The Seven Basic Skills of Wrestling – Introduction

Wrestling, man’s oldest and most challenging sport, can trace its history back 5,000 years. Inscriptions on the walls of the tombs at Beni Hasan, Egypt, show maneuvers that are the same as those practiced in any wrestling room today.

This article describes the Seven Basic Skills as outlined by USA Wrestling’s National Instructional Staff.

As a member of the USA Wrestling National Coaching Staff, I had the privilege of introducing the Seven Basic Skills at the USA Wrestling National Developmental Camps, Clinics, and at training camps for team members.

With these skills as a foundation, a well conditioned and mentally prepared athlete can attain the level of CHAMPION. They will help the wrestler reach his/her full potential. In all athletic endeavors, mastery and application of these fundamentals will produce competitive excellence.

The Seven Basic Skills include:

Position

Motion

Changing Levels

Penetration

Lifting

Back Step

Back Arch 

These Basic Skills provide sound bio-mechanical skills needed to obtain competence and proficiency at all levels of wrestling. As a coach it is essential that you learn the fundamentals of these skills and develop a proficient communication that will enable you to train your wrestlers daily using a consistent vocabulary that expresses these basic skills. You must coach your athletes in such a consistent manner that they will understand when you are telling them that they need to improve their position they will know what you mean. If you are telling them that they need to change their level or create motion during a match they will understand clearly what you are telling them to do. By adopting such a fundamental vocabulary you will be able to take your wrestlers and your program to that championship level.

It is imperative that all wrestlers understand clearly what each skill requires and that they include them in their repertoire of technique and skill set. No matter what maneuver is being executed, one or more of the Seven Basic Skills will be essential to completing the move successfully.

In the next article, I will discuss the first skill known as Position.

Coach Hatfield

Why Choose Mahogany?

Mahogany has been one of the wood types used in the production process of some of the finest and most expensive furniture items ever. If you are not sure that my statement is correct, all you have to do is a quick search on the Internet regarding some mahogany antique furniture, and you will be amazed at the beauty of this furniture type. This is the article where we talk about the advantages of mahogany as a material to have incorporated in your house hold, and why you should go for it.

The first advantage of mahogany as a wood is durability. There are dining table made from mahogany that are 400 years old and can be found in museums around the world. The wood is naturally resistant, and can withstand the harness of time for many, many years. There are sure chances, that if you buy a true mahogany table, it may last longer than you are your kids also. Red mahogany has even one greater advantage in comparison to normal mahogany, and that is the fact that it is resistant to termites. How is it possible for wood to be resistant to a natural wood eater? I have no clue, I just know it is possible, and due to the amazing properties this type of mahogany has to offer, red mahogany wood flooring is becoming a preferred choice among house owners.

Mahogany has a natural tendency to blend into any type of home. Normally, mahogany is used as a traditional material, and is mainly focused on in the manufacturing process of antique dining tables, and other furniture pieces, which were mainly used in the Victorian era. However it also has the ability to blend in with other furniture types and acts like a wooden chameleon inside your house. The wood type however does have a natural beauty and elegance to it, and this is the main reason why it has been used for so many years inside the houses of some of the most famous figures of the world.

In recent uses, mahogany serves as an optional material inside some luxury cars, being mounted on the doors, the dashboard, and sometimes even the steering wheel of the car. If you think this option will cost you a lot, you are correct, as these extra option will cost you around three to four thousand dollars more added to the price of the car.

So why choose mahogany? Because it is strong, beautiful, elegant, classy and long lasting.

Are High Performance Olympic Gymnasts Less Likely to Get Sea Sick or Motion Sickness?

It is amazing the amount of talent and ability that our Olympic gymnasts have when it comes to balance. For instance, in gymnastics we have Olympians doing incredible acrobatics on a very thin balance beam. Only rarely do they fall off, or lose their poise even in the most incredible maneuvers. This is one tough apparatus to compete on, and one can only ask; how do they do it? Years and years and days upon end of practice, often six or more hours per day – the results are amazing and no one can disagree with that. Okay so, I'd like to pose another question to you along this line of thinking.

Would high-performance Olympic gymnasts be less sooner to motion sickness or seasiness on a boat? You may not think the answer is relevant, but it actually is, it would mean that people who do training and work on their spatial techniques could prevent themselves from getting sea sick. If that were the case, then sometimes our fighter pilots, sailors, and folks in various other industries and careers might take some gymnasts tumbling classes. Perhaps they may practice on a trampoline, or doing somersault type dives off a high dive into the water.

Could it be that simple? As a pilot, I have noticed doing mild acrobatics (loops, aileron rolls, spins, etc) that it seems to help one's spatial orientation and after a while you do not get vertigo very easily and your body seems to be able to adapt to this. Still, I can also say that when you are doing the maneuvers yourself and you are controlling the process it is much different than when someone else is doing the aerobatics and you are along for the ride such as when you are on a roller coaster. If you are ready for the maneuver, prepare yourself mentally for it, and feel as if you're one with the aircraft during these maneuvers it's also much easier.

