The Future of Object Oriented Programming

The object-oriented paradigm is based on the idea that objects exist independently of each other, and that operations can be executed on them. Consequently, a user in a true object-oriented development environment should be able to interactively create objects of any available class, manipulate these objects and call their interface routines. • Platform independence – " Write once – run anywhere " capability

As a matter of fact you can not run a java program 'anywhere' unless there is a virtual machine. But its as good as anywhere. Also I know some folks who would say its "write once debug everywhere " but any such platform dependent bugs are probably VM issues. All in all this platform independence is a huge plus point for enterprise development saving tons of cash and effort in porting products.

· Ease of use

I'm not really sure how many hard nut programmers would agree with me but programs are easy to visualize when they are object oriented (once you get the hang of it). After the concept is built, it becomes much easier to realize it in code.

· Free runtime / compilers / tools

This was one of the best moves by Sun. The runtime is free, the development kit is free and now there are a ton of other tools built with java for java that are free. This makes java development easy and affordable.

There are a number of ways to measure the popularity of a programming language, for example, based on the number of:

  • New applications written in the language
  • Existing applications written in the language
  • Developers that use the language primarily
  • Developers that use the language ever
  • Web searches
  • Available jobs that require skills in the language
  • Developers' favorites

Java has some other advantages as a teaching language

Low cost. The tools needed to build and test Java programs

are available without charge. Sun makes the Java Development Kit (JDK) available over the Internet, where faculty and students alike can download it. The JDK-which includes the Java compiler and interpreter, among other tools-is admittedly spartan, but students should find it adequate for most programming assignments. Those willing to spend a little money will find nicer program development environments (such as Symantec Café and Microsoft J ++) available at moderate prices.

Easy to test. Students can put their programs-written as applets-on their Web pages for instructors to test and critique. Instructors can monitor a student's progress at any stage by simply visiting the student's Web page.

Student enthusiasm. Java has gotten so much publicity

that students are bound to be excited about learning it. By harnessing that enthusiasm, instructors can use Java as a vehicle to teach students a tremendous amount about modern-day computing. Students will be motivated by Java's growing importance in the "real world." Moreover, students will be thrilled by the ease with which they can build sophisticated GUI programs.

Suitable for advanced courses. After students gain

familiarity with the basic features of Java in CS1, they can use its advanced features in later courses. For example, a course on operating systems can take advantage of Java's support for threads. The network classes that come with Java make it ideal for a networking course.

Easy transition to C ++ and other languages. Java's syntactic similarity to C and C ++ should ease the transition to those languages.

International appeal. The Unicode character set is an integral part of Java, allowing students to learn about the issues of developing software for the international market.

Java has significant advantages not only as a commercial language but also as a teaching language. It allows students to learn object-oriented programming without exposing them to the complexity of C ++.

Living Near a Cemetery

One aspect of a Feng Shui evaluation is to analyze the environment surrounding a building. When using Feng Shui to choice a home, most Feng Shui consultants will tell you not to pick one close to a cemetery. After looking at a beautiful home this past week that just happens to have a cemetery adjacent to the back yard, I decided to take another look at the idea of living near a cemetery.

Why care about what surrounds your home? Why not just focus on the internal energy? Well, simply put, the outside energy affects the internal energy of your home. Too much Yang energy is easier to feel than too much Yin. Here’s an example. Think of a home that has a busy highway running behind it. The fast moving energy and noise pollution gives the inhabitants an unsettled feeling, even on the inside of the home. A home like this would be described as unbalanced because it has energy that is too Yang. Yang energy is bright, loud, and hot.

Having your home next to a cemetery is just the opposite. The overall energy becomes unbalanced as well. Homes next to a graveyard or cemetery are too Yin instead of Yang. Energy that is overly Yin is harder for us to feel, though. Although viewed like a quiet park by some, others are very unsettled by the quiet process of decomposing that is occurring. Having a Yin home may not bother one at first, but little by little, it can make the inhabitants of that home decline, by reducing their drive. The same can be true of living near a stagnant body of water.

What can be done if you find yourself living in a home you love that is adjacent to one of these situations? First step is to buffer your home from the energy. For example, the house I looked at this week has a ravine full of large trees in-between it and the cemetery. Adding Yang elements to the area near the cemetery would be helpful in balancing the energy. Examples of this would be outdoor lighting, bright flowers, flowering shrubs, a fire pit or a chiminea.  Fire and light are very Yang elements and would work to balance the energy. On the flip side, an example of reducing activity in the house that is too Yang, would be to add Yin elements. Again, adding trees and shrubs which can filter sound and light energy will help. In addition to you could add the ultimate Yin element; earth. A decorative brink or stone wall or even a mound of soil with landscaping on top would help to balance the energy and buffer the home. As always, think about what makes sense in your landscaping before adding remedies.

Making sure your home is sheltered and balanced from external elements will have the biggest effect on the internal energy. Be sure that any Feng Shui consultant you use analyzes not only the interior but also the exterior. This will help to ensure a supportive environment.

How to Organize Catering for Events

Catering for events yourself is a big personal responsibility which requires careful planning and onsite presence throughout the process. You will also need access to the correct catering equipment, staff and a large enough provisions for preparation and storage of the food.

Outsourcing your catering requirements for an event can help you take the stress away from event planning. Onsite Caterers will come to your site and plan a menu through with you, to tailor your event food requirements. Onsite and Outsourced Catering help can be for events such as Weddings and engagements, Proms, Cocktail Parties, Luncheons and Dinner Parties, Corporate functions, Launch parties, Shop opening, Meetings, Funerals, Christening, Communions, Confirmations and Birthday parties and family celebrations.

