here yet.

3. Change working methods

Using more machinery to reduce direct contact. Paying more attention to the weather on excavation days.

4. Control

Increased use of personal protection equipment (PPE) and paying more attention to containment within the site.

Matchbox's Stinky the Garbage Truck – An Awesome Children's Toy!

Meet Matchbox Stinky the Garbage Truck! He's the hot new addition to the Big Rig Buddies interactive toy line this year.

Geared for children 3 years and up, they will fall in love with his feisty personality and silly antics. This Matchbox Garbage Truck has over ninety clever phrases and sounds that children listened to while they play. His parts are oversized and it is easy to manipulate his cab, body and wheels into different positions.

Stinky can be played with like any normal toy when turned off. When turned on he has 5 interactive modes of play. There are a few sensors located in the smokestack, rear door and the bottom of the truck that when triggered make Stinky speak. When he's pushed or pulled, it triggers his head-like cab to turn and the lights blink!

Stinky gets hungry! His mouth is the grille on the front of the cab. Feed Stinky little toys and then watch him dump them out. Children can also drop small items in the top compartment, pull on the smoke stack and Stinky will discharge them out of the back end. He makes a cute sound and says "Excuse Me." Children will have fun for hours from this goofy antics.

Stinky the Garbage Truck can perform! Push or pull his smoke stack and he will dance and sing. He can stand up on his back two wheels and sing a silly song.

This toy will save on the batteries by shutting itself off and going into sleep mode when left untouched for a period of time.

Here's what is included with Stinky the Garbage Truck:

– Matchbox Big Rig Buddies DVD – this DVD features Stinky and the Big Rig Buddies gang in 2 exciting adventures that impress the virtues of friendship, teamwork and heroism.

– 4 C batteries- these are just for demonstration so you can see what he says and does. Be sure to pick up extra batteries.

– Tough and durable frame. He can take the rough and tumble play from the 3+ age group.

– Interactive play- Stinky is a cool buddy that tells jokes, talks, eats, sings and even exercises!

– He loves to gobble garbage.

– Stinky is an indoor toy. Water, sand and dirt can cause malfunctions in the sensors, so keep him out of the sandbox.

Stinky is a lovable, fun and safe interactive toy. This is expected to be a hot toy for 2010 so avoid the hassle and order as soon as possible. It is a durable, tough toy with a lovable personality. You can be assured that your child will love Matchbox Stinky the Garbage Truck. The bonus DVD is an awesome addition that all kids will enjoy!

Grisham Security Storm Doors

Security storm doors are products manufactured by the Grisham Corporation of Arlington, TN. They produce three lines of steel security storm doors. All of their doors feature 16 gauge steel and tempered safety glass. Double doors are available in all lines of their doors. All of their lines, Deluxe, Classic, and Sentry offer easy installation and heavy duty closers and they come pre-hung and pre-hinged. Brass slimline door handles are standard on Deluxe and Classic series with an upgrade to a brushed nickel slimline door handle. These Grisham Security Storm Doors have become very popular with many people today because of there quality built and because of there many options to choose from.

The Deluxe series comes in 27 different styles. With so many different styles its hard for any home owner not to find a style to fit their home. Five conceivable hinges are available in this series. Available as an upgrade is a 2-way bank vault lock in brass only. One of the features in the Deluxe line as an upgrade is self-storing glass which allows for air ventilation when moved from its above position. There are no limit on dimensions for all 27 styles. Colors are black or white.

The Classic series features 14 different styles. In addition to the 16 gauge welded steel, their frames are 1 "x 2" and they have an interchangeable screen panel. There are some limitations on two of their designs. All designs come in double doors. Colors available are black and white.

The Sentry series offers as a standard feature double bore lock box. Twenty-six different styles are offered. This series is designed to accept most 2 3/4 "backset locksets.

These doors are heavy but open and swing easily due to the five hinges on which the doors are hung. The styles and colors are tasteful and add to any homes appearance. They provide for a high quality of security. Doors which open out are harder to kick in and burglars do not want to be seen when they are trying a home invasion. Police indicate that they like to see security doors which open out, and insurance agents say doors which open out can be better protection than a burglar alarm. The reason is to gain entry, the home invader has to use a truck to pull the door out of its frame. This action draws attention to him, something he does not want. So when burglars see a home with these type of doors installed they will go to the next house.

The interchangeable screen panel and self-storing glass allow for ventilation while preserving their security features. When the panels are closed the tempered glass provides a natural barrier between the Grisham doors and the front door, which will increase the insulation value of the opening and decrease heating and air conditioning costs.

Hyperthyroidism Symptoms

The symptoms of hyperthyroidism can mimic other health problems. Often, a person with hyperthyroidism will be diagnosed with a heart, a depressive condition, or a digestive disorder before discovering that they have an overactive thyroid gland.

