Carpet Cleaning on Your Own

When it comes to carpet cleaning, some may wonder if it is possible to effectively clean the carpeting yourself. The answer is most definitely yes and the end results will be based upon the proverbial elbow grease once is willing to put into the process. Those that are willing to invest a great deal of hard work into cleaning the carpet will discover the end results will be quite pleased.

There are a few ways you can clean a carpet yourself. For those that might be on a budget, scrubbing the carpet by hand is the option available. However, you will most definitely need to use a carpet cleaning solution. These solutions usually come in powder form. The powder is then mixed into a bucket of warm water to create a liquid carpet cleaning solution.

Now, here is a little advice some should heed: do not pour directly pour the solution on the carpeting. This would be a mistake because the excess water could end up making the carpet moldy. Instead, use a damp rag or a brush with the solution on it to clean the carpet. This way, mold is kept to a minimum.

Of course, the easier way to clean the carpet would be to purchase a carpet cleaning vacuum device. The way this works is the solution would be beloved into the vacuum which would then be circulated through the cleaner and into the carpet.

Essentially, the solution would hit the carpet at high pressure and then be sucked back into the vacuum. This ensures the carpet is not only clean, but it becomes immediately dry.

How to Soundproof a Bathroom

Bathrooms can be very noisy places due to exposed pipes, family members taking showers, blow-drying their hair and so on and so forth. Just because the walls in your home have insulation, including the ceiling does not mean that there is insulation in the interior walls to reduce the noisy sounds. In most cases, interior walls have no insulation at all.

There are many different ways you can soundproof your bathrooms including adding insulation or by doing a few simple maintenance things that are very simple. Insulating the interior walls is the best answer. If you would like to do to it yourself, there is a simple method even though you will need another person to help. You can choose to go through the bathroom wall or the other wall. In most cases, as long as the pipes are not in the wall that needs the insulation you can go through the bathroom wall. It also depends on how many walls you need to soundproof. In some cases, the guest bathroom may be beside not only the dining room, but also a bedroom to one side or the other. You may wish to insulate more than one wall to give the person in the bathroom a bit more privacy. No matter, what the case you will should be able to add insulation through the bathroom wall.

The best insulation to use is called cellulose insulation. Cellulose insulation is nothing more than shredded newspaper treated with fire retardants. This insulation can and will fill and pack the stud cavities. What you will need is a stud finder, bags of cellulose insulation, a drill, and an insulation machine. You can find all of these products at a home repair center or a retail store such as Home Depot. You may even be able to rent the insulation machine.

Now, find the studs. Next, drill a hole in between the studs on the wall you wish to insulate. Measure the nozzle on the insulation machine in order to know what size to make the hole. Drill a hole about 4 to 6 inches down from the ceiling. The insulation machine needs to be outdoors with the hose running in through the window or a door. One person will need to be outside with the insulation machine to operate the machine and fill the hopper with insulation and the other person holding the nozzle in the wall to fill the cavity with insulation. When the insulation is at the top of the hole, you will be done. Be careful not to overfill. Once you see the insulation coming out of the hole, stop the machine. You can now repair the hole and paint the wall.

If you are searching for easier ways in which to soundproof your bathroom, you will be glad to know there are a few ways that are very simple and are not that expensive.

Applying rough materials to the walls and ceilings can be a great way in which to soundproof your bathroom. Adding such things as paint with resins, wall coverings such as rough wallpaper, carpeting to floors, and even speckled paint on the ceilings can aid in soundproofing. Smooth surfaces allow noise to bounce around the room whereas rough surfaces to do not. If you do not wish to carpet the bathroom, you can use mats or rugs. These items will also reduce sound, but will not soundproof as well as insulating the interior walls. Another option is the use of a sound conditioners. A sound conditioner or white noise machine will help mask all types of bathroom sounds. The sound machine should be placed outside of the bathroom door for maximum effectiveness. White noise machines produce sounds similar to those of a box fan or air conditioning unit and will help mask most sounds coming from inside the bathroom.

Can a Legistor Cross Carpet and Still Keep His Seat Under Nigerian Law?

Our chief concern here is to discuss the legal consequences of the current spate of party defection by members of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) to the All Progressive Congress (APC). We shall leave the task of recounting Nigeria’s history on carpet crossing to historians and shall not be bordered by it. We shall also not allow ourselves to be drawn into arguments as to the morality/propriety of carpet crossing.

The media is awash with the news of the defection of 37 PDP members of the House of Representatives to the APC. Already, five PDP governors have dumped the party for the APC. The collapse of the PDP as the ruling party in Nigeria and as Africa’s biggest political party seems imminent as unconfirmed reports say that twenty-two senators are planning to also dump the party for the APC.

Nigerian law on carpet crossing begins and ends with the provisions of Sections 68(1)(g) and 109(1)(g) of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. These sections provide that:

“a member of the Senate or House of Representatives or State House of Assembly shall not vacate his seat in the House of which he is a member if being a person whose election into the House was sponsored by a political party, he becomes a member of another political party before the expiration of the period for which the House was elected.

Provided that his membership of the latter political party is not as a result of a division in the political party of which he was previously a member of a merger of two or more political parties by one of which he was previously sponsored.”

It is interesting to note that unlike the purport of above provisions, Sections 135 and 180 of the said Constitution which provides for circumstances under which the President or his Vice, and a Governor or his Deputy could cease to hold office does not mention party defection as a ground for vacating or ceasing to hold office.

From the above provisions therefore, Nigerian law on carpet crossing could be summarized as follows:

1. A Legislator in Nigeria could lose or vacate his seat in parliament if he defects from the party that sponsored him into the Legislative House to another party.

2. A Nigerian Governor, Deputy Governor, President or Vice President cannot vacate or cease to hold office for defecting from the political party that sponsored him into office to another.

3. Before a Legislator in Nigeria could be made to lose his seat in parliament for defecting to a party other than the one that sponsored him into the House, the principal officer of that Legislative House( the Senate President, the Speaker of the House of Representatives or the Speaker of the State House of Assembly as the case may be) or a member of that Legislative House must first present evidence satisfactory to the Legislative House concerned that a member has defected from the political party that sponsored him into the House to another political party and has by operation of law vacated his seat in Parliament.

4. It follows from the above that if there is no satisfactory evidence presented to the Legislative House on a member’s defection, the member who is alleged to have defected can still retain his seat. He will however continue to be known and addressed as a member of the party that sponsored him into the House.