Would it be the same for Olympic gymnasts? I'd say it's time we do some studying on our top gymnasts to see if this is relevant, or if we can duplicate this in virtual-reality or augmented-reality until the humans overcome their motion sickness. Why not employee some of these Olympic gymnasts for research and development, and training to prevent motion sickness and sea sickness which imposes the performance of those doing certain tasks in certain careers? Indeed I hope you will please consider all this on a philosophical, psychological, and physiological basis.

Do not Build Your Party Boat Without Pontoon Boat Plans

Pontoon boats are great for going out on the water to have fun with friends and family. If you're looking to build your vessel, you should have quality pontoon boat plans. Pontoons are an attractive option because they are reliably easy to build. In most instances, they are cheaper to insure due the less risk of submerging due to the shallow draft.

Pontoons are easy to build because they only require materials that you may have around the house or are easy to obtain. You can get creative and use different types of materials for your boat. The material should be lightweight but unbreakable. You material should be able to float. Items that fit this description are PVC pipes, water drums, or military drops.

When choosing your pontoon boat plans, you should consider how you are going to use the boat. Pontoons have many uses such as leisure out on the water and fishing. You would want to design a fishing boat to accommodate your fishing activities. Therefore you should select the appropriate plan. If you are using your boat for leisure, your design should accommodate more people.

You pontoon boat plans should address safety. Pontoons are generally safe boats because there is less risk of sinking. However, these boats should be used in lakes and rivers. Due to the low board, these boats should not be taken out in rough waters.

Following a good set of pontoon boat plans are a great way of building your own boat. There are many ways to design your pontoon. You need to determine how the boat is to be used then choose the plan that will fit your needs. Building you own boat will cost you the price of materials, tools, and your time.

5 Tips To Consider When Designing Your Signboard

Contrary to what you have been thinking, you do not need to be a creative genius for you to design a signboard that effectively passes the message or feeling. All you need to do is to observe a number of tips and you will effectively pass your message. To help you out here are the tips that you should consider:

Get the people's attention

The main reason you are designing the signboard is because you want to pass a message and there is no way that you will pass the message if you do not get the attention of the people that you are targeting. You should avoid using a regular design that nobody will remember. You should consider the size of sign board and its location. As rule of thumb, the board should be of the right size for everyone to remember it. It also should be strategically located to get the people's attention.

Pay attention to the lifetime of the board

Different boards are used for a given time. The duration should inform you on the right material that you should use in designing it. If you are going to use it for only a short period of time you should use aluminum or any other material that has the ability to last for a long time but if you are using it for only a short time you should use a paper or any other light material.

Less is always more

We are living in a world with plenty of information and your message will be lost if you do not get the people's attention at the right time. You should be cautious of the text and images that you use. As rule of thumb, you should use only the essential information that you want the people to know about. Including plenty of information gives the sign board a crowded look that difficult to read. In addition to being cautious of the amount of text that you use you should also leave a lot of space around the edges of the design elements.

Play around with color

According to research studies, the color that you use has a great impact on the success of the message that you want to convey. For a more finished look, you should go for a single color scheme such as using yellow text on a black background. Experts report that bright colors tend to draw the people's attention to the signboard but you should be cautious of how you use them. When you are looking to emphasize the main message, you should use a color photograph.

Make use of contrasting typefaces

When you create contrast you easily get the people's attention so easily pass the message. You should combine two contrasting typefaces such as italic and roman or bold and thin lines.

Conclusion

You have to create a high-quality sign board for you to pass your message. If you do not have the design skills you can always hire a professional to help you out with the design.

Options For Pet Proof Carpeting

The task of choosing new carpet is a bit confusing with the numerous types on the market, and when animals are a part of the family it becomes even more perplexing for a number of reasons. Animals can be rough on a home, and particularly the carpet when they rough house. Their nails often catch on the fibers and cause a great deal of destruction. Cats occasionally cough up hairballs and then leave behind spots that are hard to remove. When shopping for carpeting, it is good to select those options that are stain proof and long lasting. The following information will help you choose pet-proof carpet that will stand up to roughhousing, long nails, and all types of stains pets leave behind. It is alike possible to obtain pet proof carpeting that will last for many years to come.

Selections that are Resistant to Stains and Pet-Proof. When shopping for new carpet it is important to choose a variety that is pet-proof and resistant to all types of stains. Do not assume that all carpets these days are stain-proof. Look for stain resistant labels and ask questions when thinking about the numerous available choices. However, stain-resistant carpeting will repel stains but it is not indestructible. The fibers will not as easily absorb stain-causing liquids, but this does not mean that spills and spots can be ignored. It is still cruel to blot up liquids and remove solid spills as soon as possible, and it is of the highest importance to follow product labeling concerning care and maintenance.

Steer Clear of Carpet that Snags. Stains are not the sole problems when animals are members of the family. Snags are a big concern, and Berber carpet is far from being pet stain resistant. This type of carpet snags more often than any other carpeting on the market, and once it begins snagging, like an unraveling thread, it keeps on unwinding until it reaches the other side of the room or until the snag is halted and the damage is taken care of. Carpet repairs can be very expensive, and Berber should be avoided at all costs when looking for pet-proof carpeting. Many pet proof varieties are available that will not snag or become seriously destroyed.