One of the most common symptoms of hyperthyroidism is sudden, unexpected weight loss even though appetite and food consumption remains the same or is increased. Usually, the patient will complain that they "just can not gain any weight even though I'm eating more."

Tachycardia, or rapid heartbeat exceeding 100 beats per minute, is also a common symptom of hyperthyroidism and can occur with the feeling of pounding of the heart ( palpitations ) or an irregular heartbeat ( arrhythmia ).

Other Common Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism:

  • Anxiety , depression , and brain fog or loss of mental clarity, are often experienced as a symptom of hyperthyroidism.
  • Changes in bowels habits, especially diarrhea and frequent bowel movements, have been reported. Abdominal bloating may also be an associated symptom of hyperthyroidism.
  • Changes in menstrual patterns in women have been identified as a symptom of hyperthyroidism. There are some indications that the sex hormones, testosterone and estrogen, levels in men can be affected by a thyroid disorder. " Low T " problems, for instance, may result from the body's inability to convert testosterone to estrogen. Thyroid conditions can interfere in hormonal conversions.
  • Fatigue and weakness is a commonly associated symptom of hyperthyroidism and other thyroid and autoimmune conditions.
  • If the thyroid gland enlarges as a result of hyperthyroidism, it can appear as a swapping ( goiter ) at the base of the neck. Sometimes this swelling is not clearly visible but wearing ties and scarves around the neck may be uncomfortable.
  • Increased susceptibility to heat has been recognized as a hyperthyroidism symptom.
  • Two signs associated with hyperthyroidism are dry, thinning hair and skin .

Why is hyperthyroidism overlooked as the source of many common symptoms?

There are three reasons that hyperthyroidism fails to be diagnosed. It is either not considered in a differential diagnosis, the sufferer experiences the symptoms of hyperthyroidism intermittently and may wait to seek treatment, or it is under-diagnosed.

One reason that hyperthyroidism is under-diagnosed can be blamed on lab test interpretation. When a lab value is categorized as within a "normal" range, this means that this lab range number is derived from an average of those having blood work in the past year. This "normal" range is determined using the lab values ​​from supposedly sick people who have had their blood drawn. Obviously, there are flaws with this system so many doctors use functional ranges when interpreting their patient's blood work. This takes a little more effort on the doctor's part because it is not as simple as just looking at either the results are in the normal column or not. Finding a doctor who is cognizant of these functional lab ranges is vital for proper management of thyroid disorders.

Another reason hyperthyroidism is overlooked is that the sufferer may exhibit symptoms similar to other disease processes. For example, a person who complains of persistent diarrhea may be diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. Another patient may express a depressive disorder and be under care with psychotropic medication. Sometimes, once a label has been given to a set of symptoms the investigation into other causative factors will end. It is then up to the sufferer to continue looking for other diagnostic and treatment options.

There are also many cases where the symptoms of hyperthyroidism will come and go. The person may disregard these symptoms until their condition deteriorates.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a condition that exhibits fluctuating thyroid symptoms with bouts of both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Hashimoto's was discovered over a century ago but still remains relatively unknown to the American public. It is an autoimmune condition and is characterized by the immune system attacking and slowly destroying the thyroid gland. During an immune system attack, the damaged thyroid gland releases too much thyroid hormone into the body causing metabolism to rev up. This results in the common symptoms of hyperthyroidism ie a fast heart rate, weight loss, etc. When the attack eases, there is less of the thyroid gland left to make hormones so metabolic drops. This causes decreased metabolism. Lab tests will only show what is happening in the body at the time the blood is drawn. Lab values ​​in a patient with Hashimoto's will fluctuate depending on what is happening at that time with the immune system's attack on the thyroid gland. This can make it difficult for an inexperienced medical practitioner to diagnoseose Hashimoto's based on routine bloodwork alone. Specific lab testing can confirm a diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

What are the causes of hyperthyroidism?

There are many causative factors for hyperthyroidism. The most common cause is an autoimmune condition called Graves' disease.

What is Graves' disease ?

Graves' disease is another autoimmune condition and the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It occurs when the immune system commandeers or hijacks the role of the brain's pituitary gland which normally regulates the thyroid gland's hormone production. The antibody linked to Graves' disease is called thyrotropin receptor antibody or TRAb. TRAb can override the pituitary gland and cause too much production of thyroid hormone resulting in hyperthyroidism.

What are the symptoms of Graves' disease?