5. A Legislator in Nigerian can cross carpet to a party other than the one that sponsored him into the House and still keep his seat if he can prove that his defection was as a result of a division within his former party.

6. Also, a Legislator in Nigeria will not lose/vacate his seat even though he has defected from the party sponsored him to another party if he can prove that his membership of a new party is as a result of a merger of two or more political parties or factions by one of which he was previously sponsored.

The position that while a Legislator in Nigeria is liable to lose his seat in parliament for cross carpeting to another party, the President, Vice President, Governor or Deputy Governor is not liable and cannot be forced to vacate or cease to hold office for the same reason was endorsed by the Nigerian Supreme Court in the case of AGF V. Atiku Abubarkar (2007)4 S.C (pt.11)62 where the issue before the court was whether the Vice President’s defection from the PDP( on whose platform he was elected into office) to the Action Congress of Nigeria(ACN) meant that he had automatically vacated and ceased to hold that office.

The Supreme Court held that it is only Legislators that are liable to vacate their seats in parliament for defection to a different party from the one that sponsored them into office. The supreme held that the constitution does not envisage or provide for the vacation /cessation of the office of the President, Vice President, Governor or Deputy Governor for defection from the party that sponsored them into office to another party. The Apex court held therefore that Vice-President Atiku Abubarkar was entitled to keep and/or in office even though he had effected from the PDP to the ACN.

Again, the position that a legislator may lose his seat in parliament for cross carpeting to another political party has been affirmed by the court in some decisions. For instance, the Federal High Court of Nigeria sitting in Akure in the case of Hon. Ifedayo Sunday Abegunde v. The Ondo State House of Assembly & Ors. sacked Mr. Abegunde, a House of Representatives member representing Akure North and South, Ondo State for defecting from the Labour Party to the ACN. Mr Abegunde had been elected into the House under the auspices of the Labour Party in the April 2011 General Elections. He however, defected to the ACN during the currency of the tenure of the House. The court held that Mr Abegunde had vacated his seat and ceased to be a member of the House by operation of law. This decision was affirmed and upheld by the Court of Appea in Re Hon. Ifedayo Sunday Abegunde v. The Ondo State House of Assembly & Ors. (2014) LPELR-23683(CA),Appeal No.CA/AK/110/2012.

Again, in the case of Hon. Michael Dapialong v. Chief (Dr) Joseph Chibi Dariye, Appeal No. S.C 39/2007 the Supreme Court took judicial notice of the fact that between 25th and 26th July,2006, fourteen members of the twenty-four members of the Plateau State House of Assembly including the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker thereof defected from the PDP platform on whose they were elected to the House in 2009 to the Advanced Congress of d Democrats(ACD) as a result of which the said 14 members were held to have vacated their seats by operation of law.

Relying on the Supreme Court decision in AGF V. Atiku Aburbakar therefore, we can safely conclude that the five PDP Governors that had defected to the APC can validly do so without being liable to vacate or cease to hold their offices. This is because the Constitution simply does not penalize the President, Vice President, a Governor or Deputy Governor who dumps the party that sponsored him into office for another party. Also, unlike Legislators, these members of the executive arm of Government are not required to proffer explanations or reasons to justify defection.

However, some persons have argued that even though the Constitution does not penalize defection by Governors, the Supreme Court decision in Rotimi Amaechi v INEC Appeal No. SC 525/2007 could be relied upon to effect the vacation from office of Governors who defect from the parties that sponsored them into office to another political party before the expiration of their tenure. Acording Mr Dan Nwayanwu, Chairman of the Labour Party of Nigeria, the Supreme Court’s dictum in Amaechi’s Case to the effect that it is the political party and not the candidate for which the electorate cast their votes could be interpreted and applied to mean that Governors who get elected into office only to dump the party that sponsored them into office for another party should vacate or cease to hold office upon defection.

Mr Dan Nwamyawu in an interview granted to Sunday Trust Newspapers in 2007 advocated that Governors who defect to parties other than the ones that sponsored them into office should be kicked out of office on the basis of the decision in Amaechi v. INEC. We humbly disagree with this position. This is because the Constitution does not impose any penalty or legal disability on carpet crossing by Governors. Secondly, the Supreme Court in Amaechi’s Case did not decide the issue of the consequence of a Governor’s defection from his party. Rather, the question in Amaechi’s case was whether a person who did not contest an election could be heard to challenge an election or be declared as Governor. The decision in AGF V. Atiku Abubarka for all intents and purposes remains the authoritative exposition of the law on party defection in Nigeria.

It is by now beyond doubt that the five PDP governors who had defected to the APC are entitled to do so without any attendant penalty or legal disability. But can the same be said of the 37 members of the House of Representatives members who have defected to the APC? Can they validly dump the PDP for the APC without losing their seat in parliament?

By a letter addressed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, titled ‘Communication of Change of Political Party’ and dated the 18tth December, 2013, the 37 defecting Federal Lawmakers explained that their defection from the PDP to the APC was as a result of the internal crisis within the PDP. The Lawmakers also premised their defection from the PDP to the APC on the fact that the PDP has broken into two factions: the New PDP and the Old PDP. The so-called New PDP consisting of the dissatisfied and disgruntled members of the party, the majority of whom have defected to the APC.

It is to be recalled that in Agundade’s case, he had argued that given the internal crisis, division and factionalization within the Labour Party, he was entitled by virtue of the proviso in Section 109(1)(g) of the 1999 Constitution to defect from the Labour Party to the ACN without losing or having to vacate his seat in the House. The court however ruled that since he could not prove division or factionalization within the Labour Party, he was not entitled to keep or retain his seat after he decamped to the ACN. That he vacated his seat upon defection to the ACN by operation of law.

The proviso to the provisions of Section 68(1) (g) and 109(1) (g) of the 1999 Constitution are to the effect that although a Legislator would ordinarily lose his seat if he defects to a party different from the one that sponsored him into the Legislative House, he is entitled to keep his seat if he can prove that:

1. He defected to a new party as a result of division within the party that sponsored him into the house.

2. His membership of the new party is as a result of the merger of two or more political parties or factions by one of which he was previously sponsored.

Before we proceed to examine whether the internal crisis rocking the PDP falls within the proviso to Sections 68(1)(g) and 109(1) (g) of the Constitution, it is pertinent to determine what constitutes division in a political party. The constitution does not define word “division”. The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, 6th Edition, defines division as a disagreement or difference in opinion or way of life etc especially between members of a society or an organization.

