The Many Uses of a Biochemistry Analyser

A biochemistry analyser is a term which can refer to any number of different instruments used to analyze and measure the characteristics of various samples from biological sources. All types of biochemistry analyser are commonly used in life sciences laboratories and medical settings, where they provide data which is essential for a wide range of research, diagnostic and even product development applications (such as in the pharmaceutical industry).

The study of the chemical processes which go on inside of living organisms encompasses a wide range of different disciplines and an even wider range of uses, all of which fall under the broader umbrella of biochemistry. Among the most common uses for a biochemistry analyzer are to determine the structure and function of biomolecules including nucleic acids, lipids, proteins and enzymes.

It is in fact in the study of the chemistry of reactions catalyzed by enzymes in which a biochemistry analyser is particularly useful. These applications include applications involving study of genetics, protein synthesis, metabolism on the cellular level, signal transduction and other biochemistry applications with a bearing on the development of new and improved medical care and pharmaceuticals to treat diseases with a genetic component.

Automation has made changes in the way that many laboratory work is carried out, allowing for many traditionally time consuming tasks to be streamlined to permit higher throughput. There are now a variety of different automated biochemistry analyzer instruments which are available. These instruments are designed for a wide range of different applications in the life sciences laboratory or for diagnostic purposes in medical settings. These automated biochemistry analyser devices can measure the concentration and/or determine the characteristics of specific substances in a sample very quickly and with a minimal amount of operator intervention.

With an automated analyzer, there are usually dedicated autosamplers in use along with the instrument or in many cases, even an integrated autosampler. These further simplify the task of biochemistry analysis and since the safety of laboratory personnel when working with biological samples is often a concern, also make the modern, automated biochemistry analyzer much easier and safer to use.

In larger medical laboratories, such as those at hospitals, there are dedicated biochemistry analyser systems in use, often multiple ones designed to perform different common tests needed at healthcare facilities. These often include tests for levels of albumin, glucose, enzymes and creatine levels in the blood or serum. These tests may be performed by measuring conductivity, colorimetry, turbidity and any number of other methods.

There are also many other specialized types of biochemistry analyzer used in laboratories and clinics. Laboratories which perform immunology applications in particular use analyzers in immunoassays as they look for antibody-antigen reactions in biological samples. Other specialized types of biochemistry analyser include those designed for the measurement of osmolarity and osmolality, DNA /RNA detection and labeling and almost too many other important medical research, life sciences and drug development applications to list. Everywhere that the qualitative or quantitative analysis of biomolecules in samples from living organisms is critical, you will always find some sort of biochemistry analyzer at use as an indispensable tool to laboratory personnel.

Your Guide To Horse Betting Etiquette

Is there such a thing as horse betting etiquette? Yes there most definitely is. While you may see chaos at the betting windows with 2 minutes to post time, there is a dynamic at work.

Here are 5 important items you need to know when you are betting horses at the racetrack:

1.) Always know what you are going to bet BEFORE you get to the teller. The absolute worst thing you can do is handicap at the window with little time to post and hemming and hawing while people behind you get shut out of their wagers.

2.) Know what the bets are called BEFORE you get to the window . They have programs at the racetrack specifically designed to tell you what bets are, how to call them out, and how much they cost. Do not waste the teller's time – they are there to collect wagers, not go over the history of racing with you. That's how their performance is judged. While they may smile on the outside, they are definitely not smiling inside.

3.) NEVER go to the window with little time to post to cash a ticket. Wait until after the gate bell rings and people place their bets. Getting someone shut out of a wager while you have no intention on betting the upcoming race is a BIG no-no. This is a recipe for getting a knuckle sandwich.

4.) Have your money ready. Do not be like the elderly lady at the grocery check out and start counting out change with 1 minute to post time while you have a line of people behind you.

Be aware of others.

5.) Never be intimidated by the guy behind you huffing and puffing and mumbling nasty things while you are trying to get your bets in . This only applies if you are not doing any of the above no-no's, too bad for him. Maintain your cool and get your wagers in.

So there you have it. This is a brief but important lesson in racetrack horse betting etiquette that will make everyone's day at the races a much more pleasant experience. Win. Or lose.

Oh, these rules apply to off-track betting, satellite betting and where you are waiting in line to get your bets down. The bottom line is, be civilized and remember the golden rule.

Using a TENS Machine to Fight the Negative Feelings of Depression

First of all, I’m not a doctor or therapist. I just have spent most of my life learning from them, to undo the effects of major depression that I’ve had from childhood. If you suffer from depression, first talk to your medical professional to see what approach is best for you. That is what I’ve done, but I add to what I’ve learned by trying a few other things on my own. Don’t do anything to yourself that is potentially self-injurious, it pays to research any new technique or approach thoroughly, just to be safe. Whatever works for me may not work for you, we all have our own ways of responding to different treatments. I just know that not all my recovery has come from what was learned at the doctor’s office. Being exceptionally strong-willed, my mission has mainly been to boost self-esteem, and fight those inner feelings of sadness that never go away (effects of depression.) Here are some ways that have helped me live a productive and successful life, despite mental challenges.

Six months ago, it was necessary for me to go for physical therapy for a slipped disk in my back. The therapist hooked me up to a small machine called a TENS unit, for one of my treatments. They put small, non-invasive sticky circles (electrodes) on the part of my body needing therapy and then turned the machine on. It felt really good, sort of like a massage. Depending upon how the therapist adjusted the dials, the machine would make knocking or pinging sensations on my back. There are also knobs to adjust the intensity of each sensation. After researching the TENS unit on the internet, I ordered a small one, about the size of a deck of playing cards.

According to what I read about them, TENS machines are not only good for distracting your body into feeling good sensations rather than pain, but they can make your body produce endorphins, or feel-good chemicals, too. This intrigued me, since having depression, I’ll take all the feel-good anything I can get (as long as it is both moral and legal.) So, I set up to test this on myself and see if there was any merit to the theory. After years of taking various anti-depressants, some work more than others but none completely take away depression, in my experience. Not being a scientist or doctor, I read up on everything about the TENS machine. There are rules that come along with the machine, like not putting the electrodes on the head, neck or the heart areas. Make sure to follow all of them thoroughly. People with pacemakers should not use TENS units, because it can interfere with the way they work. As with medicines, ask your doctor before using one.

By placing the electrodes along my spine, and setting the TENS settings to the recommended low frequency (pulse) levels. You want low muscle contraction, and to use the TENS for approximately 20 to 40 minutes. If you set it for higher muscle contractions, your muscles may ache later, so I rely on what the experts say, to use it at low settings. For more detailed information, I found these sites helpful:

Using the TENS unit has helped my overall mood, it seems, as after using it, my demeanor is calm and relaxed. Though I don’t know if this is due to the machine itself or not, but I believe that using it has helped me. Combined with other treatments, this TENS therapy is assisting me (along with other techniques for reducing depression) in making a more enjoyable life. Go ahead and research TENS units online, and see if this is something suitable for you. In my point of view, it is a viable way to help combat depression.

Daily Lotion – The Benefits of Adding Body Lotion to Your Daily Regimen

Body lotion is something that most people, especially as they age, will use from time to time. Adding body lotion to your daily routine is a great way of improving the quality of your skin today and in the future. A daily lotion can contribute tremendously to the health of your skin. There are innumerable reasons why your skin will benefit from such a lotion; some of them are enumerated here.

One powerful reason is to heal dry skin. If you use lotion only once in awhile, your skin will feel more moist after applying the lotion, but it will return to being dry as soon as some time has passed. Infrequent lotion application does little to actually fix the damage done to your skin. If you use a daily lotion, your skin will gradually improve, and in time will be soft and smooth. Some lotions just make you think your skin is softer because they are themselves greasy or moist. A good daily lotion will make your skin actually become softer.