Color Selections. Taking into account the spots and stains that cats and dogs can and do leave behind, avoid light-colored carpeting when looking for a pet-proof alternative. If your pets have lighter colored fur, you should avoid dark carpet as it will better show shedded fur. Opt for mid-range colors, and considering selecting a variety that includes more than one color. When selecting carpeting, keep in mind that solid colored carpets are more apt to show stains while variegated or mottled varieties are not.

Tightly Woven Low Pile Options. The best choice when purchasing animal proof carpet is those carpets that feature short pile and have tightly woven fibers. Commercial grade carpets typically used in apartments and hotels are pet-proof and people-proof. Constructed to withstand use and wear and stain-resistant, these are the most optimal selection.

Visit your local carpet retailer, and ask to see samples of commercial grade low-pile stain-resistant varieties. This particular style may not be your initial choice, but Berber, which is nowhere near as favorited as it used to be, and Frieze, which is regarded as the new shag carpet are not pet-resistant or an ideal choice. With appropriate care, the investment that you make in your pet-proof carpet will pay off with carpeting that lasts for many years.

Benefits of Wearing A Wonderbra

Who does not know the Wonderbra? Every woman knows the benefits of wearing a Wonderbra, even men do. This is the most famous brand that has created a trend among the less-endowed women. After its sensational launch in the United Kingdom, the Wonderbra made its way to the United States and debuted in 1994. If we look into statistics, one was sold in the United States every 15 seconds during the peak of the Wonderbra.

The Wonderbra became popular because of how it was created to give every woman its maximum benefits. Each cup of the Wonderbra has three components. The back and under-wire were angled for maximum support and breast enhancement. Cookies or removable pads are included which helps boost the breasts. The gate back and rigid straps provide support and enhance the cleavage. With these components, the Wonderbra lifts the breasts up and closer together, thereby, creating a look of larger breasts and a dramatic, sexy cleavage.

There are many remarkable benefits of wearing a Wonderbra. Listed below are some of the major benefits that you can get with this product:

  • No side effects
  • No surgery needed
  • No breast implants means no risk complications
  • No drugs, no medical or chemical compounds
  • No exercise or lifestyle adjustment required
  • No equipment needed
  • No large expenses since it is relatively affordable

In order to get the maximum benefits of wearing a Wonderbra, you must get your right bra size. Remember that wearing a wrong bra size gives you discomfort. Buying a wrong size of bra is a common mistake women make. It is evident that women bodies come in different body shapes and sizes so you have to find and wear one that best fits you. In order to get the best bra size, you just need to take two measurements. First, take a tape measure and hold it 1 inch below your bust line. Next is to measure around and over your breasts, commencing with a point 1 inch below your shoulder blades.

After learning the benefits of wearing a Wonderbra, you are now ready to choose the best style and fit for you. It comes in different styles and colors. There are push-up bras, special occasion bras, seamless and strapless bras to name a few. You have the freedom to choose your very own a Wonderbra. They are available both in stores and online.

So if you truly agree with the look of natural lift this Wonderbra can give you and if you truly accept that the increase in breast size is in appearance only, then a Wonderbra is meant for you. Also, if you are more interested in a larger breast appearance than increasing the size of your breasts through surgical procedures then there is no stopping you to avail of the Wonderbra.

The benefits of wearing Wonderbra are truly unmatched as this product works remarkable wonders in its natural form. With a Wonderbra, a fuller and seductively shaped breast is created. You do not only look great but you will feel even more attractive.

Wedding Etiquette for the Father of the Bride

So your little girl is getting married – congratulations! Being the father of the bride is a joyful occasion, although it can also be a little hard to get used to the idea of ​​your daughter growing up and becoming a wife. Learn everything you need to know about your role with this primer on wedding etiquette for the father of the bride.

The first thing that the father of the bride should do when his daughter becomes engaged is to extend an invitation to the parents of the groom. If the bride's parents are still married, they would do this together, but if they are not, the father of the bride should make the effort to reach out to the groom's family on his own. A dinner or brunch is the usual way to spend a little time getting to know the other family. Be sure to tell the groom's parents how happy you are that your daughter will be marrying their son. By the way, this initial meeting is definitely not the time to bring up potentially controversial topics, such as how much everyone intends to chip in for the wedding or differences of religion.

Another very important piece of etiquette advice for the father of the bride is that he should publicly support his daughter's choice of spouse, no matter what his private reservations about the match may be. Of course, any dad would talk to his daughter directly if he fears that her fiance is violent or unstable, but other than that, it is not his choice to make. In many cases, the bride's father simply needs to take the time to get to know better his future son-in-law, and will come to appreciate his fine qualities just as the bride does. When that day comes, you do not want to have previous negative comments floating out there, waiting for the day when someone indiscreet repeats them to your daughter or her husband.