According to Professor Okey Okon of the South Central University, California, USA, division could arise from:

1. Ideological differences and

2. Organizational differences.

Organizational differences denote conflict, division, crisis etc arising as a result of the way and manner the party is run, operated or managed. In fact, all conflicts and crises arising from the management and operation of the organic structure of the political party fall under the category of organizational differences. Conflict, division or crises arising from organizational differences bordering on such issues as internal democracy mechanism of the party, conduct of primaries election, funding, election of principal officers of the party, adoption of candidates as party flag bearer for election, handling of party finances, planning and execution of election campaign strategies etc come under organizational differences.

It is a notorious fact that the PDP has from inception been bedeviled by internal crises caused by the occurrence of undemocratic practices within the party. The defecting 37 Federal Legislators have alleged that their defection from the PDP to APC was as a result of division and internal crises within the party and that they are entitled to keep their seats in parliament. We do not know the particulars of the alleged division or crises within the PDP but if their allegations are true then they are entitled to keep their seats in parliament.

We shall now turn our attention to the issue of whether ideological differences constitute division as to entitle a defecting legislator to retain his seat in parliament. Ideological differences relates to conflict, disagreement, crisis or division arising from a conflict between a party member’s ideas, beliefs, conviction, principles, philosophy or policy with those of his political party. When a member disagrees with his party’s ideas, policies, programs, philosophy or principles on socio- political or economic issues does this disenchantment or disagreement with his party entitle him to defect to another party without having to lose/vacate his seat in parliament? Does this conflict or disagreement with his party constitute division as envisaged by the proviso in Sections 68(1)(g) and 109(1)(g) of the 1999 Constitution?

Professor Okey Okon is of the opinion that ideological differences constitute division within the meaning of Sections 68(1)(g) and 109(1) (g) of the Constitution and at such empowers a Legislator to defect to another party without losing his seat whenever he disagrees with the policy and philosophy of his party. According to the learned Professor, ideological differences are a form of division which should justify a legislator to defect to another party without having to lose or vacate his seat. He opined that any interpretation of the law to exclude ideological difference as constituting division is erroneous. The learned Professor further posits that failure to treat ideological differences as division will deprive Legislators of the sense of safety and protection they need to stand up for what they believe in. He held that such a narrow reading of the law will provide perverse incentives for Legislators to emphasize compliance at the expense of principles and conviction to expediency.

We however beg to disagree with this position. With due respect to the learned professor, the proviso to Section 68(1) (g) and 109(1) (g) of the Constitution cannot be objectively interpreted to mean that whenever a legislator disagrees with the policy or philosophy of his party on socio-economic political or other issues he can dump his party for another party and still retain his seat in parliament. Such an interpretation of the law cannot be the intendment of the drafters of the Constitution. It is important to note that the relevant provision reads… “As a result of a division in the political party”… This shows clearly that what the law envisages is a situation where there is a conflict or disagreement within the party that leads to internal crisis or instability in the party. In other words, ideological differences alone cannot justify defection.

However, for ideological differences to justify defection, they must be of such magnitude and intensity as to lead to crisis, instability, factionalization and conflict within the party. The Noscitur Associis rule of construction of statutes states that the company a word keeps suggests its meaning. The word “division” as used in Sections 68(1)(g) and 109(1) (g) of the 1999 Constitution are accompanied by the words “merger” and “factions” which words denotes a change or alteration in the organic structure of a political party. We therefore agree with Professor Okey to the extent that ideological differences can constitute division which can justify defection only when such differences are of such magnitude and intensity as to lead to instability or crises within the party. A mere difference in opinion or belief will not suffice to justify defection.

Indeed, legislators do not have to defect to a new party to express or hold opinions or views contrary to those favoured by their party unless of course doing so would result and actually results to instability and crisis/conflict within the party. It is submitted that to allow defection merely on the ground that a legislator disagrees with the policies or ideological position of his party on certain socio-economic cum political or moral issues would defeat the intention of the framers of the constitution. The constitution clearly intends to discourage and penalize legislators for defection except on rare and exceptional circumstances. Making mere differences in opinion and belief a ground for political defection would provide legislators an excuse for political prostitution.

It is interesting to note that the 37 defecting legislators have also sought to justify their defection on the ground that the PDP was divided into two political parties; the old PDP and the new PDP which consist of the defecting and disgruntled member. They alleged that the new PDP has formally merged with the APC. We are of the opinion that if these allegations are true then the 37 defecting legislators are entitled to so defect without having to lose their seats. It is pertinent to note that the PDP has obtained a court order declaring the so-called new PDP illegal and restraining its members from parading themselves as PDP members. The question that arises from this development is, what is the legal effect of this order on the rights of these defecting legislators to keep their seats. It is our humble opinion that the court order has no effect whatsoever on the rights of the defecting legislators to keep their seats. The order merely prohibits the use of the name PDP by the defecting faction. It does not mean that the defecting faction is an illegal group because they are not a group of criminals or bandit.

Indeed, Sections 39 and 40 of the 1999 Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of expression as well as the right to freedom of association. The court order therefore cannot operate to deprive or in any way prejudice the defecting members’ entitlement to keep their seats.

The PDP has reacted to the defection of its member, especially the 37 Federal lawmakers by saying that any member of the party that renounces its membership of PDP shall be made to vacate his seat. There are also reports in the media that the PDP has gone to court to obtain a declaration for the vacation of the seats and offices of the defecting legislators and five governors. Let’s keep our fingers crossed as we watch the drama unfold.

Become an Electrician: It’s Recession Proof

The US has been in a recession for years. Even though economists note that the official markers of a recession are over, we still haven’t seen any significant job growth as unemployment hovers around 9%. Although there is a significant unemployed workforce, there is still a high demand for qualified technicians that still goes unsatisfied. The electrician field is perhaps one of the most recession-proof technician jobs there are, and one can set his/her own schedule while fulfilling a much needed function.

Electricians Needed in Residential Settings

Electricians are needed for many reasons around the house. There are any number of electrical problems that can occur such as faulty wiring. 18.6% of house fires start from wires, outlet boxes, and the like, according to the Fire Safety Administration. Electricians are also needed to check houses that are put up for sale to make sure they are up to code. Keeping houses up to code are perhaps the most needed function for electricians in this country, and it is a well-paid and simple function to carry out, as well as being a much-needed function that keeps people safe when they make some of the largest purchases they will ever make in their lives.