This is especially true for rough spots. Particularly vulnerable spots for roughness are joints such as the elbows, knees, or knuckles. The hands, too, because they are constantly being used and are frequently washed – which, while great for killing germs, can dry them out – are especially likely to be rough and cracked. A daily lotion can help to exfoliate dead skin cells and keep the new skin cells underneath moist and healthy.

A daily lotion can also seal in what moisture already exists in your skin. Cold weather is one of the largest culprits in stripping skin of its natural moisture, causing extreme dryness. Applying a lotion before exposure to the cold can help lock the skin's moisture in, protecting it from the weather. Also, applying a lotion after showering can help to restore what was lost by washing and also seal in the dampness that remains on your skin.

Good lotions will also resist the effects of aging on your skin, often through anti-aging ingredients such as hydrolyzed silk, which improves the elasticity of skin, something that often declines with age. Skin that is more elastic will be firmer and appear more tight, having fewer wrinkles and less sagging. Such ingredients will not only reverse the effects of aging that have already occurred; they will also prevent future aging of your skin.

Another often-overlooked benefit of using a lotion every day is the relaxation a wonderful-smelling lotion can provide. Aromatherapy has been shown to have many benefits for a person's emotional and mental state. Light, pleasant scents such as lavender have been shown to soothe and comfort, and some lotions contain such scents. Applying them to your body will surround you with the air of relaxation.

In these ways, a good daily lotion can provide many benefits to your body. The few minutes you will spend applying a lotion every day will be well worth it, and may even come to be some of the most treasured minutes of your day.

My Husband Wants Me To Leave, What Now? Tips And Advice On How To Handle This

I often hear from wives whose husbands are going to leave them. Sometimes though, there’s a different variation on this same theme. I recently heard from a wife whose husband wanted her to be the one to leave the house. They had been having marriage issues for some time and the husband felt that the wife should be the one to leave since she had family and friends with whom she could easily stay.

The husband didn’t want to leave the home for which he felt he’d paid for several years and (in his opinion) had the right to stay in. So, he felt it only fair that the wife be the one to leave. Needless to say, this is not what the wife wanted to hear nor was it what she wanted to do. The idea of packing her bags and walking out of the house where she had lived and dreamed for years (and on the man that she had loved for years) was absolutely appalling to her.

She said, in part: “I can’t believe my husband thinks that I’m going to just leave because he wants me to. How is this fair? I have no idea what to do. If I stay, he’s going to make it very clear that he doesn’t want me there and he might eventually leave me. But if I go, it looks like I’m giving up my marriage and that is definitely not what I want. I don’t want to leave or divorce my husband but he seems convinced that this is the course he wants to take. What can or should I do?”

This is a unique and tricky situation because I often tell wives whose husband is insistent on leaving them (and won’t accept any alternatives) to be the one to leave. This is not ideal, of course, but often there’s really no alternative and at least if you are the one to go, you have more control. You can be the one to come home rather than trying to get him to come home (which increases your chances of saving the marriage.)

So when there’s no choice, I usually do feel like it’s better to be the one to leave than to allow him to leave. Still, this situation wasn’t ideal. And I felt that there were some things to try before the wife just gave in and left. I will discuss this more in the following article.

Try To Take As Much Drama And Immediacy Out Of The Situation As You Can: Right now, both the husband and the wife were filled with emotion and were reacting very quickly to every thing that was happening between them. In situations like these, people tend to make snap decisions and say or do things that they either regret or which are impossible to take back.

So I always feel it’s important to try to bring some calm to this situation so that you get out of reactive mode and get into a mode where you are being proactive and aren’t just reacting to someone else’s whim, words, or actions. So as hard as it was, I wanted for the wife to remain calm and deliberate. As it was now, doors were slamming, tears were being shed, accusations were being made, and the couple were just becoming more and more distant from each other with every passing hour and day.

So, the next time the husband approached her with something hurtful, I didn’t want the wife to engage. I wanted her to deflect whatever it was he was throwing at her and make it clear that their interactions were going to be different and weren’t going to follow the same path.

She might say something like “yes, I know that’s how you feel and I know that you want me to leave because you’ve been telling me this for days. But I’m no longer going to react like I have been. There’s no need. I know how you feel and you know how I feel. I have no idea if we’re going to reach a compromise or not, but I’m not going to fight with you and continue to damage our relationship because it’s still important to me. So, I’d rather wait and discuss this when we are both calm and aren’t going to hurt each other or the relationship. Can we agree when we might discuss this again at a later time when we’ve both calmed down?”

This is an attempt to slow things down and create an environment that is more conducive to working things out. I felt strongly that the longer the wife continued to engage or argue, the better the chance that one of them was eventually going to leave the house. But if you can interrupt the sense of urgency and the drama, you’ll often find that the hurtful words and behaviors are much lessened so that you might actually make some progress and hopefully not have to leave in the first place.

With that said, if you are offered this type of reprieve and end up staying and not having to leave, you’ll need to address and improve your marriage so that whatever issues lead to your husband wanting you to leave don’t remain so that you’re not dealing with this again in the future.

If Your Husband Won’t Accept Anything Less Than Your Leaving, Then Don’t Leave Things Open Ended. Try To Set It Up So That You Can Still Communicate (And Hopefully Improve Things) On A Regular Basis: In some cases, even when you’re calm and are taking a cooperative attitude, your husband will still insist that you leave. When this happens, sometimes it becomes clear that he’s not going to be happy with anything (or accept) but you’re leaving. However, this doesn’t mean that you should just pack your bags, walk out the door, and hope for the best. My suggestion is that if you have to concede (and you shouldn’t do this unless it’s clear that you have to), at least control the terms.

Agree to the least amount of time that you possibly can. Suggest going away and staying with friends for the weekend, or if possible, for less than a week. Define how often you’re going to call one another to check in. If possible, schedule some time to get together during the short separation.

Sometimes, being apart for a short amount of time can actually improve things because you’re not engaging, every one calms down, and your husband realizes he misses you. But the ideal thing is to keep the separation short and to keep the communication going while keeping the tone positive rather than negative.

The Dangers of Using Almond Oil to Treat Dark Circles

While quite a few websites are suggesting the use of almond oil for getting rid of dark circles beneath the eyes, there are a few well known problems that can surface.

To begin with almond oil, also identified as laetrile in its edible form, comes from almonds, which are nuts. Food Chemistry Journal figures that over sixteen and a half million Americans have an allergy to nuts. Most of who aren’t even cognizant of it since the symptoms are slight and treated as an ordinary belly ache or an inexplicable rash. Regardless, should those folks use it to cure dark circles, they are introducing an allergen right next to the eyes, one of the bodies most delicate areas and will probably experience anything from a slight to a terrible allergic reaction.

Another reason to be worried is that eating almond extract is not recommended for pregnant or breast-feeding women since a number of studies have hinted at a hypothetical chance of birth defects. Cyanide discharge can and has happened if the enzyme beta-glucuronidase is introduced. That enzyme is present in the human gut and inside the nut itself. There is a procedure which can get rid of the cyanide molecules, although it is still poisonous if absorbed in generous amounts. Since some folks could use almond oil to treat their dark circles excessively, this may possibly be a serious dilemma.

The least harmful type of almond oil used for dark circles therapy is called sweet almond oil. The bitter almond oil version has been responsible for sickness and fatalities in a few noted cases. Actually, the FDA has prohibited the usage of bitter almond oil for medical usage; nonetheless, it is accessible for uses such as aromatherapy because it’s unlikely to contact the skin or be taken internally. The trouble is that the community is mostly ignorant of the differences concerning the two types of oils and could regrettably try to make use of the bitter almond oil as a dark circles therapy by accident.

With all the unnecessary dangers summarized above, we’re not certain why a person would choose to take the risk of employing these beneath their eyes. Particularly since there are many FDA sanctioned alternative remedies that don’t present the unsafe side effects for getting rid of dark circles beneath the eyes.