The taste of the food is important, but also so is the presentation of the food to guests. An outsourced caterer can let you decide on how the food is presented, as well as offering previous photos of previous events to customize to your event. Dietary requirements and ingredients for guests can be sourced and catered for such as Nut Allergies, Vegetarian or even Halal only meat. Onsite Catering can also use disaster recovery techniques to prepare for the worst situations such as power loss or weather changes to ensure your event runs smoothly as possible.

Food prepared for these events can range from a 5 – 7 Course Meal, A Buffet with Canapé's, a hog roast or even a normal sit down meal with Family and Friends! Another advantage of utilizing an onsite caterer, is they can also provide advice as well as recommend reliable supplies for other Catering needs such as Wine to go with the meal, Wedding Cake Creation and waiting staff to serve the food.

Delivering a perfect catering service means 4 steps:

  1. Designing a menu to compliment your event, theme and requirements
  2. Holding a tasting session so you can make sure the food is just right
  3. Taking care of all the little details so you do not have to worry
  4. Delivering the highest quality, freshest food that offers real value for money

It is recommended that you find a local Cater that can source local fresh ingredients, as well and liaise with local suppliers to get you the best prices for your event.

How to Deal With Party Crashers

Gatecrashers can ruin parties. So, to avoid spoiling your party, here is an effective way of dealing with party crashers.

1. Study their behavior.

After finding out that those people are not invited, watch and observe their actions. Carefully study how they behaved without being obvious. What do you think is their purpose of going to your party uninvited? Did they come because of the food and drink? Are they posing aggressive or disruptive behavior? Are they mingling with and causing trouble to your guests? Observe them and ask a few of your friends to do so.

2. Figure out if they are troublesome or not.

After watching them for a while, you will be able to know if can or will cause trouble and ruin your party. Talk to your friends you have asked to observe the gatecrashers about what they think of them.

3. Decide if you will let them stay or escort them out.

Many times, people walk into a party uninvited just to have fun or some thrill, or for free food and drinks. At some point, you have to approach them and politely ask them who invited them to your party. If they say, they were invited by one of your guests who is present, approach and ask that particular guest they are referring to. If they were actually invited by one of your invited guests, then you might want to consider letting them stay. If they are really gatecrashers and do not mean any harm, go with your instincts and consider the observations you did earlier. If you feel they just want to have pure fun and would not bother any of your guests, they you can consider having them. But, if you feel and see that they can become a threat to you and your guests, politely ask them to leave. Tell them with all kindness and firmness that your party is private. Do this with some of your friends. Approach their group without being too intimidating or threatening, otherwise you might trigger a commotion. If things get to worst, call the police and let them know what you did. That will serve as a warning for them and hopefully they will leave without making things worse.

5. Talk to your DJ for hire.

Your DJ can do so much in maintaining the happy and relaxed mood in your party despite the presence of gatecrasher who try to make some trouble. When you go for DJ bookings, talk to the DJ of your choice and make a plan on how to handle such a situation. You can talk to him that once he observes that a little commotion is going on, he could get the attention of your guests away from the trouble going on with the gatecrashers. He can ask your guests to dance, play a game, or anything that would make the overall mood of your party normal and not intense.

Get Paid to Watch Movies

There is nothing that transports you away from the daily grind than grabbing a bucket of popcorn, a huge soft drink and sitting back to enjoy a blockbuster movie. Movie buffs can turn their passion for watching films into a rewarding spare-time job. Various programs sponsored by the movie industry and independent organizations are always looking for fans of film to help give opinions about the latest movies hitting the big screen.

Theses "get paid to watch movies" programs all differ slightly in the way that they are administrated, depending on the company a person registers with. Many programs require the participant to travel to a cinema at his or her convenience to screen a pre-determined movie and report finds through a paid survey. Participants will be asked questions on a variety of topics such as giving an opinion of the movie content, the film's title, opinions on the movie trailers and advertisements, the other movie-watcher's reactions, and more. Before the movie starts and after the movie ends, there will be a variety of administrative tasks to attend to such as filling out paper or online surveys to report your findings and sometimes even turning in a capacity count of how many people were in the screening room .

Other "get paid to watch movies" programs are done in the comfort and convenience of the participant's home. Movies can either be downloaded over the Internet or are delivered to the home address in DVD format. After previewing the contents, similar type questions will be asked about the movie and ratings will be compiled on paid surveys that are sent back to the client company. Occasionally, there are projects invite you to watch a movie with a group of people which is followed with a modified, focus-group like discussion about the film.

Joining a program that seeks consumer input on the latest movies is a great way to see all the latest, blockbuster hits. The film industry values ​​the opinions of its target audiences submitted through online surveys and also hopes that advance screenings will help create a positive word-of-mouth buzz that will help bring in lots of paying movie-watchers once the film is released to the public . Compensation for these movie programs varies from company to company and project to project.

Often participants will be "paid" with free admission to see movies and complementary vouchers for concession stand reviews – a great way to beat the exorbitant theater prices! Some longer and more complex projects may also may you a cash stipend or reward you with bonus points that can be redeemed in the future for movie-going perks and merchandise. These programs can be found by querying "get paid to watch movies" in an online search tool, visiting a reputable database of survey sites , and sometimes visiting a corporate cinema or movie production website.

Sanitation in the Workplace: Prioritizing Health and Safety

There are some factors that should be considered for a business to run smoothly and for goals to be met fully. It can be a challenging task for a business owner to ensure that all of the factors such as the finances, equipment and supplies, as well as the employees are working together. Yet, one of the critical factors that should be taken into consideration is the health and safety of all the employees working for you, in any way. There are some precautions that you need to do in making sure that employees are safe and they know how to keep their self secure and protected. Also, everyone should be trained on how to deal with unexpected situations.