Electricians Needed in Commercial Settings

Especially if you live in an urban setting, electricians are needed in large numbers to maintain large office complexes. Metropolitan areas have huge skyscrapers with hundreds of offices inside that are constantly in need of electrical upkeep. Electricians are also needed to approve new office builds. Offices are full of electronics these days, and so new builds require extensive wiring to accommodate today’s high-tech needs. Like in the residential areas, electricians are also needed to help appraise office areas and make sure they are up to code.

Offices aren’t the only area of commercial real-estate that is in need of the high-paid services of an electrician. Schools need help with wiring maintenance. Supermarkets need help from electricians to keep their coolers working at the high performance necessary to keep their produce fresh. Electricians are also needed to set up video displays in commercial settings (also known as digital signage) where information is displayed on LCD displays on campuses and office complexes.

Electricians Needed in Industrial Settings

Factory lines are perhaps the most demanding places in terms of electricity usage and safety issues. Electricians are needed to make sure that large industrial buildings are up to code and that the conditions are safe. Any problems can end in a fire and loss of employee lives, so the electrician holds a lot of responsibility, but is also paid well because of this. Factories employ electricians full time so that they always have someone on-site to handle any outages. Outages can result in hours of down-time which can cost a factory thousands of dollars in opportunity cost.

There is a diverse array of possibilities for electricians, and this area of our workforce shows no signs of disappearing or shrinking. If anything, we will continue to need the services of electricians more and more in the years to come. The strange irony about this recession is that there are a lot of people out of jobs, but there are so many opportunities for people that are simply trained in the right skills, and the electrician field is definitely one of those.

Common Defects Found in Timber From Timber Merchants and Their Causes

We’ve all heard the horror stories of timber arriving and only half of it being usable. We thought we’d have a quick look at some of the reasons timber can be defective.

Cupping.

Cupping is literally when tangential-cut boards experience shrinkage due to the growth rings swelling faster at the heart, causing them to bow. Radial-cut boards are therefore a safer bet as their shrinkage will be less noticeable.

Knots.

Knots are often a good indicator of the quality of the timber. The fewer knots, the higher the grade of timber. Knots are evidence of where trees have started to grow branches that got broken off (branch fail!). Knots only tend to dramatically affect the strength of the timber if they are “dead knots”, or knots that have become loose.

Shrinkage.

As the cause of cupping mentioned above, shrinkage occurs as timber continues to lose moisture content. The drying process increases timber strength, but continued drying often leads to shrinkage.

Bowing.

Imagine a sagging shelf. Incorrect storage or even the board’s own weight if ill-supported can cause gravity to pull it down in the middle.

Splitting.

Like the fraying ends of cloth, splitting starts at the end grain and carries on through the board.

Shakes.

When enormous pressure builds up under the earth, fault lines are present where the earth’s tectonic plates slip past each other due to huge pressures. In trees, when growing (either non-uniformly, or sometimes due to frost) or seasoned, the release of internal stresses, and subsequent “crack!” result in shakes. Shakes can go all the way through the diameter of a tree, making a lot of its wood hard to use. It’s not always apparent until sawing that this fault exists.

This is by no means a comprehensive list of timber defects, but covers a few of the most common you may come across.

Minimising Wastage

Of course, the more timber you have that can be used, the less wastage there is and the further your money goes. Timber that consistently suffers from any of the above defects delivered time and time again is going to give any company a bad name.

Some merchants will simply ship you out what’s in stock, no matter what state it’s in. Merchants that commonly do this aren’t usually concerned with repeat business and you might find you have a hard time getting things rectified, with staff not wanting to know.

A merchant that prides itself on delivering quality timber will have rigorous quality control procedures and mechanisms in place. These should include the timber merchant company buyers visiting the sawmills that the timber is imported from and hand-selecting the timber that they know their clients will be able to use.

Because this is a time-intensive process, prices may be a little higher from a reputable timber merchant, but you’ll be able to use 99% of the timber you receive, rather than 50-60% in some poor cases, for which you’ll end up paying more in the long run in time and money.

3 Effective Ways to Fix PS3 Internet Connection Problems

I got problems connecting PS3 to Internet the other day. There is a popping up error message on my screen when connecting. However, my laptop can get access to internet very well through the same router. Fortunately, after some time-consuming research, I find the way to fix this PS3 internet connection problem. Here is what I did …

Firstly, update my wireless router. As you may know that router drivers software need to be upgraded periodically in order to function at their best. Make sure that it is updated to the pasted version to avoid any possible disturb.

Secondly, change the SSID and WEP password. SSID (Service Set Identifier) ​​is the name of your wireless network. You may discover different wireless network listed there, choose your own one. Remember to lower the security if you use WEP Encryption because high security may cause PS3 internet problem. And add your PS3 as an accepted device if you WAPs are set to filter MAC address.

Thirdly, go to Internet Connection Settings. PS3 internet connection problems are often solved by changing the network settings. Follow the steps listed below:

a) Change your DNS server address to the OpenDNS servers: 208.67.222.222, and make sure your PS3 settings are on automatic / easy.
b) Locate the IP address of your router.
c) Open a web browser (Firefox that is what I use) on a computer connected to your router (For the PS3's browser did not work you have to use a computer).
d) Manually type in the IP address of you router into the address bar.
e) Ensure to enter the correct username and password you ever set if asked. If you never set one, you need to enter the default username and password. You can find them on the manual of your router. Try username "admin" with no password in case you can not get any information there. But there is only a little chance you can get through.
f) Once you get in, enter manually "DNS Primary and Secondary". Enter DNS address 208.67.222.222 as primary and 208.67.220.220 as secondary.
g) Check and see if PS3 Internet connection problem still exist.

Hope they are helpful.

Installation of Polystyrene Insulation on Fiberglass

Insulating a home can be performed by setting up a blend of fiberglass and the polystyrene foam insulation. Generally the fiberglass filling is utilized in between the hoops of the walls that are outside the home and is set up from indoors. On the other hand the polystyrene foam insulation is generally set up and fixed to the externals side of a home. The polystyrene insulation and the fiberglass insulation combine in a form where the polystyrene filling is set up on the fiberglass one. Given below I have provided the process by which these two kinds of insulation can be combined.

Utilize a measuring strip in order to determine the proportions of the place that requires to be covered with polystyrene foam insulation. Determine the altitude from the peak to the base and then measure the breadth from sides. Buy the panels of polystyrene insulation from any house development store. Utilize the calculations that have already been taken of the entire place in order to decide the number of panels you must buy.