Traditional wedding etiquette states that the father of the bride pays for all of the ceremony and reception expenses, with the exception of the wedding rings and the bride's bouquet. These days, however, it is more common for the wedding costs to be spread around between both the bride's parents, the groom's parents, and the couple themselves. The bride's father should be clear with his daughter from the start of the wedding planning process what he can afford to contribute, whether it is paying for the entire wedding, paying for certain expenses, or giving the couple a set sum of money towards the wedding which they can add into their total wedding budget.

Another piece of etiquette the bride's father should know is that it is custom for him to give a wedding gift to the bride and groom. Again, if the bride's parents are still together, it would be a joint gift, but if they are divorced, the bride's dad would give a gift on his own (or with his new spouse if he has remarried). The wedding gift can be anything from the deed to a house to a cash for the honeymoon to a silver picture frame engraved with the wedding date. The size of the wedding present depends on the father's budget and it need not be extravagant; what really matters is that that it is from the heart. Many fathers also choose to give their daughters a special piece of wedding jewelry such as a pearl necklace. A classic present like a pearl necklace is ideal, because it will be cherished as a sentimental gift from father to daughter for a lifetime.

What other etiquette does the father of the bride need to know? He should plan to walk his daughter down the aisle, do a spotlight dance with her at the reception, and give a toast to the couple at the rehearsal dinner and the wedding reception. Beyond that, the bride's dad pretty much just needs to dress as his daughter requests and show up to the wedding on time with a smile on his face.

Give Your Man And His "Wand of Light" A Special Treat With a Lingham Massage

Most women want to know how to give a great hand job, but did you know that by giving him a lingham massage you’re not only giving him ample pleasure, you’re also advancing his inner health, revitalizing his whole body while giving him a spiritual experience?

Sounds like a pretty fancy way to give a hand job but lingham massage is no ordinary sex practice. This sensual couples massage is a Tantric practice, derived from the Kama Sutra, an ancient Indian philosophy that involves sexual behaviour, expansion of consent and awareness.

In Tantra, Lingham is the word for penis that loosely translates to ‘wand of light’ and the reason this tantric male massage differs from a regular hand job, or sensual lower massage, is that its purpose is to actually prolong arousal before ejaculation. This is done by continual stimulation of the Lingham where sexual energies are built up with massage then progressively slowed as he nears his sexual peak.

What Is Lingham Massage?

You may be wondering why you would want to defer ejaculation for as long as possible but the benefit of Lingham massage is that with practice men can develop controlling techniques to extend their lovemaking, which is great news for you. And they can also learn how to separate orgasm from ejaculation, which can make them multi orgasmic, which is great news for them!

And although many people have the mistaken belief that Tantra and Lingham massage is purely for erotica, its meaning is in fact much deeper than that. Although Tantric male massage definitely has a strong sexual element, its true purpose and remarkable benefit is that it actually heals and rejuvenates the body using sexual energy.
With so many nerve endings on the Linhgam corresponding to other parts of the body, it is believed that many common ailments can be cured by a good Linhgam massage.

So the next time your man starts flashing his wand of light around, don’t just give him a regular sensual lower massage, surprise him by giving him a Lingham massage.Not only will it calm him down, the different sensations of highs and low’s of sexual pleasure will not only refresh him but also give his whole body a re-boot so to speak.

Nude Full Body Massage – Steps For A Lingham Massage

Lingham massage is all about putting him in to a deep relaxation to shift impurities in his system while promoting circulation. To achieve this you need give him a nude full body massage for at least 15 to 20 minutes. Use cold organic oils such as almond, sesame or olive, rather than essential oils and create a sense of calm by playing soft music and lighting candles.

Have him lie face down and start your male tantric massage at his head moving down the length of his body using varying strokes of speed and pressure. Spend time focusing on massaging his buttocks. Not many men are used to being touched here and with the dense muscle mass of this area, massaging them will relieve tension and send him in to a deeper relaxation in good preparation for the Lingham massage.

When you are satisfied that you have done enough, ask him to turn back over again and position yourself either to his side or kneeling in front of his slightly bent opened legs.

NUDE MALE MASSAGE

Begin to massage his inner thighs, pelvic bone and his perineum. As he starts to become aroused encourage him to slow his breathing by breathing in through his nose and slowly out through his mouth.

Slowly drip oil down the length of the lingham and on to the scrotum. Gently massage his testes in circular motions and give him a sensual lower massage by massaging the linhgam around the head and the shaft. With your fingers wrapped around the head, use varying strokes to massage from the head to the base and back up again.

Remember that the point of the lingam massage is not to orgasm.
Do not worry if the Linhgam goes hard and then soft during your massage, this is actually the most desirable result. Hardness and softness are at opposite ends of the pleasure spectrum, which makes for a succession of pleasure peaks and troughs like riding a blissful wave.

If you think that he is going to ejaculate hold off and allow the lingham to go soft again. You can go back to massaging his inner thighs or other parts of his body before bringing your attention back to the lingham.

When he eventually ejaculates gently move your hands away then cover him to keep him warm. After such an intense experience, he will need to rest quietly for five to ten minutes.

The ultimate goal of linhgam massage is to heal while connecting with your lover and the devine. With practice and time not only will it increase your mans sexual pleasure it will also deepen your bond as lovers.