For a business venture to run smoothly, one of the things you can do is to be able to create and maintain a positive work environment where everyone can work smoothly. The workplace can be more inviting to customers and clients if they see that every employee is having fun doing their jobs through their happy expressions. Having employees enjoy their work can also make them be more productive and accomplish their tasks faster. Stress is eliminated if one works in a workplace having positive vibes. Thus, employees can be more motivated to do their tasks and enjoy every bit of time that they work.

The health and safety of everyone can be acquitted through sanitation, which is one of the factors. One way to sanitize the work environment is to provide the area with products for hygiene such as sanitizers to ensure that the spread of germs is avoided at any means possible. One example is during the winter season. At this time, there is a high probability that employees get illnesses such as colds. So, sanitation is needed in order for germs not to spread more and to keep everyone safe from acquiring some illnesses. Another way of keeping the workplace and employees safe is to have labels. Say, there are hazardous materials in the workplace; every employee should have made aware about it.

In cases that your business is on construction, make sure that every worker is provided with all the safety equipment as they work. They should always wear the appropriate attire for the job. By doing so, you can make sure that they are safe from getting any injury as they work. There should also be signs on danger areas for everyone to be aware.

Of course, there is also a need for the management to have employees trained on how to react during emergency situations. There may be unexpected situations such as earthquake that might happen so employees should be trained on how to deal with situations as such.

A business can be successful if every aspect is checked and maintained. One of the factors that can greatly affect the business is the employees. Thus, maintaining the health and safety of employees is a need. This can be done in many ways such as sanitation as well as giving them training in order to deal with unexpected situations right.

Ideas for Simple Halloween Party Games

With Halloween only a week away, we thought we'd share some ideas for simple spooky party games that your little monsters will love to play, and that take slightly little effort to organize:

• Ghost Hunt – cut out ghost shapes from white paper or card (allow approximately 4 – 5 per guest). Hide them around the house and garden and get your little guests to find them. (If you have different age groups of children, you may want to give the youngest ones a head start.) The child who finds the most ghosts is the winner. This is also a great game to play near the end of the party and you will not have to provide filled party bags either. Stick a small treat to each ghost before hiding, give each child an empty party bag and let them fill them with what they find.

• Ten-Pin Pumpkin bowling – part-fill 10 similar size plastic bottles with a small stones and gravel, so that they stand, and do not fall over too easily. (If you have time, or are feeling creative, you can also decorate them to look like monsters.) Draw a scary face on a mini pumpkin – this will be the bowling ball. Line your bottles up and let the children take it in turns to knock them over with the pumpkin, keeping score as they go. The child with the highest score is the winner.

• Yucky Dip – scoop out a pumpkin and fill with cooked, cooled pasta. Add small packets of sweets or wrapped tricks and mix well. Invite your little guests to take turns at the yucky dip – be warned this can get messy!

• The Haunted Jar – fill a jar with small sweets or toys and shredded white paper (making a note of how many goodies you've put in!). Each child then guesses how many items are in the jar and the closest guess wins the goodies!

• Musical monsters – put on some spooky music, and get your little guests to move around like monsters. When the music stops they have to stand still – if they move, they're out of the game. The last monster standing still is the winner!

• Trick or Treat – cut up squares of paper. On half of the squares, write 'treat'. On the other half, write 'trick' on one side of the paper and a simple activity (such as 'cackle like a witch') on the other side. Fold the squares up and put them all into a bucket (or cauldron if you want to be inventive). The children then take it in turns to pull a piece of paper out of the bucket. If they pull out a 'treat', give them a small prize. If they pull out a 'trick', they must perform the task written on the back before receiving their prize.

• The Graveyard game – this is a great game to play when you want to quiet the party down. Your little monsters lie down in the 'graveyard' – the child who stands still the longest is the winner.

And finally, how do monsters predict their future? They read their 'horror' scope!

Free Outstanding Warrant Search

A free outstanding warrant search is a great service that most states now provide its tenants. The search allows you to search and see if someone has an outstanding warranty that is filed with the court. You enter the persons name that you wish to explore and the web site will tell you whether or not the person has a warrant filed against them.

Protecting yourself and your family is very important because you never know who might have an warranty. The government passed a law call the Freedom of Information Act which made the government divulge information related to public safety to the public. It is important for the government to protect its citizens from people that might be dangerous.

It is important to know if people have warrants filed against them. For instance, when doing a background check on a baby sitter or nanny you need to know who will be watching your children. You can check out the person who applied for the position by visiting a web site that does a free outstanding warrant search.

If while using a free warranty service you discover that someone has an obligation out for their arrest, please do not alert the person in question. People who have avoided correcting their outstanding warrants do not want to be turned in to the proper authorities. This creates a very dangerous situation.

You need to contact the proper authorities in your state and keep the person in question away from your family because they are criminals and can pose serious physical harm to you and your other family members. You should not tell other people outside of your family because if the person finds out that they are going to be turned in to law enforcement officers then they are likely to bolt or disappear and leave the state which is not a good thing.

Law enforcement officers need the help of the public to locate those people who have outstanding warrants filed. Never try to apprehend a person who has an outstanding warrant filed against them.

Hopefully these tips about using a free warrant search will help you keep yourself and your family safe.

Types of OLAP Servers

"What types of OLAP servers exist?" OLAP servers present business users with multidimensional data from data warehouse or data marts, without concern regarding how or where the data is stored. However, the physical architecture implementation OLAP servers must consider data storage issues. Implementation of a warehouse for OLAP processing includes the following.