First of all set up lone panels as they will not require to be slashed for fitting. Now set a panel straightly on the fiberglass filling and then fix it to the side. Utilize a mallet and fixers to secure the panel of the filling to the hoops in the side. Afterwards determine the dimensions of places that will require a particular range of filling cut. Always remember to create a mark on the panel of insulation with a pen or marker at the place from where you are going to cut it. Finally take the help of a sharp blade or saw in order to slash the panel of the filling to accurate dimension and after fix it on the fiberglass filling on the wall.

Rain-X Vs Bosch Wiper Blades

Talking about windshield wipers and comparing them may seem boring, that is, until that unexpected winter storm comes along while driving alone on a curvy highway. Sometimes we get so caught up with the major things going on with our cars that we forget about the little things.

Rain-X and Bosch are the number one and number two windshield wipers sold on the market. Although they both may look the same, the two companies manufacture distinct products that may interest consumers.

Traditional Wiper Blades

A traditional blade has plastic or metal brackets connecting the rubber part of the blade to the vehicle's wiper arm. The problem is that snow and ice usually build up on these parts, reducing the blade's wiping efficiency. Older cars use these traditional wipers and both Bosh and Rain X still produce them.

Bracketless Blades

Both companies manufacture bracketless wiper blades (beam blades). Bracketless blades have no joints or hinges, which prevents snow and ice from collecting on the blade. They are sleek in style. Bosch and Rain X design their bracketless blades to resist heavy rain, snow and ice through a beading process, which improves the driver's visibility during heavy storms. There is also a wind spoiler on both Bosch's and Rain X's bracketless products that help blades cling to windshields better and reduce wiper noises.

Okay, now let's compare Bosch and Rain X!

Rain X Latitude and Repel Blades (Bracketless)

Rain X markets their next-generation Latitude and Repel bracketless wiper blades by claiming they are easy to install, they give drivers a high-performance wipe and their frame is ice resistant. Latitudes and Repels are graphite-coated wipers with a uniform pressure design. These blades fit all vehicles and are now number one in the wiper blade market. Rain X places a wind spoiler on them to reduce wiper noise.

There is only one difference between Latitude and Repel blades. Repel blades come with Rain X's patented water beading technology, which is a chemical treatment that is placed on the windshield during installation and activates when using the wiper in wet weather.

Rain X Bracket Blades

Rain X adds galvanized steel to their Weatherbeater bracket wiper blades from to prevent rusting. The experts at Rain X claim that the Weatherbeater is "Consumer Rated best in wet weather driving visibility."

Bosch Evolution (Bracketless)

Bosch has made wiper blades for over 75 years. Their top of the line wiper blade, Evolution, is a bracketless blade made with a special blend of steel and graphite. Bosch puts two steel tension springs on the Evolution used for hugging a vehicle's windshield. This wiper has a multi-functioning aerodynamic wind spoiler that blocks snow and ice for reaching the wiper's tensions springs and uses outside air to push the blade closer to the windshield.

Bosch DirectConnect Wiper Blades

This precision cut blade uses natural rubber, and it has an aerodynamic steel frame that Bosch coats with zinc primer to resist rusting. Consumers install the blade using Bosch's trademark DirectConnect feature that gives them a one-step process when replacing the blades on their vehicles.

Bosch MicroEdge Wiper Blades

MicroEdge has all the features of the DirectConnect and includes fully enclosed tension springs for better weather protection. The blade also incorporates Bosch's trademark Quiet-Glide technology, which reduces the blade's noise when in use.

Bosch Excel + Wiper Blades

This blade has all the features of the MicroEdge and includes a dual rubber compound on the blade for harder wiping. The wiper also lasts twice as long as Bosch's other bracket blades.

Bosch ICON Wiper Blades

This blade has all the features of the Excel + and includes a pre-installed weather shield connector that protects wiper arms from rusting.

Studying for 1Z0-497: Oracle Database 12c: Essentials

Passing the Oracle Database 12c: Essentials exam (1Z0-497) will earn exam candidates the Oracle Database 12c Certified Implementation Specialist certification. It will also make them an OPN Certified Specialist in Oracle 12c if they are employed by a company that is part of the Oracle Partner Network (OPN). Partner companies with employees who are certified as OPN specialists gain a higher level of specialization in the OPN program. As such, this credential makes you a more attractive employee to companies that are part of the Oracle Partner Network.

The 1Z0-497 exam is a standardone test and is not part of any track. To earn the related certification requires only passing the exam. There is no required training or other pre-requisites. The 12c database will be Oracle's flagship product for several years to come and this exam will be a popular one for some time. This exam covers many of the same topics as the 12c database administrator track but does not require the same depth of knowledge. That said – it also does not provide the same level of prestige. While this certification generally would not be a direct stepping-stone to a position as a DBA, it may lead to a job with an OPN company that you can use in working towards employment as an Oracle DBA.

As with any Oracle certification exam, your first step should always be to visit the topics page on the Oracle University website. The OU topic lists are always complete and will provide you with a roadmap of exactly what you need to learn when studying for the test. The exam will never cover any material that is not in some way related to the subjects listed there. The 1Z0-497 exam has fifty-two topics broken into twelve different subject areas. The areas covered by the exam include the following:

  • Oracle Database Software
  • Administration & Configuration
  • Oracle Database 12c New Features
  • Maximum Availability Architecture
  • Backup and Recovery
  • Monitoring
  • Administering Users and Security
  • Software Installation and Maintenance
  • Oracle Data Structures
  • Oracle Database Instance Architecture
  • Oracle Multitenant Architecture
  • Oracle Network Architecture

The exam has eighty-five multiple-choice or multiple-answer questions. You will have a maximum of one-hundred and twenty minutes to answer all of the questions. The passing score is seventy percent. Oracle exams have no partial credit for multiple-answer questions, they are either right or wrong. Questions that are left unanswered are counted as incorrect. For this reason, you should always answer every question on the exam – even if that means picking an answer at random.

Available on the Oracle 12c documentation website is a 2-Day DBA manual. Reading this book would make a fairly good start in preparation for the exam. Much of the information in that book is on topics relevant to the test and the coverage level is similar to what you will be asked. The Oracle Learning Library has several interactive tutorials that go hand-in-hand with the 2-Day DBA manual that can also be useful in preparation for the exam. Candidates who know absolutely nothing about Oracle might want to read the Oracle Concepts manual first in order to get a firm grounding in the various elements that make up an Oracle database.

This exam covers a number of subject areas to a fairly shallow depth. The exam does not require candidates to have an extensive knowledge of any single objective. Once you have obtained the topics from the Oracle University website, use them as a checklist while you prepare. Focus on learning a reasonable amount of information about each topic rather than trying to become an expert on any single topic or group of topics. Only after you are comfortable that you understand them should you schedule the exam. Good luck on the test.

