10 Skin Care Tips For Women Over 50

Taking care of your skin is a must at any age. But once you cross 40, you need to kick it up a notch with a few extra steps. Age really takes a toll on your skin. It weakens the collagen structures impacting the texture and tone of your skin. The result, you are left to grapple with ugly wrinkles and blotchy sagging skin.

While you simply can not turn the clock back on life, you can at least age gracefully. And, here are 10 beauty and skin care tips to do so.

1. Go easy on the makeup

Women over 50 should opt for light, more natural looking makeup. Make sure you are using the right makeup. The makeup items should be of good quality. It should also be designed for your skin type.

2. Do not step out without sunscreen

The sun causes more damage to your skin than anything else. It is the culprit for wrinkles and brown spots. Build your skin's defense by applying a sunscreen every day. Slather it generously on your face, neck and hands. Do not set for any sunscreen less than 30 SPF. Carry a travel size sunscreen in your handbag so that you can reapply it whenever necessary.

You can also reduce exposure to the sun by wearing long sleeved shirts, sunglasses and a wide-brimmed hat.

3. Soothe dry skin

A common complaint in women over 50 is that their skin appears parched and listless. It tends to get flaky at times. This is due to its low moisture content caused by frequent sun exposure. Also, with age, the body's natural ability to produce moisturizing oils is reduced.

One way to restore skin moisture is to use a moisturizer. You must moisturize the skin after a bath or a wash. You can lose lotions as well as essential oils such as almond oil. Vitamin E is an important compound in any skin product.

Do not use cleansers that dry out the skin further. Test the product before you go all out and apply it. Opt for a creamy cleanser that leaves your face soft and supple after every wash. Keep yourself hydrated by drinking lots of water. In addition to that, you must also eat a healthy diet.

4. Avoid very hot water

Your bathing water should not be too hot. It robs the skin of its natural oils making it look dry. Let the water be lukewarm. If your skin is excessively dry, avoid washing your skin too often.

5. Exfoliate on a weekly basis

Your skin repairs itself on a daily basis. The dead cells accumulate on the top layer of the skin. It is this layer of dead skin that gives you a tired look. Here, exfoliation on a weekly basis is a must. You must exfoliate your face as well as the body. The dry brush exfoliation technique before a bath really works wonders for your skin. It not only gets rid of dead cells but also improves blood circulation helping conditions such as varicose veins.

You can use some of the readymade facial masks and body scrubs. However, if you are only about about using natural ingredients on your skin, you can make your own body scrubs.

6. Give up smoking

Smoking causes premature skin aging. So, stop smoking.

7. Anti-aging creams

While most people disclaimer the need for anti-aging creams, you can use them to supply your skin with a little more collagen. Collagen is the structural protein that holds your skin together. There is a less amount of collagen produced as your grow older. Also, the fibers become weaker resulting in saggy, droopy skin.

Anti-aging creams help boost the natural production of collagen in the body; Thus, they play a crucible role in skin repair and rejuvenation. They make the skin firmer. However, do review the products well before you buy and use them. Vitamin A products are great at improving the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Most of them are only available as prescription products.

8. Get enough sleep

It's not called beauty sleep for no reason. The skin repairs and regenerates itself while you sleep. Getting 6 – 8 hours of deep sleep will conveniently take care of skin issues such as dark circles, puffy eyes and fine lines around the mouth.

9. Exercise to the rescue

Exercise can also change the way your skin looks as it improves blood circulation. It also regulates other body functions ensuring the nutrients are properly distributed across the body.

10. Check your skin

You should inspect your skin regularly. Sudden changes in the texture or tone must be brought to the notice of your doctor.

When dealing with aging skin, there's one thing you need to remember. You might not be able to look younger than you really are. But you can definitely look good for your age and comfortable in your own skin!

Painless Hair Removal

Laser hair removal is rapidly growing to be the most popular quick hair removal treatment of all time. This is large because of the immense benefits that the treatment seems to promise to millions of people around the world who are feeling unattractive due to the presence of unwanted body hair. Electrolysis for hair removal is fast becoming a thing of the past even as quick hair removal methods like waxing and tweezing continue to diminish in popularity as long-term or permanent hair removal treatments.

So you are beginning to catch the drift here, that while some marketers may offer a variety of permanent hair removal solutions, few actually make consumer sense in terms of the total benefits that it offers. And this where laser hair removal has stood its ground, offering a miraculous mode of escape from unwanted hair, it it facial hair removal for women, it it back hair removal for men. This space age technology is gaining in popularity primarily because of the marginal utilities it can offer you, be it time or money, speed or accuracy as far as quick pain hair removal treatments go.