Relational OLAP Server

There are the intermediate servers that stand in between a relational back-end server and client front-end tools. They use a relational or extended DBMS to store and manage warehouse data, and OLAP middleware to support missing pieces. ROLAP servers include optimization for each DBMS back end, implementation aggregation navigation logic, and additional tools and services. ROLAP technology tends to have greater scalability than MOLAP technology.

Multidimensional OLAP Servers

These servers support multidimensional views of data through array-based multidimensional storage engines. They map multidimensional views directly to data cube array structure. The advantage of using a data cube is, it allows for indexing to pre computed summarizes data. Notice that with multidimensional data stores, the storage utilization may be low if the data set is sparse. In such cases, sparse matrix compression techniques should be explored.

Many MOLAP servers adopt a two level storage representation to handle sparse and dense data sets: the density sub cubes are identified and stored as array structures, while the sparse sub cubes employ compression technology for efficient data storage utilization.

HLOP Servers

The hybrid OLAP approach combines ROLAP and MOLAP technology, benefitting from the greater scalability of ROLAP and faster computation. For example, a HOLAP server may allow large volume of detail data to be stored in a relational database, while aggregations are kept in separate MOLAP store.

Specialized SQL servers

To meet the growing demand of OLAP processing in the relational databases, some relational and data warehousing firms implement specialized SQL servers that provide advance query language and query processing support for SQL queries over star and snowflake schemas in read only environment.

"So how data are actually stored in ROLAP and MOLAP architecture?" As its name implies, ROLAP uses relational tables to store data for online analytical processing. And in MOLAP data is stored in cubic form.

SAP is software organization that is using OLAP servers to develop its intelligent software. Because of this technology data mining and web mining is possible. Three dimensional reports are generated that are very helpful for management to dish up their decisions. These software are far more reliable and intelligent than the software that were in the days gone.

The In House Separation: Tips On Making It Work When You're Separated But Still Living Together

I sometimes hear from wives who husband is pushing for a marital separation. Because today's economy is a tough one, I'm hearing a lot about "in house" separations. What this means is that no one moves out of the house. The couple typically agreements to try a trial separation in which one of them moves out of the master bedroom. They give one another the space to live separately. But no one is having to pay additional rent until they figure things out. Some wives see this as prefer to the husband actually moving out and some get pretty panicked at this scenario.

I recently heard from a wife who said "our marriage has been on the rocks for the past eight months. I have two kids to think about, so separating or divorcing is just not a viable option for me. . ' What this means is that he would move into our basement while I keep the master bedroom. We would both let each other be and he would have that space that he thinks he can not live without. t want me questioning him or making demands of him. I suppose this is preferable to him filing for divorce. And it's clear that neither of us can really afford to pay for someone else to have an apartment or another house. wondering is should I agree to this in house separation? Do these ever work to save marriages or do they just delay the inevitable which is a "real" or legal separation, or worse, a divorce? " I have a definite opinion on in house separations, which I will share with you below.

When Done Correctly, I Think An In House Separation Is Preferable To A "Real" Separation, Especially If You Might Want To Save Your Marriage: I actually sometimes encourage wives who want to save their salaries to suggest an in house separation. I know that there can be a lot of anxiety and awkwardness about the boundaries of the separation when you are living under the same roof. But frankly I find this so much preferable to trying to figure out a way to get a husband who has already packed up his things and left the house to change his mind and come back that same house.

Please believe me when I say that it is often easier to reform the marriage that you still hold under one roof than to save the one that is now living somewhere else. Will you have hard work to do during the in house separation? Absolutely. Will things be awkward and weird? Most probably. But is this easier than trying to lure your husband back to the house? Most of the time, there is not even a question about this.

If you have the choice between an in house separation or allowing your spouse to "try" moving out, I almost always encourage you to keep your spouse in the same home as you. It will make your saving your marriage easier, though none of this is easy. Many people worry about the circumstances. They will tell me that since it's only finances keeping their husband under the same roof, that they really consider this to be a "real" separation. You can call it what you want, but there is nothing wrong with taking advantage of the circumstances that just might work out in your favor. With that said, in order to give your in house separation the best chance of being successful, it's important to set boundaries and to set things up correctly, which I will discuss now.

Making The In House Separation Work Well Enough To Save Your Marriage: I want for you to be very clear about what your husband wants right now. Most husbands will tell you that they want space. This is their way of asking you for uninterrupted time alone to clear their head and determine what they really want. I know that sounds easier than it actually is in real life. But please understand that if your husband does not perceive that he is getting that time, he may possibly think he needs to divorce you or distance himself from you more in order to get it.

Often, your best bet is to respect the boundaries. Give him that time alone. You know where he is more of the time anyway. I know that it's very tempting to want to know what it is thinking and feeling all of the time, but sometimes a little time apart and mystery can be a good thing for your marriage. I often tell wives that you need to give your husband the time to miss you. As best as you can, give him that space but make sure that when he does see and interact with you, that you make the encounter as positive and as easy as you can possibly make it. You do not want for this process to be difficult. In fact, you want for it to go so well that he ever does not need the space anymore and he wants to move back into the master bedroom.

Do not Think You Need To Solve Every Problem That You Have During The Separation: Many wives feel a sense of panic when they are in this situation. So they will try to figure out what needs to happen in order to get their husband invested in the marriage again. As a result, they will figure that they need to resolve all of their problems before they can ask him to end the separation. Although I understand this, I know from inexhaustible experience that it is not the best call. Doing this will often make things more awkward between you so that your husband will want to avoid you. The goal is to make things better and easier between you, not more awkward and forced. I suggest working on reconnecting before you even vent into the territory of your problems. Couples often can not really successfully solve their problems until they are both committed and connected once again.