You Need to Understand the Extent of the Sin of Fornication and Adultery Which Are Against God

Have you read of the story of Joseph and Portiphar’s wife in the Bible? The Go to Genesis 39:6-12. Most youths and individuals of our present generation will marvel and exclaim “wow!” he is super human to resist such a caliber of lady and who knows, she may be as well a very pretty woman. But if you understand why fornication or adultery is sin against God, then you must have understood why Joseph did that, and you can also have the strength to say “NO”. Here are several reasons:

1. Such sin gives Satan a chance to taunt Christ and ridicule His sacrifice on the cross. It is Satan who charges God, “You are unfair to expect mankind not to sin! sin is my invention, and it is so strong that it is impossible to say ‘No’ to it! The Bible says Christ died to save His people from their sins: not in them. (Matthew 1:21) ha ha ha! look at your ‘child’ who has fallen into adultery-that proves I am right, God, and You are wrong! Christ has died in vain.” If Joseph had said “Yes” to Mrs Potiphar, Satan would have taunted God like this.

2. It is because of our sin that murdered the Son of God on the cross. “He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities” (Isaiah 53:5); that hurt! Someone may object, “Yes, but was nearly two thousand years ago. and His suffering was “once for all” and it is finished now. My continued sinning doesn’t hurt Him any more!” This is the lie that many professed Christians believe. Let us read how Hebrews describe man’s fresh re-crucifixion of Christ.

There is no longer any sacrifice that will take away sins if we purposely go on sinning after the truth has been made known to us. What, then, of the person who despises the son of God? Who treats as a cheap thing the blood of God’s covenant which purified him from sin? Who insults the spirit of grace? (Hebrews 10:26).

This was what Joseph “saw”, and his faith kept him from doing it. It wasn’t fear that held him back. He didn’t say, “oh, maybe my father or my brothers will hear about it”, or “perhaps I will get a venereal disease.” or “maybe portiphar’s wife will get pregnant by me.” No! “By faith Joseph…” felt a deep heart-appreciation of the sacrifice of the son of God for the sins of the world. How could he treat it as “cheap”? “Thank you, Lord, for saving my soul!” he prayed; he would not “insult the spirit of grace,” nor “crucify the son of God and expose Him to public shame.” Yes! Joseph may have lived years before Christ won born on earth, but in general he saw the mercies of God, His grace as something not cheap to be thrown in the gutter by compromising his faith. Thank God for Joseph! The world owes a great debt to him….

3. Adultery or fornication always brings sorrow and suffering to someone; in fact, there is murder wrapped up within it. Millions of people, for example, openly recognize that abortion is murder; and it is almost always the result of sin. Even when fornication or adultery is done only for “recreation” or “fun”, someone will surely get hurt. The pleasure of the moment is offset by the guilt that will remain, poisoning the heart and life. In order to silence the sense of guilt. many people simply renounce all title to heaven, give up, and choose to go to hell. They may appear outwardly to be happy once they have made that final choice, but as Jesus says, “Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.” And they know it. And since it takes two people to commit fornication or adultery, one has led the other to the loss of his/her soul eternally. also many a marriage is poisoned within the painful memories of pre- or extramarital sexual transgression; and again, the children are the unfortunate losers. They are deprived of the happiness and peace of a home every innocent child has a right to have. Their parents always bear the “wound and dishonor” that their sin brought (see Proverbs 6:33).

Many girls are also led into prostitution. They are to blame, of course, but others are to blame also. Those who patronize them help to make and keep them what they are. What a misuse of human capability! Even when the girls become so hardened that they have forgotten how to shed tears and have become dehumanized as it were, the misery is deep. Joseph didn’t want to add to this destruction of humanity. And it was in Africa that this mighty victory was won for the world!

4. All this resultant pain and suffering Christ feels. The Bible teaches, “In all their affliction He [Christ] was afflicted” (Isaiah 63:9). HE feels it even more keenly than we humans feel it. for He sees the end from the beginning. “His souls was grieved for the misery of Israel” because of their wrongdoing (Judges 10:16). A wise writer once said:

Few give thought to the suffering that sin has caused our Creator. All heaven suffered in Christ’s agony; but that suffering did not begin or end with His…. humanity. The cross is a revelation to our dull senses of the pain that, from its very beginning, sin has brought to the heart of God. Every departure from the right, every deed of cruelty, every failure of humanity to reach His ideal, brings grief to Him…. As the “whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together” (Romans 8:22), the heart of the infinite Father is pained in sympathy. Our world is a vast scene of misery that we dare not allow even out thoughts to dwell upon. Yet God feels it all. In Order to destroy sin and its results He gave His best Beloved, and HE has put it in our power through cooperation with Him, to bring this scene of misery to an end- Ellen G. White..

This is what Joseph “saw”. This is why, when Potiphar’s wife offered him that alluring, almost over-mastering temptation, he said “How can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?” Someday we shall see all the fruits that have been borne by the seeds of sin. It will be a terrible sight. God will not say one word to condemn us- He won’t need to. We shall condemn ourselves, and the whole universe will condemn us as the world today condemns Hitler. Is it not good that the Holy spirit convicts us of sin today so we can find repentance before it is too late?

God has revealed His grace for the salvation of all mankind. That grace instructs us to give up ungodly living, and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright and godly lives in this world, as we wait for the blessed day we hope for, when the glory of Our great God and savior Jesus Christ, will appear. He gave Himself for us, to rescue us from all wickedness and to make us a pure people who belong to Him alone and are eager to do good (Titus 2:11-14).

Logo Design – Your Objectives In Designing A Logo

If you really want to have some clues on how to design a good and simple logo, then you have come to the right place. Here, I am going to show you a little bit about logo creation in general. First, I would like to show you few basic histories about logo creation. Then we’re going to observe further onto the typical examples of a good logo design to study them and recognize their basic traits. Finally, we are going to wrap up the article by discussing about the objectives of a logo design creation. This article is meant to give you some understanding about the history of logo design creation and introduce you to several good examples of them, so you will have a clue on how to create one.

Let’s first look at the history, so you will have an idea or two about where and when it’s exactly originated. Logo design actually originated from the ancient and prehistoric drawings or paintings which can usually be found on rock walls. Those were not an actual logo but merely as a picture or a symbol that can be interpreted as a one of the most primitive communication system. Some of the most well-known ancient civilization such as Egyptian, Babylonian, Aztec and Mayan used different pictograph to write on their walls. Pictographs are a mere graphic symbol that convey a meaning which recognizable. So the similarities between these old symbols and the modern logo design that we all know lies in the picture that can represents a meaning and functions as a basic communication tool.