The beauty of laser hair removal as a permanent hair removal solution is it applicability over a wide range of body areas and surfaces. You can choose you pick some specialized laser hair treatments for hair removal from your back, cheeks, upper lip, under arms, legs, arms, back, thighs, shoulders, bikini hair removal amongst a wide range of possibilities. And what's more, not only is this, a quick painless hair removal procedure, but the effect is also long lasting so much so that there is a lobby advocating this treatment as a permanent hair removal solution.

The secret of this form of hair removal treatment is the fact that the lasers with the help of light energy beams thermally agitate the base of your hair follicles and destabilize it without physically ever affecting your skin. And since it's a highly concentrated focused beam, the accuracy and effect are greatly accentuated to the target area of ​​hair removal. In just a few treatments lasting from under 5 minutes to up to a maximum of an hour, you can experience a technology that not only gives you a permanent hair removal solution but one which also promises to effect a quick pain hair removal.

Laser hair removal – benefit from the future today itself!

Facebook Keeps Crashing My PC! How To Fix This Problem For Good

Facebook may keep crashing your system for all sorts of reasons, including the likes of the web browser of your PC not working correctly, your system having some sort of errors with its settings, and Windows not being up to date. If you’re experiencing errors with the Facebook website on your PC, you have to be able to repair any of the possible issues that it may have leading the crashes to occur – which can be done by using the steps outlined on this page.

Why Will Facebook Crash Your PC?

The reason why Facebook will crash your system is basically through the way in which this site works. It uses a technology called “JavaScript” and “Ajax” – both are described as client-side programs which work by installing themselves onto your computer, and then linking with the Facebook server to continually update various pieces of data on the page. That’s why your Facebook page can update so quickly – because it uses these Javascript & Ajax technologies… but the downside to this is that your PC’s memory & settings take a huge hit with the amount of processing power required for the Facebook page to update itself every few seconds.

The bottom line is that, for many computers, Facebook’s technology is just to resource-intensive and will consequently make your system run much slower – and often crash. To fix this, there are fortunately a few things you can do to make it run much smoother.

How To Fix Facebook Crashes

The first thing to do to fix the Facebook crashes is to first ensure that you are able to repair any of the potential issues that the web browser you’re trying to use may have. To do this, you should re-install the web browser, which can be done by clicking onto “Start” then selecting “Control Panel”, before selecting “Uninstall A Program”. This will allow you to uninstall the web browser you’re using, after which you’ll be able to then re-download and install the browser again. This will not only allow your computer to properly read the web browser again, but will ensure the smooth operation of your computer as well.

The second thing you need to do is to use a “Registry Cleaner” program to scan through your computer and fix any of the potential problems that Windows may have inside. A registry cleaner tool is a program that’s been specifically designed to fix errors & problems within the Windows system, and is a tool that can be used to fix the Facebook crashes. One of the main causes of crashes will be the way in which many of the “registry settings” of your computer will not be able to be read by your system – leading to a large number of errors to form. This will often lead the registry errors to show, making it vital that you’re able to use a registry cleaner to fix any of the potential issues that the database may have – boosting the speed and reliability of Windows as a result.

Chevrolet Corvette Named After a War Ship

Chevrolet Corvette named after a War Ship you say? Corvette is a French word given to (nautical, historical) a flush-decked warship of the 17th-18th centuries having a single tier of guns; it ranked next below a frigate; In the modern navy, a lightly armed and armored blue water warship, smaller than a frigate, capable of trans-oceanic duty.

Most modern Navies of the world include War Ships in the Corvette class in their fleets. You may remember seeing in the news ROKS Cheonan (PCC-772) was a South Korean Pohang-class Corvette of the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN), commissioned in 1989. On 26 March 2010, it broke in two and sank near the sea border with North Korea. North Korean torpedo from an attack submarine was believed to be the cause of its sinking.

In 1953 the first of the classic Corvettes hand built in Flint, Michigan named after a famous class War Ship the two door sports car was meant to be a gentlemen's sports car. Although a classic beauty it was under powered with its 6 cylinder engine it almost fell by the wayside.

The birth of the Chevrolet Corvette may not have happened had it not been for the War. You see steel was still in short supply back in 1953 which sent the car designer looking for a new idea. A promising new product hit the market that was durable and could be shaped into ca car body without much trouble. And a revolution started with the invention of fiberglass. The first of the Corvettes were hand built with fiberglass bodies and standard Chevrolet parts.