Surgery is another option. However, this is usually only a last result in the most severe cases and usually only provides a moderate improvement.

Loss on Drying Testing in Pharmaceuticals

Loss on drying is described as the loss of weight as percentage of w/w resulting from volatile substances and water of any kind that can be driven off under specified conditions. This test is done on a mixture of substances. If substance to be tested is in the form of large particles then the sizes must be reduced by rapid crushing to a powder. The test is to determine the water content and volatile substance in a sample is exposed to heat. Loss on drying is a technique that has been used by many pharmaceuticals. There are different methods of carrying out this test an d the technician chooses the most appropriate one depending on the substance being tested.

To carry out the test, do the following:

· Weigh a shallow weighing bottle that has been dried under the same conditions that will be employed in the determination.

· Transfer to the dry bottle the quantity of the sample specified in the individual monograph.

· Cover the bottle and accurately weigh it and the contents.

· Distribute the sample evenly by gentle side wise shaking to a depth not exceeding 10 mm.

· Dry the substance by placing the bottle in the drying chamber

· Remove the stopper and leave it in the chamber.

· Dry the sample to constant weight.

· Open the drying chamber and close the bottle promptly and let it to cool to room temperature.

· Weigh the bottle and its contents.

The temperature at which you should expose the substance to be tested is always specified and must not be exceeded lest you get the wrong results. Every substance has its specific heat level.

Loss on drying testing in pharmaceuticals is a technique of removing water and other volatile impurities from a sample of well-mixed substance. the amount of heat applied on the substance is dependent on time and temperature.

Total moisture content of pharmaceutical products can contain both bound and free water.

Where there are impurities present then loss on drying level will be higher as compared to water content.

Sometimes loss on drying level may be far lower compared to the content of water since some water molecules may not be removed heating as in other methods of determining loss on drying does. To calculate the percentage loss on drying, below is the method.

Percentage LOD = Percentage Water content – Percentage molecules of water in the API

One must know the type of substance being used prescription must be exactly known so as to determine how the experiment is carried out. For hydrate substance, anhydrous content equivalent weight should be calculated before being exposed to heating. In case any moisture is specified on the certificate the pharmacy before the substance is used in loss on drying experiment.


Loss on drying has been used in many pharmaceutical companies to determine the concentration of drugs. These experiments are used for testing to determine moisture present substances also. This experiment requires a lot of care and keenness for true results to be found. Weight must be measured with non-faulty devices to ensure the wait is exact. During heating, it must be done to completion to make sure to water is left.

The Best Final Expense Sales Presentation Ever

Arriving At The Prospects Home

When I arrive at the house, I like to park in the driveway because that is where family parks and they are more likely to greet me. I look for the door that they use the most and I go and knock on their door (usually the back or side door). While waiting for them to come to door, I look down at my clipboard and pretend to read. I try not to make any eye contact until they open the door.

When they open the door, I greet them as if they have been waiting for me all day long. “Mrs. Jones? My name is Joseph and the reason I’m stopping by today is because you recently sent this card in and it’s my job to bring you that information you requested. I’d really like to go over this with you, can I come in?”

If they say yes, GREAT!!! I’m in! If they say it’s not a good time, then I will schedule an appointment with them for the next day. Now you are off to your next one. Some people will let you in and some people will make appointments with you, some won’t be home. (Always make sure you go back or call if they’re not there.) Of course, some will slam the door in your face… ha (fortunately, not usually.)

At the end of the day, you should have made 3-4 presentations and scheduled 4-5 appointments. The point is, you are out there working and making money. I’ve honestly made $8000 in commission in one day!!! No joke.

Making Appointments

Rather then drive around all day, some people prefer to make appointments or hire someone to make appointments for them. Personally, I hired someone to do this for me. I schedule my appointments an hour and half apart. Usually it starts at 10:30am and ends at 7:30pm. I try to get 7 appointments a day, 4 days a week. I always make my appointments the day before because they forget if it’s more than one day away.

Script for Setting Appointments Yourself

Here is an appointment script you can use:

Good Afternoon ____________, This is ____________

I have in my hand, a pink card that you filled out and sent in requesting information on the Social Security Death Benefit Program.

Now, my job is to get this information out to you.

The address I have here is ___________________.

Is that correct?

Okay… Great!

On the card ________, you wrote down that you were 65 and that your wife was 63… is that correct?

Awesome, awesome…

Let me ask you a question: are you (you guys) working, retired or receiving disability?

Oh yeah, that’s good, that’s good… What time… do you/she/he get off work…

chit chat…

anyway, like I said, my job is to this information out to you and I can either get it out to you tomorrow at ______ or ______…

which is best for you?


Do you have a pen and paper handy or do you have your calendar in front of you?

I just want you to write down my first name… It’s Joseph. Last name Haworth, H-A….

Now put down there ______am/pm on ___________day… that’s tomorrow.

Well, I really appreciate your time, I look forward to meeting you and __________, at ______________am/pm _____day________.

Have a great day.

When you arrive at your appointment, smile BIG and assume you are getting in. Say you are there for the appointment and ask to come in. It’s easy to get in… most of them remember that you are coming.


To put you at ease, I want you to know that I’m not a sales person at all. I’m the most passive, non pushy person you can imagine. There really is no trick to it. So relax your shoulders and have fun.

Once you are in the door, you compliment their home, their yard, their dog, the smell of the house… you know… whatever! Just compliment. My favorite one is to mention how clean the house is. If it is really clean, it means they work really hard at it and they appreciate someone noticing. As I’m walking in the house, I look at the pictures and I either ask who is in the pictures before I sit down or I ask later. In any case, seniors love to share their pictures so make sure you ask about them.

I’m always very casual and I do my best to avoid the sales presentation for about a half hour. I like to have them talk to me and tell me about themselves and their family and their problems etc. I honestly get sucked in. I’m right there, feeling their joy and pain and I’m concerned and interested. I don’t care about the insurance at that point. Eventually, you move to the presentation and by this time you are friends and this helps them listen and helps you know how to communicate to them. Here are the steps:

1. You tell them why they received the card and what it’s about.

2. You bring up the cost of a burial and the fact their family is going to have to pay $10,000.

3. You find out why they sent the card in.

4. Ask who their beneficiary is and if they have ever paid for a funeral (both these questions bring out emotion because they don’t want their kids to pay for the funeral and by asking if they have ever paid for one, this helps them remember the pain of paying all that money for a funeral.)

5. Ask them what medications they take and what they are for. Then you ask how their overall health is. “Have you had any heart problems, or kidney, or liver or lung problems? If so, when?” You need to know when because most applications only care about the past 2 years or so.

6. Now you know what they are going to be approved for and you can show them some prices. I usually write down 3 or 4 prices on the back of their lead card. I try to match what I think they can afford. Once I write them down, I go over the prices and then hand them the sheet. I say, “Now, Mrs. Jones, I want you to look over these three prices and you tell me which one is best for you?

7. Before I give them the prices, I tell them about an immediate benefit and a graded benefit. The immediate benefit means that their family will get the full face amount if they died even after only one payment. The graded policy, however, makes them wait two years before they have full coverage. To find out which one they qualify for, I have to ask the questions on the application. (However, if you asked enough questions earlier, you already know….)

8. Before I ask the immediate benefit questions, I ask them to pick out a price first. (This is called asking for the sale. You have to ask for the sale or you will not sell!!! Plain and simple). Knowing the price they will pay helps with the next step. When you know they qualify for immediate benefits, after you ask the appropriate questions (that you already know the answers to), you stand up and congratulate them.

9. At that point, all you have to do is ask for their personal information. “Mrs. Jones, can I see your SSN and Drivers License”… the point is that you start writing the application.

We hope you will join us to see the full presentation in print, audio and on video.