Now, let’s see the typical example of a good logo design. You can study these examples and use it a source to get an inspiration that compels you to design a unique logo that will suit your business. McDonalds’ large ‘M’ letter logo is a good example, Walmart with a star symbol between its syllables is also a good one and Burger King’s logo should be the first thing that pops up in your head when you hear the word ‘burger’. All of the examples above have basic characteristics of a good logo design which are unique, simple and easy to remember. You should strive to implement all these basic characteristics whenever you want to design a logo. It will not be an easy task to achieve. But in the end it will reward you nicely because this logo will be your identity to the world.

Finally, you should know and understand the objectives of a logo design creation. This is important because it will help you to establish your business identity to the world. The primary objective is it should be able to affect the subconscious mind of people so you may want to make it as simple and unique as possible which will then make it easier for people to remember and recognize it. An attractive logo design is the secondary objective, the more attractive your logo is the more people wants to see what’s it all about and end up buying your product just to try it out. Once they are satisfied with your product, they will likely becoming recurring customers. Given enough time, this will create a positive reflection of your business and people will have no trouble to associate your company logo to a specific type of product that you sell. If you keep your business to grow like this, sooner or later your logo design will become worldwide brand recognition.

How to Build Your Very Own Stretch Limousine

How many times have you watched a limousine being driven down the road and thought to yourself, "man that sure would be nice to own one". The cost of purchasing one because is the prohibitive factor for most people. There is an affordable option though and that is to turn the car you now own into a stretch limousine by following these simple easy to follow instructions.

Start Taking Your Car Apart

Your going to start by removing all of the interior paneling and seats, down to the point where the car is pretty much bare inside. Next, you will need to climb under your car and remove the drive line and any brake fluid lines that are running up the under carriage.

Cut Your Car in half

Also, you will want to remove any wiring that is running the length of your car both inside and out. Next, remove all of the side windows as well as the doors. Your next step will be to get a saws-all and a pack of new metal cutting blades and saw the car in half.

Head to the Wrecking Yard

Make sure that your cut line avoids any doors for simplicity. Have a friend help you to pull the two halves of your car apart and set them up on blocks. Now head to the wrecking yard and find a car just like yours that you can cut a midsection chunk from.

A Total of Six Doors!

Bring the chunk back and weld it in place. Now you have two extra doors in back, for a total of six doors in your car! Grind and sand down your welding seams, finish them off with bondo and then hit them with a good coat of primer paint.

Easy As Pie !!

Take your drive line to a machine shop, have it extended and start to put your limo back together. Some of your interior panels will fit and some will not, so you are going g to have to do some creative upholstery work. Your also going to need some extra long brake lines and an extended wiring harness. Hit the car with a paint job and you are good to go!

Alternate Uses for Jewelry Boxes

The primary use for jewelry boxes is right there in the name: to store and organize your jewelry collection. However, it is possible, in a pinch, to use your jewelry boxes for other purposes. That is, of course, assuming that you have any room to spare in your jewelry boxes for anything other than necklaces, rings and other beautiful trinkets. If you’re a pragmatist who uses whatever is to hand to solve your problems, you might find this advice useful. Jewelry box purists might be horrified, so be warned. These are only ideas. We never said they were good ones.

Extra Hardware: At the best of times, many of us have at least a couple of screws loose, or a nail or a bolt or two. If you’ve got an extra couple of drawers available in your jewelry boxes, you could devote them to storing the extra hardware you accumulate from putting furniture or toys together, or simply the ones you buy because you think you need them and then need a place to put them that will keep them from being on the floor and then being stepped on by your bare foot. Jewelry cases are great for keeping small things like earrings from going all over the place, so they will keep all your nuts and bolts squared away also.

Memory Loss: If you have a digital camera or another data storage device, it likely uses one of those powerful but annoyingly tiny and thin SD cards. They are slim, fragile and possibly your closest equivalent to a family photo album so you need to keep them somewhere safe. Jewelry boxes are perfect for this because, once again, they are perfect for storing small, fragile items. The soft suede or velvet lining in many jewelry cases will keep your memory cards (and by extension, your memories) safe.

Power Source: Batteries, like screws and nails, are other small things that are necessary but sometimes troublesome to store. Some are quite large, like Ds, while others, like those for watches, can be frighteningly small. Jewelry boxes can help out with all of these, keeping them all stored, organized and ready for when they need to be plugged into a device and power it up. The smaller batteries can be stored in rings rolls or the small compartments you will find in jewelry cases while the larger ones can be kept in one of the larger drawers or in some watch compartments, once you take the pillows out. Wait, now what do you do with the pillows?

Well, it looks like there are lots of things that could be kept in jewelry boxes. You could even use them to store office supplies, like paper clips and staples, or hot beverage items such as sugar packets and tea bags. However, it’s probably best to use them the way they were intended to be used, to provide dignified and safe storage to jewelry that is just as beautiful as the boxes themselves. Using jewelry cases to store something other than jewelry just seems wrong, somehow, as though it diminishes the boxes in some way. Better, in this case, to leave things the way they are.

How to Install Laminate Flooring

If you are a home owner and want to save yourself the cost of having a so called professional install your laminate flooring, and take the pride of do it yourself install, you will need good step by step approach instructions.

The first thing you will need is a good solid and level subfloor. Make sure it is clear of all debris left over from taking out your old floor.

You will then have to determine which way you want the grain of the wood to run. Take and lay out some of the planks to see what way looks the best for you. Once you have figured out which way to run the planks you will need to determine where to start. I always recommend starting at the longest straightest wall in the left hand corner of the room.

You will need to stagger out your joints when laying your planks. This is accomplished by starting with a full plank in your first row then running full boards all the way down to where your landing ends. Remember to keep a 1/4 "gap between your planks and the walls for an expansion joint. a 1/3 of a plank the full boards down the row the rest of the way. Then you just start repeating the pattern all over again, full, half, third.

You will need to undercut your door jams so that the laminate will fit under the tribs of your doors giving you that professional look you are seeking. When you get up to another floor where the laminate stops you will need a transition piece between the two floors. Most all of the manufactures have transition pieces to match the same color of your flooring. You will need to stop your laminate one inch short of the flooring you are butting up to. This will leave a gap between the two floors where a track is put down that the transition piece fits into. Once you have your transition piece cut to the proper length it will just snap into the track. Once it is snapped into place do not plan on getting it out because once it is in it's in. If you try too take it out you will end up snapping it in half. trust me I learned the hard way and broke too many pieces trying to get them out.