The Dangers of Drinking Coffee

If you drink coffee because you think you need to in order to rev or pep you up daily, especially if you work in corporate America, here are some things to think about relating to this liquid drug that is the number one cause of cancer of the esophagus:

The first thing you should think about is – why would you drink something that is so hot that if you stuck your finger in it, it would burn the hell out of you? If it burns your finger, what do you think it does to your tissues and cells through your body? Hot beverages destroy (kill) your cells, ie cancer!

Coffee is a stimulant to the central nervous system. Drinking coffee inhibits the release of natural brain opiates (that make you feel good and counteracts pain). Women need all the natural brain opiates their bodies can muster up, especially around the menstrual period and not to mention childbirth (which is very painful due to the inordinate decrease of opiates in the modern American woman). Coffee may rev you up for a while, but is sure to bring down as well (making you crave more of it, after all, it is a drug, at least in the state that we use it today). Excessive consumption of coffee causes shaking and trembling of the hands due to nervousness. Coffee greatly impairs the nervous system.

Coffee also kills the adrenal glands. Nearly everyone in America has shot-out adrenal glands!

Coffee revs up these glands, but also brings them down. Anything that goes up and then down taxes the body.

Coffee contains the stimulant caffeine. This is dead caffeine, unlike bio-active caffeine found in green tea, black tea, yerba mat, guarana, and kola nut. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that is followed by a depressed phase resulting in exhaustion, nervousness, irritability, fatigue, and often headache. Caffeine constricts blood vessels of the brain and causes reduced flow of blood which cuts the oxygen supply to the brain, resulting in gradual brain damage. It also increases your heartbeat 15% and makes your lungs work 13 times harder than normal. It very plays a role in fatigue as well.

The volatile oil in caffeine called caffeol is an irritant to the lining of the stomach and causes poor digestion.

Another chemical in this liquid drug is caffeine-tannic acid. This chemical is used in tanning leather. It is an irritating astringent to the cells lining the stomach and intestines and also destroys the pepsin in the gastric (stomach) juice needed to digest protein.

Coffee is a drug! Do you know why coffee is freely given in corporate America? Because it makes people work and perform efficiently by speeding up the brain so that jobs can get the best productivity out of their workers (slaves). People mainly drink coffee in the morning, at least 3 cups (over 400+ mg of caffeine) by noon. But by noon, they are mentally shot and drained, which explains why job productivity decrees around noontime in America. The workers will then get their caffeine kick or hit from drinking soda pop (coke, pepsi, etc.) and / or eating chocolate, which is also why you see these vending machines that sell sodas and chocolates in corporate America.

If you want to get something out of people, just give them some caffeine. Coffee, chocolate, cigarettes, and soda all have caffeine. When investigators or police want to obtain information from people, what do they offer people? A cup of coffee and a cigarette!

In wars, what do American soldiers give the children of the countries they are fighting in and against (especially when they want information)? Chocolate bars!

Most restaurants and diners offer you a cup of coffee for starters. Why? Because coffee clears the palate (taste buds) and sense of olfaction (smell), as well as make your stomach crave food so that you will become hungry, be able to smell the food, and taste the substance of the food once you begin to eat the food. Why do you think they have you smell coffee beans in a jar at aromatherapy shops? To clear your olfaction (sense of smell) so you can smell the various oils.

Did you know that early Arab Muslims used to give the potential or prospective Muslim convert and warrior free coffee at lectures, to get them to join Islam and fight in so-called holy wars (jihad) for the cause of Islam?

The Arabs had the market on coffee sealed. When Europeans first got their hands and taste buds on coffee, they went crazy. Europeans wanted to start a market for coffee in Europe but the Arabs were not having that! Certain European merchants began to start secretly exporting coffee out of Africa and Arabia (where coffee originated), and importing it into Europe. The Europeans did not want the Arabs to know what they were doing with their drug (coffee), so once the Europeans got the coffee into their country, they began to refer to it by code names, such as Java, Mocha, and cappucino, which are all names of countries where European merchants were exporting coffee from. Java is an island in Indonesia. Mocha is a city in Yemen, Arabia. Cappucino derives its name from the Italian city Capuchin (all Arab Muslim strongholds). The word coffee itself derives its name from kaf, the Ethiopian name for coffee.

A great alternative to drinking coffee is Teeccino herbal coffee, made of roasted carob, barley, chicory root, figs, dates, orange peel and almonds. It is very delicious and tastes just like coffee if not better. You can find it (and other tastes) at most health food stores such as Whole Food Market (1-800-SHOP-WFM).

Herbal teas such as guarana, kola nut, and yerba mate are also excellent alternatives to coffee and includes bio-active caffeine which is not deleterious to the body.

The herbs borage, basil, licorice, ginseng, astragalus, and fo ti are great for restoring the adrenal glands.

Thank you for reading!

Art of Egypt – The Hyksos and the New Kingdom

The Hyksos, literally "Shepherd Kings," were a group of tribal Canaanite tribes who somehow migrated to Egypt. These races were Israeli in origin, and whether they invaded or just moved in, historians held divided opinions on that. However, they unanimously agree that from 1650 BC to around 1550 BC, Egypt was ruled by dynasties that were not essentially native Egyptians.