Introduction to Nutrient Pollution


On August 27, 2009 the State-EPA Nutrient Innovations Task Group issued an urgent call to action to EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson. The task group studied documented levels of excess nutrients in our nations waterways. Current, and past, efforts to control these pollutants have been undertaken on the national and statewide scale. Efforts to date have been predominately "regulation at the pipe" and have not addressed the non point sources that are the root cause of elevated concentrations of nutrients in ground and surface waters. Nutrient pollution significantly affects all of us. It affects our drinking water, our recreational water, such as beaches and rivers and lakes, and it affects, and even kills, aquatic life. None of us want a bunch of dead rivers, but what can we do?

What are Nutrients?

Nutrients are elements that are essential to life. Being essential to life they are also essential components of the molecules that make up living tissue. Decaying organic matter and human and animal waste are significant sources of nutrient pollution in ground and surface water. The chemicals we manufacture and use in day-to-day life may also contain nutrients, as well as the fertilizers that we spread on our yards and farms. It is the broad application of fertilizers, the animal feeding lots, the widespread use of septic tanks, and runoff water from rainfall to school kid carwashes that are responsible for the immeasurable depths of nutrients that find their way into the watershed. These are the non-point sources that can not be easily regulated.

For 30 years the Clean Water Act has regulated industrial and municipal effluents. Limits are getting lower and lower. It is easy to take a sample at the end of a pipe. It's easy to know where the sample comes from, and who is responsible if pollutants are too high. Unfortunately, 30 years of regulation of industry has not significantly reduced the problem. Obviously, there are other sources.

And the sources are us. Our everyday activities of washing our cars, fertilizing and watering our lawnns, irrigating farms, and even desiring green golf courses. The essential nutrients that are in the fertilizers and detergents are entering the groundwater, not by an industrial effluent but down the gutter and into the storm drain. Rainfall is washing nutrients into creeks and rivers and carrying them into basins such as the Gulf of Mexico or Chesapeake Bay. Hypoxic zones, also known as dead zones, are forming where excess nutrients are deposited.

The excess nutrients cause a rapid growth of algae. The algae grow so quickly that they cut off their own light and die. This is a normal, geologic process, occurring more quickly than normal. As the algae dies it decays and the decay process consumes oxygen. Without oxygen aquatic life can not breathe.

What is Nutrient Pollution?

Nitrogen and Phosphorus are the principal elements reported to when discussing nutrient pollution. Other essential elements, such as carbon, silica, and sulfur are not included in this discussion. Organic nitrogen and organic phosphorus are associated with the organic matter we measure and report as TOC. Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential elements in DNA, RNA, and nitrogen is a major component of protein and urine. Nitrogen and phosphorus occurs as both water-soluble and water insoluble species. Unfortunately, both soluble and insoluble become bioavailable. Looking at this table, we see that Nitrogen and Phosphorus are somewhat similar chemically, for instance, the plus 5 ions known as nitrate and phosphate are very stable and highly water-soluble.


Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth ranking only behind carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in total quantity needed. The nitrogen gas making up about 80% of the atmosphere is large inert and unavailable to life directly. Lightning will convert small amounts of nitrogen to nitrate. Nitrogen in fertilizers comes from the chemical reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen gas to form ammonia. The ammonia can then be oxidized to form nitrate. Fertilizers will often contain ammonia, nitrate, and / or urea as the sources of nitrogen. Organic matter, referred to as humic matter, manure, mulch, etcetera contains about 5% Nitrogen. This nitrogen is slowly converted to ammonia by bacteria and is always oxidized to nitrite then nitrate. During a storm event, or during erosion the nitrate in soil is easily leached into the runoff.

Dissolved inorganic nitrogen including nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. Dissolved organic nitrogen including water-soluble proteins, amines, amides, and so forth. Basically declined organic life and some man made chemicals that are dissolved in water. Total Organic nitrogen is the sum of dissolved organic nitrogen and particulate organic nitrogen. Particulate organic nitrogen is, well, the insoluble organic compounds, or organic matter, in the water. Total Dissolved Nitrogen is the dissolved organic nitrogen plus the dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and Total nitrogen includes all of the above. Notice, there is REALLY no such thing as total inorganic nitrogen. This is because inorganic nitrogen compounds are all water-soluble.

Chemical Analysis of Nitrogen Compounds

Total dissolved nitrogen, or the result you get when analyzing total nitrogen on a filtered sample complexes of dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia. Methods used to determine TDN typically rely on an alkaline persulfate digestion that converts all of the nitrogen present to nitrate and then the nitrate is determined colorimetrically. Analyzing inorganic nitrogen alone will only recover about 30 – 40% of the total dissolved nitrogen in the natural environment. Sewage treatment and industrial plant effluents, on the other hand, are predominately inorganic nitrogen (nitrate) since the treatment process is designed to completely oxidize dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate.

Total nitrogen, or the result you get when analyzing total nitrogen on a non-filtered sample complexes of dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia plus particulate nitrogen. Since all inorganic nitrogen compounds are soluble, particulate nitrogen is almost entirely organic nitrogen, or PON. Methods used to determine TN can rely on the same alkaline persulfate digestion used to determine TDN with the exception that samples are not filtered. Since samples are not filtered, the automated version is not applicable if there is a significant amount of sediment (or solids) in the sample. In other words, the automated inline digestion methods measure TDN and are only applicable if TDN and TN are essentially equivalent (there is no particulate organic nitrogen).

The DIN fraction, measured to calculate the Total Organic Nitrogen content can be, and should be, analyzed on a filtered sample. Remember that there is no such thing as Total Inorganic Nitrogen since it is equal to Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen. Another infamous parameter in the total nitrogen world is, of course, TKN (Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen). TKN, as routinely used, does not measure nitrate or nitrite. It is essentially a measure of organic nitrogen plus ammonia nitrogen.

TKN is the classical, if you will, analysis for total organic nitrogen. TKN has its roots in food and feed analysis as a way to quantify the amount of protein. TKN has been extrapolated to environmental analysis and is the regulated parameter for Total Nitrogen. Unless steps are taken to include nitrate and nitrite the regular TKN method does not measure it. TKN essentially measures organic nitrogen and ammonia. TKN is sufficient in POTW or municipal influences because these samples rarely have nitrate in them anyway. Recall the nitrogen reactions. An influent to a POTW will contain particulate nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen, and ammonia. The particulate nitrogen mostly settles as sludge removing it from the equation. Organic nitrogen and ammonia are oxidized to nitrate during the treatment process. The TKN digestion boils the sample in concentrated sulfuric acid in the presence of a metallic catalyst to speed the reaction. Potassium sulfate is added to raise the boiling point to about 380 C. The digestion will not completely recover all organic nitrogen compounds making the TKN result actually less than or equal to the TN determined by alkaline persulfate oxidation.

According to the EPA definition, Total Nitrogen equals TKN plus nitrate plus nitrite.


Phosphorus is an essential nutrient found in living organisms as part of DNA among other important molecules. Phosphorus is always found in nature bound to other atoms and usually as the inorganic phosphate. It is phosphate that is available to plants and used as a fertilizer. It is phosphate that is consumed by algae and has the potential to cause algal blooms. Measurement of total phosphorus is important because it can, with time, convert to bioavailable soluble phosphate.

Dishwashing, laundry, and many hand detergents and / or soap contain phosphorus. The phosphorus content in detergent can be as high as 8.7%. Phosphate is a very effective way to improve soap quality, especially in waters that contain high amounts of calcium and magnesium. Unfortunately, the phosphates in these detergents find their way into the environment. In the 1970's green rivers and lakes were becoming common and phosphate usage in soaps began its eventual reduction. Although there is not a federal ban on phosphate is soap many states are taking action. For example, Washington State has limited the amount of phosphate in dishwasher detergent to 0.5%

Chemical Analysis of Phosphorus

Phosphorus can exist in water in different forms. The standard method for phosphorus is meant to measure only phosphate, also called reactive phosphate. This is because what is actually measured is defined by the molybdate reaction itself. Phosphorus species are distinguished from each other empirically by filtration, and then a series of digestions that selectively convert phosphorus to phosphate. After the digestion phosphate is measured. Thus, to analyze organic phosphorus only, one digests for total phosphorus in one sample aliquot, and hydrolysable phosphorus in another aliquot. Reactive phosphate is then determined in each digest and Organic Phosphorus is calculated by difference.