Doggin’ Philadelphia: 10 Cool Things See When You Walk Your Dog

“If your dog is fat,” the old saying goes, “you aren’t getting enough exercise.” But walking the dog need not be just about a little exercise. Here are 10 cool things you can see in greater Philadelphia while you hike with your dog.

FOLK ART

In 1855, a hotel entrepreneur built a new inn on Rex Avenue. To draw attention to his hostelry he constructed an Indian from old barn boards and propped it up on top of a rock overlooking the Gorge. In 1902, when the Indian Rock Hotel was long gone but with the silhouette still there, artist Massey Rhind was commissioned to make a representation of a “Delaware Indian, looking west to where his people have gone.” The kneeling warrior has gazed up the Wissahickon Gorge ever since. A switchback trail leads to the Indian Statue where you can get close enough to pat his knee. And take in a breathtaking view.

MONUMENTAL M0NUMENTS

The Multi-Use Trail rolls past reconstructed huts and parade grounds that transport you back to the Revolution. The National Memorial Arch, a massive stone tribute dedicated in 1917, stands out along the route. The inscription reads: “Naked and starving as they are, we cannot enough admire the incomparable patience and fidelity of the soldiery. Washington at Valley Forge, February 16, 1778.” In the southern part of White Clay, reached by the Twin Valley Trail, is the Arc Corner Monument marking one end of the 12-mile arc which forms the Pennsylvania-Delaware state line, unique in American political boundary-making. The circular divide dates to William Penn’s directive of August 28, 1701, when Delaware was still a part of Pennsylvania, known as the Lower Three Counties. A little more than 1/2 mile to the west is another monument marking the tri-state junction of Delaware,Pennsylvania and Maryland.

AMERICAN CASTLES

Breaking out of the woods at several points on the hilltops you are greeted with an unparalleled view of Granogue, one of the more spectacular of the American castles dotting the Brandywine Valley’s chateau lands.

MOVIE LOCATIONS

Flying concentric circles outward from Philadelphia, Hollywood location scouts for Oprah Winfrey’s movie project, Beloved, spotted the Fair Hill terrain and selected it as the backdrop for the film’s rural scenes. A ramshackle 19th-century tenant farm was constructed and much of the movie shot here. The producers decided to leave the movie set intact, to deteriorate naturally. You can wander among the fake buildings and even knock on the styrofoam stones.

COOL FORTS

Where else can a dog climb into an actual battery and scan the Delaware River where gunnery officers once aimed guns capable of accurately firing 1,000-pound projectiles eight miles like he can at Fort Mott State Park? Fort DuPont, named for Civil War fleet commander Admiral Samuel Francis duPont, saw active duty in three wars before becoming a state park. The 1-mile River View Trail, a grassy loop path, begins in the marshland along the Delaware River and finishes in shaded woodlands. The trail takes you past several ruins of the military installation, camoflauged to river traffic, and features sustained views of the Delaware River and Fort Delaware on Pea Patch Island.

REMARKABLE BRIDGES

In the farthest northern section of Tyler State Park is the longest covered bridge in Bucks County. The 117-year old Schofield Ford Covered Bridge burned in 1991 but after five years of fundraising the 166-foot, two-span crossing was entirely rebuilt by volunteers on its original stone abutments using authentic period materials and methods. An elaborate, reinforced wooden railroad trestle bridges a ravine on the Glen Trail. The trail runs by a stream under the trestle and there are sweeping views of Wenonah Woods from the top.

A walk through Brandywine Park provides a quick lesson is the history of bridge architecture. The classical arch form is represented in grand style with the magificent stone viaduct across the river and numerous reinforced concrete spans. There is even a small iron arch bridge over the mill race. A prototypical 19th century pier and girder iron bridge transports trains over the Brandywine. And the pedestrian footbridge across the water, the Swinging Bridge, is a little suspension bridge employing the same engineering principles as the mythical Brooklyn Bridge.

A floodplain is a safety valve for the release of a raging creek’s overflow. Along the Paper Mill Trail, just off the Creek Road Trail, is an exhibit on managing these protective wetlands that create a unique wildlife habitat. The stone double-arch bridge next to the floodplain exhibit was built in 1847. The fall line on the Pennypack Creek was the natural choice for fording the creek back to Indian days. William Penn was not so patient in waiting for the tide to take the water away each day and in 1683 he asked that “an order be given for building a bridge over the Pennypack.” Each male resident was taxed in either money or labor to build the bridge, which, when completed in 1697, became the first Three Arch Stone bridge in America. Designated a National Civil Engineering Landmark, the bridge over Frankford Avenue in Pennypack Park is the oldest stone bridge still carrying heavy traffic in America. Germantown Pike was the first road to be started in Montgomery County, dating to 1687 when funds were allocated for a “cart road” from Philadelphia to the Plymouth Meeting settlement. Later extended to present-day Collegeville, an eight arch stone bridge was built to span Skippack Creek in 1792. An equestrian trail crosses the bridge, which is the oldest bridge in continuous, heavy use in America. Ashland Covered Bridge, built in the days before the Civil War; the adjoining Succession and Flood Plain Trails visit meadow, marsh, pond and forest landscapes.

Theodore Burr built a bridge spanning the Hudson River at Waterford, New York in 1804. He added an arch segment to the multiple truss bridge popular at the time, attaining a longer span. Patented in 1817, the Burr Arch Truss became one of the most common in the construction of covered bridges. The Larkin’s Bridge, a 65-foot long, 45-ton “Burr Arch” covered bridge erected in 1854 and rebuilt in 1881, was relocated to the northeast section of the park in 1972. Larkin’s Covered Bridge is the only remaining legacy of Milford Mills.