The Two Methods of MEP Coordination

MEP is an acronym used for Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing systems for building projects. With the increasing complexity and functionality of each system, MEP activities are not limited to the traditional mechanical, electrical and plumbing system but also include fire protection, gas piping, process piping, pneumatic tubing, data systems etc. This article asserts that the design has been completed by 'Design Consultants' to a certain stage and then handed to 'Installation Sub-Contractors' who will validate the design and value engineer the design through the process of spatial coordination and procurement of components to meet the requirements of the design. The coordination of mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) systems among them and with other building systems including architectural and structural disciplines is a critical, challenging and time consuming task, especially in complex building projects with intense MEP requirements. The coordination process of Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) systems involves defining the exact location of each building system component throughout the building within the constraints of the envelope defined by the architectural and structural systems to comply with divers design and operations criteria avoiding any interferences / clashes among building systems. Assuming that most companies undertake the task of MEP Coordination, without which the site installation from a 'design only' set of drawings would be too much of a risk, there are two ways by which the following process takes place:

2D MEP Coordination
The process starts with the design from the Design Consultant. The Sub-Contractor team will typically update the 2D CAD drawings or create their own set from the start. In creating these drawings a number of sections will be drawn and frequent attention given to ceiling void spaces in which the systems and services are being laid out. In an ideal world 2D MEP Coordination can work as long as all services and systems are assessed adequately and then drawn into a 2D drawing. The sizes of the systems would need to be manually added as would the heights and distances from gridlines or walls. The contractor will have teams of people for each system (HVAC, plumbing, electrical etc) creating their drawings based on the architectural ceiling void. In this method, there is no automated system to identify the conflicts in the MEP system and therefore there is a high degree of reliance on the intuition, imagination, technical knowledge and experience of the team members to lay out the services without site teams experiencing clashes .

Visualizing the potential clashes is made more difficult due to changes in ceiling profiles, not to mention the challenge of having to understand the impact of all systems as well as structural and architectural elements that may impede or impact a system or service route. What makes things worse is that a third party can not easily review the drawings for any errors, nor can the design be easily reviewed or communicated with a project team. Furthermore, if there are changes to the design or procurement-led changes then the process of undoing and re-doing 2D MEP Coordination projects becomes very cumbersome. The inherent weaknesses of 2D CAD software also come into play, one can draw something of one size and label it as something completely different. As the systems and services drawings are not checked in some form of automated method there is no guarantee that the 2D MEP coordination process will generate a clash free drawing. During the time of complex projects, it requires multiple section views which consumes a lot of time. These time commitments come with additional costs to each contractor.

3D MEP Coordination
This process is more collaborative and allows the ability to communicate the progress of the project quickly and easily, providing 3D visuals that resemble the final system and service installation. It starts with a clear direction in terms of spatial zoning which is then used as the basis to start modeling the HVAC, piping, plumbing and electrical services. As the architectural and structural models form part of the model, it is easier to insert services and systems without creating clashes. Once the model is complete and all systems and services have been added, the ability to identify problems becomes much easier compared to the 2D Coordination method. Firstly, one is able to walk through the model using roaming software to review the model and, secondly the use of clash detection software, such as Navisworks, highlights all clashes where these are systems against other systems or systems against structure or architecture. Once highlighted, all clashes can then be corrected during the coordination stage of the project. Only once the model is interference free are drawings created. This leads to another set of benefits, unlike 2D coordination where each section must be drawn, the 3D software allows the creation of sections that are directly taken from the model. Furthermore, as the 3D software is so intelligent, the sizes of systems are directly taken from the 3D model and therefore there is no chance of services or systems being modeled as one size and then labeled as another. Beyond the coordination stage, there are several other benefits from the 3D model, including use during facilities management, energy analysis and so on.

Irrespective of the MEP Coordination method used, the need for MEP Coordination arises due to the lack of detailed coordination during the design stage. Additionally, the need for fabrication and installation of building systems in accordance with industry and Sub-Contractor best practice requires MEP Coordination to be carried out by them. The 2D MEP Coordination process provides a limited interference-checking capability and therefore can and will result in more problems on site including additional re-work, change orders and inflating budgets. All of this makes 3D MEP Coordination a more efficient and the increasingly preferred method for the long term.

Current trends in the MEP industry show the evolution of a few more specific methods of MEP coordination, with varying degrees of involvement by the design consultants and the MEP contractors.

These methods are:

  1. Design consultant provides 2D, 3D designs and MEP coordination to the MEP contractor.
  2. The MEP contractor generates the 2D, 3D designs and MEP coordination itself / herself.
  3. Design consultant provides 2D design to MEP contractor, who then creates 3D models and handles MEP coordination.

The first, and one that is gaining increased popularity, workflow method is one where design consultants provide a spatially coordinated BIM model with MEP specification components, structural and architectural changes. Therefore, the BIM model is usable by the contractor.

The second method involves the MEP contractor designing all the models, both 2D and 3D, for installation. One of the disadvantages in this method for the contractor is added stress, since the contractor is liable for the design and may not be able to employ designers with requisite expertise and he / she may even have to provide design liability insurance. There are benefits though, one is removal of abortive work for BIM modeling due to efficient use of time and then, increased profit.

Method No. 3 sees the design consultant supply architectural, structural and MEP designs in 2D to the contractor, who then creates a 3D model to assess the design. This method may face hiccups in the process because certain discriminates will be represented in 2D and some will be in 3D, with different software used for each. So, if the contractor faces any issues, s / he may necessarily revert to the designer, who will alter the 2D design, and then the change has to be represented in 3D. Obviously, delays could result.

Additionally, useful features of the process have mushroomed. Quant take-off analyzes projects with a new degree of detail, taking into account quantities, locations and extremely costs. Further, just as 3D BIM permits visualization of the completed project, 4D BIM scheduling movies lets owners, traders and teams see how the building comes together. It can be used to monitor the project on-site . Also, BIM 360 Glue generates a coordinated model, consisting of individual models that all team members can look at. This can be 'glued', or updated models can be uploaded, on a regular basis. Each user can resolve clashes faster by comparing models and directly communicating with each other.

In the dynamic world of MEP coordination, new methods and features promise to crop up with unceasing regularity. The key is finding the method that works best for you.