Total Phosphate is water-soluble. Instrumental methods require that samples be filtered, or the turbidity and / or solids will interfere. There is certainly to measure total phosphate you must filter the sample. Since total reactive phosphorus is equal to filterable reactive phosphorus the results are the same. Remember though, that for best results, filtration should be in the field. The portion for the total analysis is not filtered. If the particulates (TSS or SS) are high, then continuous flow methods should not be used for the analysis of Total Phosphorus. Total phosphorus is batch digested that converts all phosphorus compounds to phosphate. The digest is filtered and phosphate is then measured, usually by molybdenum blue.

The continuous flow method for TDP utilizes 254 nm UV irradiation to assist in the digestion of organic material. Since continuous flow methods can not be used to adequately digest samples containing high amounts of solids and continuous digestion should not be used unless the total phosphorus is essentially equal to the dissolved phosphorus.

TKN is the classical digestion for total organic nitrogen. The TKN digest can also be used to analyze for total phosphorus. The advantage in this is not added recovery, for the acid persulfate quantitatively recovers all of the total phosphorus. The only advantage in the TKP is the ability for the laboratory to test for TKN and TP in a single digest. The perceived benefit is time and labor savings. Because of the higher acid and salt concentration of the resulting TKP digest compared to persulfate digests, TKP detection limits are typically higher that limits found by persulfate. The other advantage to TKP is, of course, that it is EPA approved.

All of the colorimetric methods used for the determination of phosphate by molybdenum blue are highly dependent upon final acid concentration and the amount of molybdate. Attempts made at analyzing total phosphorus digests without careful attention to acid concentration are often not successful. After the digestion is complete, you are measuring orthophosphate. Any method used to measure phosphate can be used. The problem with extending a total P determination to Ion Chromatography, for instance, comes from the excess sulfate ion introduced in the digestion. Early methods utilizing persulfate in sulfuric acid neutralized the sample and then analyzed orthophosphate. Some continuous flow methods measure the phosphate in the acid solution adjusting the acid in the reagent accordingly. The TKP digestions have really only been tested using a mercury catalyst, and excess chloride must be added to prevent interference from the mercury. Like TKN, the blue color of a copper catalyst may interfere with the method. The auto dialysis method helps to control the final acid concentration and some of the residual color introduced by the copper. Dialysis is essentially an online dilution leading to a higher detection limit than the cleaner persulfate digest. To sum up, for lower total phosphorus numbers (say below 0.1 ppm) it is recommended to use the acid persulfate digestion because the matrix will be easier to control and work with. For concentrations above 0.1 ppm, the TKP digestion is adequate.


The clean water act was signed amid stories of massive fish kills and rivers catching on fire. We all know that these things rarely happen in the US anymore. We have monitored sewage treatment effluents and in many cases applied numerical volumes on the amount of nutrients that can be discharged. We still have a ways to go.

Our chemical analysis methods were written for highly polluted water. The methods we use were not validated at the lower concentration levels we need to measure today. Many of the conditions of these methods assume higher concentrations will be present, and the former rigid nature of the Clean Water Act rules did not let us change anything. Fortunately, in 2007 the EPA added Part 136.6 to the CFR allowing us to make configurations to our nutrient methods providing the modifications improve method performance. These modifications are going to allow us to monitor more water, with better accuracy and detection limits.

We have more to go, because regulation of point sources has not solved the problem. Much of the problem is the non point sources we call storm water run off and irrigation water. We need to watch what we do when we apply fertilizers and watch what goes down our storm drains. But more importantly, what we need is increased monitoring of our rivers and streams. The only way we can begin to solve our problems is to know exactly what they are. To understand this problem we need more data, and the data we need is accurate, low level quantitative analysis of nutrients.

Web Design Jobs for Felons – Tips To Getting Hired As a Web Designer

Jobs for felons in web design is an industry that is in demand. Felon Employment can be readily available with jobs associated with the internet, computers and the growing mobile market. All of these industries are in need of web designers and do supply jobs for felons.

It can be difficult for felons to get jobs, especially in the down economy. This is unfortunate, as many times felons have turned their lives around. However, there are plenty of good opportunities out there, regardless of what your past might be like. Website design is a great example, as it is a job you can do from home. There are plenty of web design jobs for felons because you have the option to start your own business and work from home. Clients will not care about your personal history and will not ask when or not you are a felon.

In order to be successful in website design, you need to be creative, hard working, and motivated. If you have these hits, then you will be able to thrive working for yourself at home. Potential clients will want to see some examples of work that you have done before hiring you, but that is all they will care to know. This is what makes web design jobs for felons such a great option. Of course, that is not the only benefit to the website design industry. You will be able to enjoy a career that has a very bright future and you will be able to make a nice salary.

New businesses will always need websites, and they look to talented web designers for that. What you charge per website is up to you, and whether you work out of your own home or an office is your decision as well. You can essentially set your own hours, and you will not ever have to worry about explaining your past mistakes to anyone. Few jobs can boast all these luxuries, which makes web design jobs for felons something to consider.

Many people are intimidated by starting their own business, and would rather work for a firm where they could count on a steady paycheck though. Even still, web design firms are not usually related to hire felons because of the fact that they can work from home. As long as you can show them that you know how to design quality websites, they will most likely be willing to hire you. So while it can be difficult to find employment if you have a bad record, there will always be web design jobs for felons. Consider that career path, and you will be able to truly leave the past behind you.

Jobs for felons in web design are in demand and there the people with the skills are getting hired. This industry is not going anywhere and is actually expanding every year. If you have a hack for computers and enjoy art this may be a good career fit. If you have a criminal record and can not find a job, just know that there are web design jobs for felons out there.

The Theory of Everything Finally Revealed – Secret Relationship Between Gravity and Electromagnetism

The theory of everything (TOE) is a theory that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena. Neverheless, this theory has not been found yet.

After Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity was published in 1915, the search for the theory of everything combining gravity with electromagnetism began. Although Einstein thought it was possible to find such a theory, many physicists thought the task was impossible. The "doubting Thomases" continue to this day.

Albert Einstein believed that a theory combining gravity with electromagnetism would have the ability to fully explain and link together all known physical phenomena. I agree.

Sadly, Albert Einstein died trying to find such a theory. Although he never found it, he left behind a very valuable hint. The hint lies in his mass-energy equivalence formula. Using basic physics, I'll attempt to conceal the theory of everything (TOE) that's buried deep within Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula.


In physics, mass-energy equivalence is the concept that mass is energy, and energy is mass. This relationship is expressed using the mass-energy equivalence formula

E = mc2


E = energy,
m = mass,
c2 = the speed of light squared.


F = ma (force equals mass multiplied by acceleration) is the second law of motion proposed by Sir Isaac Newton.

F = ma teachers us that accelerating or enlarging an object increases its force.

For example, a car hitting a brick wall while accelerating to 100 miles / hour hits the wall more forcefully than a car accelerating to 10 miles / hour, if both cars have the same mass. Likewise, a 10-pound bowling ball hits bowling pins more forcefully than a 1-pound bowling ball, if both balls accelerate at the same speed.

F = ma can be written as m = F / a.

Therefore Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula "E = mc2" can be rewritten as "E = F / ax c2."


Albert Einstein's equivalence states states that acceleration and gravity are equivalent.

Two scenarios illustrate this.

First Scenario: Let's suppose you're standing in your kitchen holding a cup of coffee. You release the cup. The cup falls to the kitchen floor, spilling coffee on the floor.