Those kings, mostly Semic in origin, and superior to the Egyptian techniques of warfare, moved in with a host of cutting edge technology (body armors, chariots, spears, etc), but almost subdued the minority and the elegant Pre-Hyksos Art of the Egyptians. Hyksos, in its basic character, was a more primitive form of art, to say the least. It was the art of the hunter-gatherer, as opposed to the "avant garde" Egyptian motifs of yesteryears.

Although the Hyksos used Egyptians artisans, their art was apparently rudimentary. Pottery, painting, and, especially, architectures fall prey to this primitive wave. In fact, when they moved in, the Pyramids were already half a century old. The Hyksos Art however, was way behind the finesse of Pyramid architecture, even at that point of time. Clay figurines of this period, called the "Second Intermediate Period," demonstrated an utter disregard to form, proportion, and color. That the Hyksos were different from Egyptians could not have had any more evidence evidence than these sculptures. The difficulties of Hyksos were crude, and mostly mud baked, as compared to the superior stone temples of the Egyptians.

Almost after a hundred years of reign, the Hyksos Kings were finally driven out by Ahmose-I, who ushered in the era, the "New Kingdom" (1550-1070 BC). In this period, the entire Egypt was united under a single Pharaoh and the Hyksos were untraceable on the Egyptian territory. New brands of dedicated artisans, termed as, "Servants in the place of Truth," were intended to decorate the tombs of the kings of this era. Magnificent rock tombs of the Pharaohs became the landmarks of this golden era of Egyptian Art and architecture.

Although Thebes remained the cultural heart of this "New Kingdom," these artists built a set of exquisite tombs, at a place now known as Deir el-Medina. Recognition to the individual artist names, an uncommon practice in the ancient societies, became famous norm in this rule. For instance, from the old records it has been established that an artist named "Khonsu," was the master architect of a major of royal tombs. Most art-loving monarchs of Egypt namely, Thutmose, Nefertiti, and Tutankhamen belong to this era, which, in a way, was a period of Egyptian Renaissance. In this melee of re-birth of Egypt, most evidences of Hyksos Art were either destroyed or chiseled out. This stands as an unfortunate reminder of the vengefulness from the most noble of the artists of the ancient era, the Egyptians.

Caring For Your Baby's Feet: What To Do and What To Look Out For

The human foot is designed for a lifetime of use and support. It can often be the difference between an active and enjoyable life, or one crippled by discomfort and limitation. Fortunately, most people experience only minor or temporary foot issues during their lifetime. The time in which the foot begins to develop during infancy and early childhood is vital to ensuring healthy feet during adulthood. This article will discuss some of the ways parents can ensure proper foot development, and what to look out for that could indicate a developmental problem.

The development of the human foot begins in the embryo stage, and continues through the time we spend in the womb. When a baby is born, all the components that a foot needs for proper function are generally present, with the exception of several bones that are only cartilage at that point. Overall, the complete infrastructure is there, and the foot needs only to strengthen, grow, and create bone over time. The body has an amazing ability to do this on it's own, and needs little external help. Parents do have the ability to improve this development, and can play a role in assuring proper development. One of the simplest ways to support this development is to let the baby kick and move their legs. Leg strength, muscle development, and overall range of motion will have a positive effect on proper foot function in the future, as a poorly functional leg will lead to poor foot function. To support this motion, parents should keep their babies uncured and unrestricted, allowing the legs to kick away. This improves and strengthens the hips, knees, ankles, and foot joints, and will help muscle mass and coordination to grow.

Likewise, little restriction should be placed on the feet at this stage. Infants who do not walk do not need shoes for protection, as shoes can restrict the natural development of the foot structure and internal foot strength. During early infancy, the foot is still somewhat pliable, and poorly fitting shoes have the potential of causing foot deformity. Once walking begins, shoes should still be avoided for a short while as the foot needs the pressure of the direct ground to stimulate strength and structural stability development. Of course, when walking on rough or hazardous surfaces outside the home, the infant will need shoes for protection. All walking in the safety of home should be performed without shoes to promote proper foot development. When shoes must be worn, they need to be properly fitted, with enough space for the foot to fit without being too big. Trying to shove a little foot into a tight shoe can be harmful to development, and trying to use a big shoe 'to grow into' can lead to instability and injury.

Walking should not be forced in an infant. There is no set age for the development of walking, as everyone reaches this wonderful milestone at various times. Parents should not use the timing of a sibling or a friend's child as a reference as to when their child should begin to walk, and simply need to let this process occur on its own, when the baby is ready. Given this, any lengthy delay in walking, such as 24 months, should prompt a medical evaluation to determine if there is a problem keeping the child from walking. This is unusual, however, and most parents should be patient and let their infant develop this ability on their own.

Other than allowing for motion and reducing shoe restriction, a baby's foot is easy to care for. Nails should be regularly and carefully trimmed, and the skin should be kept clean and dry. Socks should be worn when it is cold out, one must be careful to keep hair strands from wrapping around the little toes, as a long piece of hair could potentially strandulate a toe if wrapped tight enough. Sharp materials and hot objects like a space heater should be kept out of contact range.