In 1850 Albert Fink, a German railroad engineer,

designed and patented a bridge that used a latticework of rods instead of cables to reinforce stiffness. This construction was cheap and sturdy, making the Fink Truss one of the most commonly used railroad bridges in the 1860s, especially favored by the powerful Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Only one Fink Truss bridge remains in the United States – an abandoned 108-foot span in Zoarsville, Ohio. A wooden reproduction of a Fink Truss is in a field at Warwick County Park for you and your dog to climb.

CANAL LOCK

Pennsylvania’s first canal system was cobbled together in 1815 using 120 locks to stretch 108 miles from the coal fields of Schuylkill County to Philadelphia. Railroads began chewing away at canal business in the 1860s and the last coal barges floated down the Schuylkill River in the 1920s. Today, the only sections of the canal in existence are at Manayunk and Lock 60, built by area name donor Thomas Oakes, at the Schuylkill Canal Park. In 1985 the Schuylkill Canal Association formed to keep the canal flowing and maintain the lock and towpath. In 1988, the area was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

CHAMPION TREES

The Taylor Memorial Arboretum provides a 12-Tree Self-Guided Tour. The collection is especially strong in Far Eastern specimens and spotlights three Pennsylvania State Champion trees: the Needle Juniper, the Lacebark Elm and the Giant Dogwood. Also on the tour is a Dawn Redwood, an ancient tree known only through fossils until 1941 when a botany student tracked down living specimens in rural China. Some of the first seed to come to America resulted in this tree. Liberated from their sun-stealing neighbors of the crowded woods, the “King” and “Queen” White Oaks have spread out into a massive canopy of leaves. The “Queen” measures seventeen feet around at the thickest part of the trunk and the “King” is closer to twenty. The two trees are part of the “Penn’s Woods” collection of 139 trees standing when William Penn arrived to survey his Pennsylvania colony.

The arboreal oldsters reside at the last stop of the nature trail. bacterial infection. Awbury Arboretum in East Germantown was the summer estate of 19th century Quaker shipping merchant Henry Cope. Across the 55 acres are plantings of groves and clusters of trees set amidst large swaths of grss fields in the English landscape garden tradition. You can investigate more than 200 species, mostly native, in your informal explorations of the grounds. Old macadam paths lead to most areas of the odd-shaped property. Also on the grounds are wetlands surrounding an artificial pond.

BARNS

While many of the Hospital Farm’s buildings have disappeared, the unique dairy barn remains. Built in 1914, it is shaped like a wheel with four spokes. The fame of the hospital’s dairy operation was widespread. In 1961 alone, nine cows produced 1.1 million pounds of milk – more than 300 pounds of milk per cow per day.The Visitor Center is a restoration of a 1923 Sears & Roebuck mail order barn. A century ago Sears sold anything and everything by mail – including kits for building houses and barns. The kit, which could cost as little as a few hundred dollars depending on style, would include rough lumber, framing timbers, plank flooring, shingles, hardware, sash and paint. Usually shipped by train from the west, the barn kit would be loaded onto a freight wagon and hauled to the building site for assembly by local carpenters.

COOL ROCKS

Forty million years ago an igneous explosion occurred underground here and cooled very quickly leaving behind a particularly fine granite rock. Tourists and students of geology alike made the pilgrimage to the Falls of French Creek to study the rock formations. Granite quarries mined the rock and granite from Saint Peters once received an award at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago as “a fine-grained polished cube, a good building and ornamental stone.” The quarries closed in the 1960s and many pits can still be seen. Today the giant boulders in French Creek are ideal for your dog to sramble on – or just lie in the sun. Mountain in State Game Land #157. The mountain is essentially a ridge of diabase boulders and the trail to the top calls for almost continuous rock-hopping, a technique called bouldering. The basaltic rock provides incredible traction.

And our vote for the coolest thing of all on Philadelphia trails – the “Ringing Rocks” in Ringing Rocks Park where the rocks ping when struck by a hammer – or thud on “dead ” spots.

copyright 2006

Insulation and Air Conditioning Unit Size

An HVAC contractor can determine what size of air conditioning unit to install in your house, but will that size unit be the best unit for your home? There are many variables to consider when having a new unit installed in your home. These variables are brought together by a load calculation performed either by your contractor or a mechanical engineer. How do they do it though? What can make an engineer designate a larger home with a unit smaller than what is in another home with fewer square feet in some instances?

Let's use the three little pigs as an example (with some artistic license). The first little pig lives in a metal house that sits on a pier four inches off the ground. The second little pig lives in a wooden home that sits on a concrete slab which has been beloved into the ground. Finally, the third little pig lives in a house built with 10 inch thick mason blocks, also sitting on a slab. None of the homes are insulated. All of these houses have the same internal dimensions, but they will have different load calculations, which means, they may each have a different sized air conditioning unit.

A load calculation is a mathematical function put together to determine the amount of heat that needs to be displaced in order to cool or heat a home. The main reason for the differences in the load calculations is what is called the R-value of each home. R-Value is a measure of thermal resistance (the 'R' comes from the word, resistance) of a substance or an object. Although you may not be able to determine the R-value of your home, you can easily understand the concept by taking a look at each of the little pigs' houses.

The metal building the first little pig lives in is off the ground. This allows outside air to flow under the home as well as over and around it. Air flowing under a home decreases the R-Value of the home since it's another route for heat to enter or escape the home. Also, because this house is made of metal, it is a better conductor of heat than other materials, so that also decrees the R-value of the home. The lower the R-value of the home, the larger the unit needed to heat / cool it. This home has an extremely low R-value.

The wooden building the second little pig lives in is on a slab which was scattered in the ground. The slab keeps the floor of the home a relatively even temperature through the year, summer or winter. The wooden walls are built of one inch thick clapboard siding and less less heat conduction as well. Neverheless, without added insulation, this home conducts heat in or out fairly easily as well. The R-value in this home is higher than that of the metal home. It's possible that this home can use a smaller central air unit than the metal home.