Second Scenario: Let's suppose you jumped out of a highflying airplane while holding a cup of coffee. You're free-falling weightlessly. You release the cup. The cup floats weightlessly next to you; spilled coffee floats weightlessly next to you and the cup.

In the first scenario, you're under gravity's influence. You're gravitating instead of accelerating. In the second scenario, you're under acceleration of influence. You're accelerating instead of gravitating.

By substituting for gravity, acceleration can cancel gravity's effects. In fact, acceleration and gravity are the same thing! Now you know why astronauts float weightlessly within an accelerating space shuttle orbiting the Earth.

Using "g" to symbolize gravity, Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula "E = F / ax c2" can be rewritten as "E = F / gx c2."


Electromagnetic energy is a specific type of energy.

Examples of electromagnetic energy are radio frequencies, microwaves, terahertz radiation, infrared radiation, visible radiation (light), ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays.

Using "EM" to symbolize electromagnetic energy, Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula "E = F / gx c2" can be rewritten as "EM = F / gx c2."


"EM = F / gx c2" combines gravity with electromagnetism, meeting the criterion for being the theory of everything. So we can stop rewriting Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula. Since "EM = F / gx c2" focuses on electromagnetic energy and force per gravity, we can rename this formula "electromagnetic-energy and force-per-gravity equivalence."

This formula states that electromagnetic energy equals force divided by gravity multiplied by the speed of light squared. In other words, electromagnetic energy and force per gravity are equivalent – the same thing!

Theory of Everything: Electromagnetic-Energy and Force-per-Gravity Equivalence

Formula: EM = F / gx c2


EM = electromagnetic energy,
F = force,
g = gravity,
c2 = the speed of light squared.

Notice that electromagnetic energy and gravity are inversely related. The stronger the gravity, the winner the electromagnetic energy. The weaker the gravity, the stronger the electromagnetic energy.


You may be wondering, "Are electromagnetic energy and gravity really inversely related? And if so, why?" To answer your questions, we need to turn our attention to a phenomenon called gravitational redshift.

Gravitational redshift occurs when electromagnetic energy such as a light beam escapes from a gravitational field. As the light beam escapes, its color shifts toward red. Red means that the light beam has lost energy, has a longer wavelength, and appears to travel slower in time.

Gravity's ability to stretch a light beam's wavelength, causing energy loss, and its ability to slow down a light beam's speed does not make sense; because the speed and frequency of light can not be changed.

In fact, gravity can not really slow down a light beam of speed and frequency – but it can slow down time related to the light beam! And that's exactly how gravity makes a light beam appear slower with a longer wavelength!

The phenomenon of gravity slowing down time is called gravitational time dilation. The stronger the gravity field, the more time is slowed down within that gravity field. The weaker the gravity field, the less time is slowed down within that gravity field.

So the stronger the gravitational field, the stronger the gravitational redshift. And the weaker the gravitational field, the maker of gravitational redshift.


In summarizing, the Electromagnetic-Energy and Force-per-Gravity Equivalence (EEFpGE) formula combines gravity with electromagnetism, giving it the ability to fully explain and link together all known physical forces. You can see that strong force, weak force, or any other force can easily incorporate into this formula.

The Electromagnetic-Energy and Force-per-Gravity Equivalence (EEFpGE) theory makes the following assumptions:

Assumption # 1: Electromagnetic energy and force per gravity are equivalent – the same thing!

Assumption # 2: Electromagnetic energy and gravity are inversely related.

Assumption # 3: The stronger the gravity, the more time slows down.

Assumption # 4: Since the EEFpGE theory combines gravity with electromagnetism, it meets the criterion for being the theory of everything.

Assumption # 5: The EEFpGE theory can fully explain and link together all known physical phenomena.

Health and Nutrition During Pregnancy


Pregnancy is a nine month journey … It is a time in your life to feel happy, excited, serene and joyful. However it is also quite normal to experience anxieties about the birth and worrying about whether you are nourishing yourself properly, exercising, keeping, calm, positive, loving thoughts and emotions within your being.
Pregnancy lasts 39 weeks or nine months from conception and is looked at in three stages.

Health & Nutrition During Pregnancy

To ensure that your baby develops in a healthy environment, you should keep your body as fit and well nourished as you possibly can. Do not think in terms of devising a special diet for pregnancy, it is more to do with eating a good variety of the right foods which are those that are rich in the essential nutrients.

Weight Gain

The amount of weight put on by women in pregnancy varies between 9 – 16 kilograms, with the most rapid gain usually between weeks 24 and 32.
Do not "eat for two". Some 46 percent of women gain too much weight during pregnancy.

Diet During Pregnancy

You Are What You Eat therefore Your Baby Is What You Eat!

What You Eat affects your baby's future. What you eat in the following nine months can affect your baby's health, as well as your own, for decades to come.

A good diet is vital to health during pregnancy, and to the normal development of the baby. The time to pay attention to diet, and if necessary change it for the better, is several months prior to conception and not when pregnancy is confirmed.

During the critical early weeks the normal, healthy development of the embryo depends on the mother's state of nutritional health and also her toxic state.

Mineral and vitamin imbalances which would probably go unnoticed in a child or adult can have a disastrous effect on the developing baby.

This is because the cells in the embryo are growing at such a rapid rate, causing an exaggerated response to any harmful effects.

A natural, organic, whole food diet is the only one which will adequately serve during pregnancy.

A high quality diet is needed to maintain your health and the best possible conditions for the baby to develop.

As our environment becomes more polluted and the soils more depleted of nutrients, going 100% organic, if possible, is the best thing you can do for oneself, and for a developing fetus, and last but not least; the environment.

Pesticides, herbicides, and other forms of pollution interfer with the metabolic pathways of many nutrients and thus indirectly interfer with the development of the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems.

Eating as many of our foods in their live, raw form preserves 70 to 80% more vitamins and minerals, 50% more bioactive protein, and up to 96% more bioavailable vitamin B12.

Grains, nuts and seeds are the most potent health-building foods of all. Eaten raw or sprouted if possible (some grains need to be cooked), they contain all the essential nutrients for human growth, sustenance, and ongoing optimal health.

A well balanced diet is based on whole cereals and grains (brown bread, rice, pasta, buckwheat, rye, oats), nuts and seeds, pulses and beans, fresh fruit and vegetables, pure unrefined oils such as cold pressed olive oil, with some fish and eggs if required.

Fruit and vegetables are all excellent sources of vitamins, minerals and trace elements provided they are eaten in the right way.

They should be fresh, either raw or quickly cooked, steamed or stir-fried, and preferably consumed immediately after they are harvested.

Salt is needed to maintain the extra volume of blood, to supply enough placental blood, and to guard against dehydration and shock from blood loss at birth, (except in cases of kidney and heart problems) Suggested form of salt is Himalayan Pink Salt.


• Form the basic building blocks of all our body tissues, cells, hormones, and antibodies.
• Food must fuel the growth of the uterus, which can grow to 30 times its original size over the nine months gestation period Add the development of breastfeeding, placenta, development of breast milk, the baby's body.

Proteins are divided into complete and incomplete:

Complete proteins contain significant amounts of all the essential amino acids, you find them in meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk and soya bean products.

Vegetable proteins are incomplete and contain only some of the essential amino acids. Some vegetarian sources of complete protein are: buckwheat, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, flaxseeds, and almonds.

Plant proteins are easier for our bodies to digest and produce less toxic waste than animal proteins. The fiber in plants also has a very beneficial effect on the bowel; it ensures healthy bowel movements and the correct bacterial population in the gut, and anticipates the buildup of putreactive bacteria produced by excess animal proteins.

Eating meat and meat products also carries the risk from chemical and hormonal residues found in intensely reared animals. Also soya beans or soy products are mostly genetically engineered, it is wise to stay clear of them.

Pregnant women need about 60 to 75 grams of protein a day.

The best and cleanest sources of protein are green vegetables, spirulina, seeds (hemp, flax, sesame, poppy, sunflower, chia, quinoa, amaranth).