The symptoms of Graves' disease reflect the production of too much thyroid hormone being produced. Someone with Graves' disease may display a fine tremor of the hands or fingers. They may also experience warm, clammy skin or increased perspiration. Diarrhea is a common complaint along with frequent loose bowel movements. Some symptoms that are shared by both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid conditions include:

  • Fatigue
  • Menstrual cycle changes
  • Reduced libido

There are some overt symptoms of Graves' disease that are pathognomonic or peculiar to this condition. Rarely, people develop Graves' dermopathy which is characterized by thick, red patches of skin usually on the legs and feet. There is also Graves' opthalmopathy which causes bulging eyes, dry / red eyes, excessive tearing, fixed stare, puffy eyelids, pressure or pain around the eyes, light sensitivity, and double vision. More rare symptoms and signs include blurry vision and corneal ulcers.

It seems like the most common causes for both hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease) and hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) are based in a body's faulty immune system. How can the immune system be treated and can the symptoms of hyperthyroidism be relieved?

The immune system as well as the affected systems of the body can be supported and the symptoms of thyroid conditions can be improved. There is a branch of healthcare called functional medicine that involves all the different functions of the body. By detecting weaknesses in these functions through lab testing, the body's systems can be supported with treatment resulting in improved health.

In practice, we are seeing many more patients, both male and female, with thyroid disorders in general. What is most disconcerting is the younger ages of these patients. Whereas thirty years ago middle-age women were the group most affected, now many seeking treatment are in their teens and 20's.

Why to Consider Waterproofing Your Basement

Those who own a home that has a subsoil basement needs to waterproof their basement. Why? Basements that are wet will spread moisture to all parts of the house causing it to trap in musty air that you will be living in. Naturally this is a condition that no one wants to live in or should have to.

When you waterproof your basement you are giving yourself a new investment for your home and making it a healthy place for you and your family to live in. Not to mention that when you go to sell the house this new and improve dry basement will add value to the home than when you first bought it.

Waterproofing your basement is not something that you can jump into lightly. It is a competitive business – which means that you will have extra choices available to you. Learn what is causing your foundation to leak and what you will need to do to repair it. Most certified waterproofing dealers will give out free wet basement inspections and will give an estimate on what it will take to fix it.

Those who live parts of the country that will receive heavy downpours will also need someone to waterproof their basements in order to stop leaks. Most dealers will be able to repair these basements professionally.

Over the many years contractors and engineers for basement waterproofing have created several ways to keep basements dry. One of the most common options it to use a concrete water proofer or the other more popular option to use crystalline basement waterproofing.

Other methods will use liquid membrane that is applied to the interior of the space or even a sheeting membrane that is connected to the exterior of the space. A qualified professional contractor will sit down with you and tell you all of the options available to you and the costs of waterproofing.

Scaffolding Towers Review: The Folding Trade Tower

In many industrial, trade and DIY applications, scaffolding towers are preferred to ladders. These structures provide safe platforms when workers must work at height for extended periods. To ensure safety, scaffold towers must be properly assembled and inspected. For a scaffold tower to be truly safe, the capacity, bracing, pinning and components always must be in good order. One type of tower that's especially popular is the folding trade tower, because it's easy to erect, as well as being quite versatile. Here's some information about this scaffold tower, along with some tips for working safely.

Scaffolding Towers: About the Folding Trade Tower

Safety is the paramount concern when working on scaffolding towers. They should receive regular maintenance and safety inspections, and should always be used in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and recommendations. Scaffold towers should not be used outdoors in bad weather. If the tower is damaged in any way, it should be taken out of service until repaired. The folding trade tower is made from strong steel tubing, and each platform will support a maximum working load of 275kg. Remember, that the maximum load includes the weight of the platform, the worker (s), as well as any tools or materials being used. The base of this tower can be used entirely on its own, or increased with up to 3 additional sections that allow for 7 extra platform heights.

Scaffolding Towers: Key Features of the Folding Trade Tower

A good rule to follow when assessing the capacity of scaffold towers is that a tower must be able to support its own weight, along with at least 4 times its maximum load specification. The folding trade tower is fully compliant with the important BS1139 (Part 3) 1994 and HD1004 standards. This means that it has passed a set of rigorous tests and is deemed safe. The folding trade tower is quick and easy to erect, which allows workers to concentrate on the job, not on the tower. Disassembled, it forms a compact package that fits easily into an estate car or small van. The tower's components feature quick release clips on all bracing, and color coding, so it's very easy to erect correctly.

Scaffolding Towers: More Features of the Folding Trade Tower

The basic components of the tower are a base unit, a hatch deck, horizontal braces, a 4-piece toe board set, and 4 standard locking castors. Guard rails and additional bracing are available as add-on options. When assembling the tower, never compromise its structural integrity by using makeshift components or components from different manufacturers. Scaffold towers like the folding trade tower have many advantages, but the main one is that it's an independent structure that can be moved and repositioned as the work requires. Unlike conventional scaffolding that must be disassembled, moved, and then reassembled, a scaffold tower needs simply to be pushed to a new location.

Scaffolding towers are a safer, more versatile alternative for many types of trade, industrial and DIY applications.