Finally, we come to the brick home constructed on a concrete slab and built of 10 inch mason blocks the third little pig lives in. Although this home has a wooden roof, it is constructed of a thick wood with a higher R-value than that of the wooden house, and is shingled with a better quality shingle which is designed to reflect heat rather than absorb it. Since this house is also on a concrete slab, there is no outside airflow underneath it. The 10 inch walls work very well at insulating against heat conduction. These materials all work toward this home having a very high R-value. This high R-value causes the home to hold whatever temperature air inside for a longer period of time. This means a smaller air conditioning unit can be used in this home than in the previous two.

How a home is insulated plays a key role in how much heat must be displaced to keep the home cool or warm. To cause a central air system to work as efficiently as possible, better insulated walls, floors, ceilings, doors and windows are key. If these things are used, then a home is well on its way to becoming a 'green' home. The air conditioner will run less often, and it will run for just the right amount of time in order to cool the dwelling adequately and use the least amount of energy possible.

If you really want to know the answers for your house, call your local HVAC expert.

Flat Roof Insulation – Is it Really Worth the Cost?

Flat roof insulation may seem like a nuisance. After all, why would a flat roof need insulation? There is only a small level of space involved. Just how much heat and dampness can possibly be trapped in such a small area. Furthermore, is it really necessary to insulate a flat roof? Well, you might like to know that the spaces inside a flat roof are just as important as the spaces between any other roof area, including sloped roofs. Anadequate amount of insulation can do a large amount of long-term damage, just like any other structure that requires insulation.

Why is insulation actually needed for a flat?

In fact, the need for proper FRI far outweighs the need for insulation for sloped roofs. Why? Because flat roofs have an extreme exposure to the elements of extreme heat and cold. And they are FLAT. Unlike shingled roofs, water, ice, and heat seriously play havoc. There is no release of pressure or run-off.

Look out for the damage!

Because of the design, the no-slope, the flatness of it all, damage is more likely to occur. And because many homes and commercial buildings have large amounts of square footage benefit the flat it can easily become a serious trap for major (and often unseen) damage. All the moisture from the kitchens and bathrooms and laundry rooms usually get stuck. Unless the insulation is really up to par and the ventilation is also where it bought to be, the odds of reckless flat roof damage is almost inevitable.

Bottom line – Is flat roof insulation worth your time?

Most professional insulators agree that is most definitely worth the time. But it needs to be done right. Insulation goes hand-in-hand with ventilation. Both insulation and ventilation need to work in unison. Think of this as a symbiotic relationship both working together as one. It is actually a very beautiful working relationship. The insulation protectors and shields while the ventilation releases and provides much needed new air for the flat roof to breath. When this relationship is designed to work at a 50% by 50% ratio the conditions can become extremely optimized for amazing results.

The results show in the form of longering roof materials, big savings in energy cost during the summer and winter months, and much better conditions for you as a human while existing and living your life in your house or building. And over the years this added comfort and energy cost savings is certainly worth the investment and time of properly acquiring good FRI and ventilation.

In conclusion, insulation (and proper ventilation) can make the difference between a happy, comfortable living space or a very unhealthy, uncontrollable atmosphere that will always results in constant damage and ongoing repair and maintenance costs, years after year. Do yourself a huge good turn by hiring a professional to thoroughly check the conditions of your flat roof. It will pay big dividends for you and your peace of mind.

Make Group Bowling Fun: Rules, Tips and Different Ways to Bowl With Others

Bowling is a great game because of its diverse nature. It can be both a highly competitive showdown against others or simply a fun time out with your friends where no one cares about the score. After you’ve gone bowling many times, however, it’s common to want to mix it up a bit and try out fun new ways to bowl. Bowlers around the world have thought up some great different ways to make your time at the alley even more fun. These range from official rules systems in league play to silly ways to bowl with your friends.

If you’re just bowling with your friends during open bowling time, you can really pick any rules you want. You might have everyone compete against each other for the best overall score, or you might pair up with a friend and have your combined score go up against that of another twosome. Also, if you’re just in it to have a good time, you might not even care to look at the scores.

The only time the rules really matter is if you’re joining a league. If you choose this path, there are endless variations, and your bowling center will make it very clear what rules are in place. The most common format is to have the total score of your team against a team of opponents, and each bowler receives a handicap added to their score based on their average score. This is designed to even the playing field and give everyone a fair chance at winning. A better bowler would get fewer “handicap” pins added to their score, and a beginning bowler would get more pins tacked on.

Recreational bowlers have come up with some other great rules for group bowling. A popular one is to agree that the lowest score wins and try to have bowlers hit the fewest pins. To make this work, it’s good to count a gutterball as a strike so that players can’t just throw it in the gutter and win.

You could also have each bowler use their non-dominant hand for bowling. Some bowlers like to experiment with different styles of releasing the ball, such as “granny” style. If you’re going to try anything like this, however, be sure to be safe and not upset the staff at the alley.

When you’re looking to have fun bowling, the sky is the limit!