Real strength and building material comes from:

• green – leafy vegetables, seeds and superfoods. They contain all the amino acids we require.

Essential Fatty Acids are vital to:

• the development of the baby's nervous and immune systems. They build the cell walls in all our tissues, and so that trace elements and fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D, and K) can be absorbed.
• EFA's are needed to make adrenal and sex hormones, and to maintain a healthy population of bacteria in the gut.
• They are also essential to the normal development of the fetus's brain: 70 per cent of all EFAs go to the brain.

The Best Fatty Foods include:

Avocados, Borage Seed Oil, Raw Cacao Beans (Chocolate Nuts), Coconut oil / butter, Flax seed and its oil, Grape seeds, Hemp seed and its oil (cold pressed), RAW Nuts of all types (cashews must be soft to be truly "raw"), Nut Butters (almond butter is excellent), Olives and their oil (stone pressed or cold pressed), Peanuts (must be certified aflatoxin free), Poppy seeds, pumpkin seeds and their oil (cold pressed), Sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, tahini (sesame butter), or even better if you can get hold of it at a health food store unhulled tahini (an alkaline fat, high in calcium), Young Coconuts (young Thai coconuts are available in the US at Asian markets), Coconut milk, coconuts (mature).


Superfoods are foods with extraordinary properties. Usually they contain all essential amino acids, high levels of minerals, and a wide array of unique, even rare, nutrients. I have included the superfoods in the nutritional tips below.

Some prominent superfoods to include:

1) Himalayan Pink Salt – offers 84 minerals exactly identical to the elements in your body.

2) Spirulina (a spiral algae consumed for thousands of years by indigenous people in Mexico and Africa)
-It has the highest concentration of protein on Earth. 60%
-It is also very high in Iron, and many other vitamins and minerals.
-It is one of the highest sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on the planet. Only mother's milk is higher.
-It is recommended to take more Spirulina during breastfeeding because of the GLA.
-Spirulina is very high in human-active B12.

3) Blue-Green Algae (Klamath lake algae wonderful brain food). It is high in protein, chlorophyll, vitamins, and minerals and enhances the immune system.

I value it in pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and lactation for its enhancing effect on brain function.

4) Bee Pollen (wild pollen, not orchard pollen, should be used and should come from ethically harvested sources where bees are treated respectfully. Bee Pollen is nature's most complete food) All amino acids, immune system, brain, eyes.

5) Flax, Sunflower, Chia, Sesame and pumpkin seeds are the best to use. Flaxseeds are excellent and the highest vegetarian source of omega-3-essential fatty acids, important for the immune system, nervous system, and brain development. I recommend one to two tablespoons daily of the uncooked and unheated oil or three to six tablespoons of freshly ground flaxseeds. (Use a coffee grinder). You may also grind the other above mentioned seeds and add them to salads, and fruit salads.

6) Wild young coconuts (not be confused with white Thai coconuts found in markets, wild coconuts are one of the greatest foods on earth. Great in smoothies.


Here Are Some Nutrition Tips that will help you both:

1) Get Enough Folic Acid. 400 micrograms (mcg) daily. Folic Acid reduces chance of birth defects such as spina bifida. Especially in the first 6 weeks of pregnancy.

2) Best Food Sources of Folic Acid are: RAW Green leafy vegetables, including spinach, kale, beet greens, beet root, chard, asparagus, and broccoli. Starchy vegetables containing folic acid are corn, lima beans, green peas, sweet peas, sweet potatoes, artichokes, okra, and parsnips. Oats are high in folic acid as well as whole wheat brown bread. Many fruits have folic acid such as oranges, cantaloupe, pineapple, banana, and many berries including loganberries, boysenberries, and strawberries. Also fresh sprouts such as lentil, mung bean sprouts are excellent sources. REMINDER: Folic acid is available from fresh, unprocessed food, which is why it is so common a deficient in our culture's processed, cooked food diet.

3) Eat Your Fish. Getting enough DHA (found in abundance in seafood and flaxseed) is one of the most important things you can do for you and your developing baby's health. DHA is the omega-3 fatty acid that can boost baby's brain development before birth, leading to better vision, memory, motor skills and language comprehension in early childhood. Eat at least 12 ounces a week of low-mercury fish, or take a DHA supplement such as Krill Oil.

• Avoid large, predatory fish such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and tilefish. (As big fish eat smaller fish, the larger, longer-living ones accumulate more mercury).

• Seaweed and Cilantro remove heavy metals and radioactive isotopes from the tissues.

4) Avoid Alcohol – The main risk of consuming alcohol during pregnancy is the development of "fetal alcohol syndrome" (FAS). mother .. NO AMOUNT IS SAFE. AVOID TOTALLY.

5) Avoid Caffeine: In high amounts causes birth defects and still births, miscarriages and premature delivery.

6) Avoid Drugs – As far as possible all orthodontic drugs should be avoided during pregnancy, especially in the first three months. Consider natural alternatives and visiting a medical herbalist or nutritionist prior to conception.


Although the chance of contracting one of these rare infections is limited, you will reduce this likelihood even further if you follow the basic guidelines given here.

Listeriosis – caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this is a very rare infection. Its symptoms are similar to flu and gastroenteritis and it can cause stillbirth.

Toxoplasmosis – usually symptomless (apart from mild flu symptoms), this can cause serious problems for the baby. Caused by direct contact with the organism Toxoplasma Gondi, it is found in cat faeces, raw meat, and unpasteurized goats' milk. Soil on fruit and vegetables may be contaminated.

Salmonella – Contamination with Salmonella bacterium can cause bacterial food poisoning. This does not typically harm the baby directly, but any illness involving a high temperature, vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration could cause a miscarriage or preterm labor.


Herbal remedies are for the most part quite safe to be taken during pregnancy; some are useful alternatives to drugs both in chronic illness and acute minor problems such as may arise during pregnancy. It is still prefer to take NO MEDICATION whatever in the first three months, unless there is a specific problem that needs treatment.

There are many Herbs which should never be taken in pregnancy – their emmonagogue or oxytocic properties may, in large amounts, cause uterine contracts and thereby risk miscarriage: I will only mention a few as there at least twenty on the list.

Nutmeg Myristica Fragrans
Thuja Thuja occidentalis
Calendula Calendula officinalis
Sage Salvia officinalis
Thyme Thymus vulgaris
Marjoram Origanum vulgare
Lovage Levisticum officinale
Rosemary Rosmarinus Officinalis
Rhubarb Rheum sp.

Herbs that are safe to eat to take in culinary doses but not as a medicine during pregnancy include:

celery seed, cinnamon, fennel, fenugreek, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage and saffron.

If you enjoyed reading this article and would like to read the full version of this e-book called 'A Natural Approach to Pregnancy', visit my website or e-mail me at: barbara @ easyconsciousliving .com

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"The Doctor Of The Future Will Give No Medicines, But Will Interest His Patients In The Care Of The Human Frame, In Diet, And In The Causes Of Diseases."
– Edomom Edison.

How to Buy a Quality Used Sailboat and Avoid the Lemons

Buying a used sailboat can go one of two ways – it can either be a great bargain or it can turn out to be an awful money pit. Of course, everyone wants to find that great bargain they can brag about to all their sailing friends. This article will help you understand the important things you need to consider when purchasing a used sailboat. If you are new to sailing and would not know a well crafted boat from an inflatable dinghy, consider bringing an experienced professional to help you inspect the boat. It will be worth the investment, and you'll probably get an education in the process.

Construction Material

The most important thing to remember with sailboat materials is to avoid wood. It is difficult and costly to maintain, in addition to hiding flaws that could have been impossible to detect without teething it apart. Fiberglass would be the best choice. While some claim that a fiberglass sailboat is "maintenance-free," this is very true. Plan on spending a few days per year on maintenance which could include applying antifouling paint to the bottom (to prevent the growth of barnacles and algae), regular waxing of the topsides with a good marine wax to prevent oxidation of the gelcoat, varnishing any teak trim annually, regular inspections of the mast and rigging (about as regularly as you have your car tuned up), annual inspection of your sails by your sailmaker to repair any small rips or tears, and regular engine maintenance.