One of the biggest concerns parents have about their baby's feet are the presence of any deformities that may lead to future problems. Serious deformities of the foot are uncommon at birth, and are typically not right right after delivery in the hospital. Some deformities do take time to be noticeable, but the most significant ones are more immediately visible. Infants can be born with a variety of foot deformities, most of which are correctable. These can include rotational deformities, such as clubfoot (rotation of the foot inward) or congenital calcaneovalgus / vertical talus (rotation of the foot far outward). Both of these deformities need immediate correction to prevent future degradation, and are generally successfully cured with casting and bracing or early corrective surgery to release tight ligaments and return the foot to a proper position. Extra toes are sometimes present, which can be removed later on for cosmetic appeal or to ensure proper shoe fitting. Shortly after birth, a condition called metatarsus adductus can be seen in which the foot takes on a c-shape, as the long metatarsal bones are rotated inward too far. This can be corrected with casting, bracing, special shoes, or surgery if the deformity is not addressed until later on in childhood. Some level of this deformity can be considered normal, although if it is noticeable externally it is likely in the abnormal range.

Once the child begins to walk, certain deformities can be seen that were not noticeable before. This includes heightened inward rotation of one of the legs, or less commonly heightened outward rotation. Also called in-pointing, this condition is not unusual. Most cases are simply due to uneven leg muscle development, and will resolve on their own. Some cases, however, are due to a deformity of the hip, the thigh bone, or the lower leg bone, and need either aggressive therapy and bracing to reduce the deformity, or surgery to de-rotate the involved bone.

As the child begins to walk more, one concern many parents have is whether or not their child is flat-footed. All infants with normal foot structure have flat, flexible feet. The arch structure slowly develops as the foot strengnthens. In the beginning, children walk flat-footed, and slowly reach normal arch structure as they begin to walk with a normal heel-to-toe walking pattern by age four or five. If the foot sees excessively flat in the beginning, or if the arch is not forming, then the child may be flat-footed. This is not necessarily a deformity in the strict sense, but due to our society's need for shoe use to protect ourselves from environmental harm (unlike traditional tribal cultures in natural environments), we tend to have weaker feet which do not accommodate well for flat feet later in life. Therefore, prescription arch subsidies are generally used in those with flat feet to prevent or slow future foot strain and deformities that form out of the instability of flat feet, such as bunions and hammertoes. Some children develop bunions and hammertoes very early, and these can even be seen during the infancy period in some cases. Corrective surgical treatment is generally delayed until the skeleton is more developed, and usually these deformities do not pose any early problems.

High arches are another deformity seen in childhood and infancy. This is not an uncommon deformity as the foot develops through childhood and addiction, and generally only needs better shock absorption in the shoes. However, the presence of this deformity in infancy and early childhood often companions birth defects involving the nervous system and muscular structure, although these diseases are often not first.

One final development cause for concern parents often have is when their child walks on their toes. Toe walking, as it is known, is usually a benign habit that the child must be encouraged to break. In this case, the child will be able to stand flat on their feet, but chose either consciously or subconsciously to walk with their heels off the ground. Constant reminders at home and physical therapy (in some difficult cases) can be used to correct this. Other cases are due to actual structural problems, including tightness of the Achilles tendon, spasticity of the rear leg muscles, or neuromuscular disease. These causes need to be addressed individually, and may need a variety of treatment that could include therapy, medication, surgery, or Botox injections.

As one can see, a baby's foot is a remarkable thing, and usually develops just fine on it's own. Parents find themselves in an excellent position to encourage this development based on this advice. Deformities that affect the foot's future ability to function properly are relatively uncommon in infants and young children, but can be corrected in almost all cases when they are present. As a parent, one should be vigilant for any abnormalities, but also recognize that the young foot needs time to properly develop and grow, and many minor early developmental concerns often correct themselves.

Roof Tiling – Consider Learning This Trade

Roof tiles come in many varied materials, including blocks of hooked that tile to enable an easy DIY that job to an outdoor area. Working as a roof tiler for a profession, however, requires training.

Roof tiling courses are available and cover the following types of tiling (and more):

o Shingle

o Slate

o Spanish

o Roman

o Interlocking

o Plain

o Pantiles

o Double pantiles

Roof tiles are all basically laid in rows called courses from the eaves up to the ridge of the roof, each course overlapping the one benefit it. Vertical joins between the tiles are staggered in adjacent rows so that any one tile partially covers two in the row below it.

Three sizes of tile are used:

o A standard tile for the main covering

o A tile called a tile-and-a-half (which is half as wide again as the standard size at the end of alternate rows up to the roof)

o Short version of the tile-and-a-half (for the course along the eaves and along the ridge of the roof)

On some roofs, there are narrows tiles called creasing tiles at the gable end of each course. They are laid underneath the end to tilt the edge of the roof upwards to ensure that rainwater can not run down the gable wall.

Some tiles are nailed to battens on the roof. Others have small projections called nibs which fit over the battens. It is always necessary to nail tiles without nibs.