The Two Methods of MEP Coordination

MEP is an acronym used for Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing systems for building projects. With the increasing complexity and functionality of each system, MEP activities are not limited to the traditional mechanical, electrical and plumbing system but also include fire protection, gas piping, process piping, pneumatic tubing, data systems etc. This article asserts that the design has been completed by 'Design Consultants' to a certain stage and then handed to 'Installation Sub-Contractors' who will validate the design and value engineer the design through the process of spatial coordination and procurement of components to meet the requirements of the design. The coordination of mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) systems among them and with other building systems including architectural and structural disciplines is a critical, challenging and time consuming task, especially in complex building projects with intense MEP requirements. The coordination process of Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) systems involves defining the exact location of each building system component throughout the building within the constraints of the envelope defined by the architectural and structural systems to comply with divers design and operations criteria avoiding any interferences / clashes among building systems. Assuming that most companies undertake the task of MEP Coordination, without which the site installation from a 'design only' set of drawings would be too much of a risk, there are two ways by which the following process takes place:

2D MEP Coordination
The process starts with the design from the Design Consultant. The Sub-Contractor team will typically update the 2D CAD drawings or create their own set from the start. In creating these drawings a number of sections will be drawn and frequent attention given to ceiling void spaces in which the systems and services are being laid out. In an ideal world 2D MEP Coordination can work as long as all services and systems are assessed adequately and then drawn into a 2D drawing. The sizes of the systems would need to be manually added as would the heights and distances from gridlines or walls. The contractor will have teams of people for each system (HVAC, plumbing, electrical etc) creating their drawings based on the architectural ceiling void. In this method, there is no automated system to identify the conflicts in the MEP system and therefore there is a high degree of reliance on the intuition, imagination, technical knowledge and experience of the team members to lay out the services without site teams experiencing clashes .

Visualizing the potential clashes is made more difficult due to changes in ceiling profiles, not to mention the challenge of having to understand the impact of all systems as well as structural and architectural elements that may impede or impact a system or service route. What makes things worse is that a third party can not easily review the drawings for any errors, nor can the design be easily reviewed or communicated with a project team. Furthermore, if there are changes to the design or procurement-led changes then the process of undoing and re-doing 2D MEP Coordination projects becomes very cumbersome. The inherent weaknesses of 2D CAD software also come into play, one can draw something of one size and label it as something completely different. As the systems and services drawings are not checked in some form of automated method there is no guarantee that the 2D MEP coordination process will generate a clash free drawing. During the time of complex projects, it requires multiple section views which consumes a lot of time. These time commitments come with additional costs to each contractor.

3D MEP Coordination
This process is more collaborative and allows the ability to communicate the progress of the project quickly and easily, providing 3D visuals that resemble the final system and service installation. It starts with a clear direction in terms of spatial zoning which is then used as the basis to start modeling the HVAC, piping, plumbing and electrical services. As the architectural and structural models form part of the model, it is easier to insert services and systems without creating clashes. Once the model is complete and all systems and services have been added, the ability to identify problems becomes much easier compared to the 2D Coordination method. Firstly, one is able to walk through the model using roaming software to review the model and, secondly the use of clash detection software, such as Navisworks, highlights all clashes where these are systems against other systems or systems against structure or architecture. Once highlighted, all clashes can then be corrected during the coordination stage of the project. Only once the model is interference free are drawings created. This leads to another set of benefits, unlike 2D coordination where each section must be drawn, the 3D software allows the creation of sections that are directly taken from the model. Furthermore, as the 3D software is so intelligent, the sizes of systems are directly taken from the 3D model and therefore there is no chance of services or systems being modeled as one size and then labeled as another. Beyond the coordination stage, there are several other benefits from the 3D model, including use during facilities management, energy analysis and so on.

Irrespective of the MEP Coordination method used, the need for MEP Coordination arises due to the lack of detailed coordination during the design stage. Additionally, the need for fabrication and installation of building systems in accordance with industry and Sub-Contractor best practice requires MEP Coordination to be carried out by them. The 2D MEP Coordination process provides a limited interference-checking capability and therefore can and will result in more problems on site including additional re-work, change orders and inflating budgets. All of this makes 3D MEP Coordination a more efficient and the increasingly preferred method for the long term.

Current trends in the MEP industry show the evolution of a few more specific methods of MEP coordination, with varying degrees of involvement by the design consultants and the MEP contractors.

These methods are:

  1. Design consultant provides 2D, 3D designs and MEP coordination to the MEP contractor.
  2. The MEP contractor generates the 2D, 3D designs and MEP coordination itself / herself.
  3. Design consultant provides 2D design to MEP contractor, who then creates 3D models and handles MEP coordination.

The first, and one that is gaining increased popularity, workflow method is one where design consultants provide a spatially coordinated BIM model with MEP specification components, structural and architectural changes. Therefore, the BIM model is usable by the contractor.

The second method involves the MEP contractor designing all the models, both 2D and 3D, for installation. One of the disadvantages in this method for the contractor is added stress, since the contractor is liable for the design and may not be able to employ designers with requisite expertise and he / she may even have to provide design liability insurance. There are benefits though, one is removal of abortive work for BIM modeling due to efficient use of time and then, increased profit.

Method No. 3 sees the design consultant supply architectural, structural and MEP designs in 2D to the contractor, who then creates a 3D model to assess the design. This method may face hiccups in the process because certain discriminates will be represented in 2D and some will be in 3D, with different software used for each. So, if the contractor faces any issues, s / he may necessarily revert to the designer, who will alter the 2D design, and then the change has to be represented in 3D. Obviously, delays could result.

Additionally, useful features of the process have mushroomed. Quant take-off analyzes projects with a new degree of detail, taking into account quantities, locations and extremely costs. Further, just as 3D BIM permits visualization of the completed project, 4D BIM scheduling movies lets owners, traders and teams see how the building comes together. It can be used to monitor the project on-site . Also, BIM 360 Glue generates a coordinated model, consisting of individual models that all team members can look at. This can be 'glued', or updated models can be uploaded, on a regular basis. Each user can resolve clashes faster by comparing models and directly communicating with each other.

In the dynamic world of MEP coordination, new methods and features promise to crop up with unceasing regularity. The key is finding the method that works best for you.