If you're not a fan of fiberglass, you can also consider steel. However, be careful to inspect for rust. This is one problem you do not want to have. There are also boats constructed from a material called ferro-cement. Ferro-cement is the least expensive construction for boats over 25 feet. This construction methods uses steel wires covered with a sand and cement plaster. But, unless you build this boat yourself, steer clear of these as they are typically built by amateurs.


Only consider sailboats with newer engines, as older or vintage engines will be difficult to find replacement parts for. While it may be enticing to own a vintage model, really evaluate how much time and money you are willing to spend on maintenance.

The most reliable engine test is the "Smoke Test." Well-maintained diesel engines will blow small amounts of black smoke with some white – especially if started cold. However, steer clear of diesels that blow blue smoke or a steady stream of white smoke. While diesels are generally very reliable, they do require regular maintenance. Ask for maintenance records for oil changes, etc. Gasoline engines should be leak-free and have a bilge blower that operates correctly. Again, ask for maintenance records.

Sails and Rigging

The only way to make sure the sails are in good repair is to remove them from their bags and spread them out on a flat surface. Look for mildew, previously made repairs, worn spots, folded stitches, and broken slides. Check that the winch operates smoothly. Inspect for worn pins and shackles, worn lines, broken blocks, and fraying wire. Hoist the sails, if possible, to ensure everything works properly.


Look for any leaks around hatches or portholes. These can be costly repairs to have to fix later on. Have someone who really knows electrical check the wiring. Again, this can be expensive to fix later, or even dangerous if a fire breaks out while on the water. Check to see if there are any wires banging around inside the mast – as this could surely keep you up at night if you're a light sleeper.


Just remember when you're buying a used sailboat that you're really in the driver's seat. Most sellers are typically in either one of two scenarios: They are either upgrading to a larger boat or they're getting out of sailing altogether. Either way, they will be pretty motivated to sell. Do not pay more than you need to. Start with a low offer and see if they counter. If buying through an auction website, do not get caught up the passion of bidding. There are plenty of boats for sale, so if you do not win the first auction, do not give up.

Use a reliable sailboat transporter, to ensure your new purchase arrives in the same condition you bought it in. And, above all, enjoy your new boat. There's nothing like a day on the water!

Understanding The Different Types Of Roof Trusses

Roof trusses, usually fabricated from wood, frame house roofs during construction or renovation. There are many different types of roof trusses, and all of them support the other material that's used to construct the rest of the roof. They help support and spread out the load to the exterior walls.

Let's look at the different types of trusses that are in common use.

Bowstring Roof Trusses

Bowstring trusses are arched and usually large. They support the weight of buildings like aircraft hangars and warehouses which need plenty of open space within. There are multiple beams that make up an arch, with sheets of metal or other material making up the roof outside.

Water runs off easily from such roofs, and there is no need for a ridge cap like for other types of trusses.

Dual Pitched Trusses

The standard triangular truss design is such that two sides slope up to the apex above, with struts (called "upper chords") leading down from it. They are attached to a horizontal beam that makes up the base of the triangle.

The upper chords are typically of different lengths in this kind of truss, making the apex off-center. This allows plenty of open space unobstructed by poles for support.

Gambrel Trusses

Gambrel trusses are like barn roofs in appearance. There are two upper chords, one longer than the other. They meet at the apex of the truss, just like the dual pitch variety. Because the sides are steep, there's enough room for living space under the roof, or to use as an attic for storage.

A Gambrel roof truss for the home allows you to include an upper floor benefit the roof. There's also extra room for large windows, which results in a brighter appearance inside.

It is an expert's choice to pick the best from the different types of roof trusses for a specific building, and depending upon your unique needs and requirements.

American Mobsters – George Leonidas Leslie – King of the Bank Robbers

George Leonidas Leslie started out in life as one of the privileged class. Yet, he wound up a criminal, known by the New York City Police as "King of the Bank Robbers."

Leslie was born in Cincinnati in 1840. His father owned a brewery and Leslie started out as an academic, graduating from the University of Cincinnati with honors and a degree in architecture. After both his parents died, Leslie sold his father's brewery, cave up his architectural career and moved to New York City. There he fell in with a bad crowd and decided he could make a good career in robbing banks. It is estimated that in the ten years period spanning 1874-1884, Leslie was responsible for 80% of all bank robberies committed in the United States, taking in cash estimated to be between 7-12 million dollars.

In New York City, Leslie posed as a man about town with considerable means. He belonged to the most exclusive clubs and was a regular theater-goer and a patron of the arts. He used his guise to gain access to various bits of information that make his bank-robbing life most profitable. Leslie would often spend as many as three years planning a bank job. When he found a bank to his liking, Leslie would try to get the blueprints of the interior of the bank. If this were not possible, he would visit the bank posing as a depositor, and with his experience in architecture, he would draw up rough plans on the inside of the bank himself. Sometimes Leslie would have one of his gang members get a job at the bank as either a night watchman, or a porter, so that Leslie could get the exact specifications, and make and model of the bank vault.

After obtaining this valuable information, Leslie would buy a duplicate of the bank safe. He spent days and sometimes weeks, perfecting the art of opening the safe. He shied away from using dynamite to crack the safe, deciding that would cause too much noise and lead to being detected. Leslie method of opening safes including boring a hole underneath the dial, then using a thin piece of steel to manipulate the tumblers into place. To cover almost any contingency in robbing a bank, Leslie had a set of burglar tools specially created for him that cost the staggering sum of $ 3000, which was more than most people earned in several years.

To perfect the job he was planning, Leslie sometimes set up a room, in a loft he rented downtown, to resemble the inside of the bank he was planning to rob. There Leslie, and the men who he selected for that particular bank job, would spend considering amounts of time practicing exactly how the bank robbery should develop. Leslie would darkened the lights and watch his men go through their maneuvers in the darkness, then critique their work. His cohorts consist of various known criminals like Jimmy Hope, Jimmy Brady, Abe Coakley, Shang Draper, Red Leary, Johnny Dobbs, Worcester Sam Perris, Bill Kelly and Banjo Pete Emerson.

In May of 1875, Leslie decided to rob the Manhattan Savings Institution at 644 Broadway. Leslie, through his "inside man" at the bank, Patrick Shelvin, found out the make and model of the lock on the bank's vault. He procured an exact model from the manufacturers, Valentine & Bulter, and spent six months perfecting the opening of the lock. On October 27, 1875, Shelvin let Leslie and his crew into the bank at night. When their work was done, they had stolen $ 3.5 million in cash and securities, almost $ 50 million in today's money. No one was arrested until May, 1879, and as a result Jimmy Hope and Bill Kelly were kissed and sent to prison. Abe Coakley and Banjo Pete Emerson were also arrested, but were acquitted at trial. Leslie was never arrested and his involvement in the robbery was not known until after his death.

Leslie reputation drew to such gigantic proportions, he was often called in as a "consultant" by other bank-robbing gangs. It was believed he received more than $ 20,000 just to travel to San Francisco to look over plans for a local bank heist.

Yet, if Leslie had one weakness, it was for the affections of women. He began an affair with the girlfriends of one of his cohorts, Shang Draper. On June 4th, 1884, Leslie's decomposed body was found lying at the base of Tramps Rock, near the boarder line between Westchester and the Bronx. He was shot twice in the head. Police speculated that Leslie was killed by the jealous Draper in a house at 101 Lynch Street in Brooklyn, then his body was carted away to Tramps Rock by three of his associates, who had been seen near Yonkers at the time the body was discovered. But there was little evidence of the crime and no one was ever arrested.