All these necessary things you would learn in a Roof Tiling Course, which would include extras such as damp-proofing and structure of roofs, but proper that would not fall under a Roof Tiling Course, as it is an art of itself requiring specialized lighting conductors , etc.

At a Roof Tiling Course, you would also learn about safety recommendations and possibly, scaffolding requirements, dependent on the height of the roof.

The ridge of a tiled roof is covered with semi-circular right-angled ridge tiles, the edges formed by two sloping surfaces called hips which have semi-circular or bonnet shaped tiles.

The eaves course on a plain tiled roof rest on the top of the fascia board with curved tiles filled with mortar at the outside edge. On some roofs, a valley junction may be tiled.

o Pantile eaves are small pieces of tile inserted into the mortar to help reinforce the eaves course.

o Creasing tiles are narrow tiles inserted under the main covering to tilt up the edge of the roof.

o Valley junctions are specially shaped tiles that interlock with each other and are available for processed gutters.

All such terminology is among the essentials you will learn in a Roof Tiling Course.

A good course will also offer damp proofing and roof tile repairs.

Consider becoming a Roof Tiler if you are agile, do not suffer from back problems and are not obese. You could expect to earn a good living wage as a roof tiler – always needed regardless of the state of the economy.

Timber Frame Horse Barns

Prior to the 1900s, most barns were built with timber frames (also known as post and beam) forming very strong structures built to withstanding harsh storms and heavy loads of animal feed. Timber framing is the method of creating framed structures of heavy timber joined together with various joints. A timber frame barn is built to last a lifetime if not longer, but there are many things to consider when designing a barn.

Horse barns and stables often work on a 10×12 or 12×12 grid for interior stalls, tack rooms and wash stalls. Storing hay in the loft provides its own set of challenges. Years ago, people would just put up summer beams and timber joists and throw as much hay up in the loft as they could. Today, as with most everything that technology touches, hay bales are packed more compact and weigh much more than they did years ago as well as all the changes in building codes. It is now common practice to design a hay loft so that it can support a live load of 100 pounds per square foot. The intermediate posts that are next to the stall doors are increased in size as well as the trusses to help improve load carrying ability.

Authentic timber framing is an art that can be traced back many generations. Today, much of the work is still completed by hand, using traditional tools like chisels, mallets, and beetles. The timber girts, purlins, plates, and posts are joined with inadvertently cut interlocking joints crafted with tenons (tabs), mortises (slots) and wooden pegs called trunnels. There are several different types of joints used during the construction process. Most commonly used are the mortise and tenon joints, but there are many more like a double through mortise and tenon, brace mortise and tenon, dovetail, shouldered mortise and tenon and tongue and fork. Each type of joint has its own design purpose. Today, most timber frame structures are designed to use new CAD (Computer Aided Design) technology, this actually helps them design for and spread the load properly. Most rustic framed horse barns are constructed with Hemlock for country barns; and elegant stable frames out of smooth and highly finished Douglas Fir beams. Hemlock and Douglas Fir are the best types of wood species to use in your barn as they are less prone to rotting and because the horses do not like to curb on them (horses enjoy eating white pine like chocolate).

There is better way to celebrate the beauty of wood than to showcase it through the structure of your house or barn. The beauty and elegance of Timber Frame Construction methods have been in use for more than 2,000 years with some of the earliest examples dating back to ancient Roman and Egyptian civilizations. It is and elegant timeless classic style that has lived the ages.

Interesting and Informative Facts About Backhoes

One item that every farmer is familiar with is the backhoes. Many people rely on these get a tough job done, and there are many affordable versions available. They can be used in landscaping, farming, light construction, at nurseries, at golf courses, at cemeteries, and any other location that need a backhoe to get the job done.

What types of jobs can backhoes perform? The pieces of heavy machinery can dig holes, move heavy items, excavate, and much more! These tractors also go by many other names including JCB, rear actor, and back actor. Many companies make this heavy equipment tractor including John Deere, Caterpillar, Case, and New Holland. These really get a tough job done quickly. They typically have a digging bucket on the front of a two-part arm. This part of the vehicle is often referred to as the boom and dipper, or boom and dipper stick. These terms are interchangeable, and farmers and contracting workers referred to them either way. They are typically powered by hydraulics. Some people call the metal bar that is like a hinge attached the scoop the thumb.

This piece of heavy machinery was originally manufactured by the JCB Company. They are in English company, that started manufacturing this piece in 1953. The first American version was created in 1959, by the Hy-Dynamic company. A humorous part of this invention's history is known as the backhoe fade. This term reflects to damage done by backhoes. If a phone line gets dug up or cut, this is the term used to describe this occurrence. It is more of an inside joke between those who work with this equipment.

If you work in construction you are probably familiar with this piece of equipment. If you have never worked with these before, and have no idea what it is, hopefully you have a better understanding of the product now. You have learned and nicknames, the uses, and who uses them. You even read a funny fact. Visit your local contracting site or farmer to try out one of these heavy pieces equipment for yourself. They are fun and easy to use once you learn how to run them.