The 53 was powered with Blue Flame 6 cylinder truck motor that proved to be underpowered for the Corvette. It did get some upgrades to spice it up a little a three duce take set up and by 54 some of the dealers were installing Paxton supercharges.

Many say had it not been for the development and release of the small block V8 a 265 cubic inch engine of 1955 the Corvette would not be with us today. From 1955 on the new V8 put the Chevrolet Corvette on the map being a true performer.

Owning one of these classics today has become a matter of immunity pride. From the first to the models be built today they are stylish and classic and many appreciate the beauty of a high powered Chevy Corvette. Although very costly there is the attraction of their fuel economy. For the adventurous true connoisseur they are especially popular.

The market for restored Chevrolet Corvettes is powerful with the invention of internet auction sites, buying and selling these classic beauty's has become safe, easy and convenient. You can find restored original condition better than when they were new. Another class out there is restored using the latest technologies like disk brakes and modern power options and air conditioning. Many get attached and will not ever let them go.

Brick House Colors – Transform Your Boring Brick Into the Envy of the Neighborhood

Choosing brick house colors is an important decision. Once you paint over the brick you are stuck with having a color on there for life. You will not be able to return to the original brick look, you will have to repaint if you are unhappy with your new look. This is fine since a lot of people do not like the look of brick. So here are some tips to help you pick the best brick color.

Choosing classic colors is a great idea. The color in this case would be red. Many people are scared by this thought as red can be very overbearing. The key is to use accent colors correctly to create a great design.

Do not be afraid to look to other houses in your neighborhood or town for inspiration and ideas. You can usually find a lot of ideas in older neighborhoods where most homes were built using brick. Row homes are another place to find ideas. You can find uses for trim and landscape accents, as well as see which colors work best for brick homes. You can use the design ideas you find on other homes and tailor them to your personal tastes.

Consider using paint to simulate the look of stone. Gray and brown shades are wonderful for creating a look like stone and the texture of brick will help to create a great look. Now it will not be a perfect simulation, but it will look quite good.

If you are unsure about painting your brick home, then just try accenting the brick and painting things such as doors, shutters, and window trim. As stated earlier, you can not just remove the paint from brick once it is done. By trying it out on the trim you can decide if completely new paint is for you.

It is a commitment once you decide to move forward. Stay with your tastes and you can not go wrong!

Engineered Wood Joists – A Technologically Advanced Way To Build

Engineered wood joists are a technologically advanced way to build, which allows you to be more eco friendly than building with traditional dynamic lumber. Engineered lumber beams can be manufactured from smaller trees. Any construction project that calls for wood joists can use engineered lumber joists in the construction.

Modern technology has developed engineered lumber which has many advantages over traditional lumber joists and studs:

  • Engineered joists are more uniform in structural integrity, which allows the contractor to install them without the typical sorting and discarding of inferior standard lumber.
  • Engineered lumber joists offer more load bearing capacity than the same sized dynamic joists. This allows fewer joists to be installed in order to carry the same load.
  • Engineered beams can span greater distances than standard wood beams. This gives the architect and homeowner more design flexibility and lowers costs.
  • Engineered joists will save money as fewer joists are required to bear the same load. This will save money on material, labor, and transportation costs.
  • Engineered lumber joists offer more support and rigidity than standard lumber. There will be less deflection in any floor that uses engineered wood, especially over greater spans. The floor will have a more solid feeling, indicating superior construction compared to standard floor joists.

Using engineered i-joists in your construction project will benefit the environment in several ways, which may not be apparent at first glance. Since engineered lumber is lighter in weight, less fuel will be required to transport the material than standard lumber. Engineered i-joists are cut to exact lengths at the factory so there is less waste at the construction site and less material discarded which needs to be hauled to a landfill. The resins used to manufacture engineered wood products are toxin free. Small measures individually, but when multiplied over millions of construction projects, can make a significant difference to the environment.

Overall costs incurred at the construction site can be reduced by using engineered wood products for the same reasons. A fewer number of engineered wood joists are required to build the structure so less labor time is required to construct the building. Less time spent cutting to length decrees labor time, and less weight per joist requires less man to position engineered lumber joists and further decrees labor costs.

Engineered i-joists save money, provide a better constructed home, and are more eco friendly than typical dynamic lumber joists. It's hard to find a reason not to use engineered wood in all aspects of your construction project.

How to Install Your Own Carpet

Are you a do-it-yourself type of person? It probably would not be a big surprise if you are planning to install your own carpets. While it may seem like an easy task, there are a lot of factors that you will need to consider, such as what type of carpeting your home needs, and the type of carpet underlay you should use underneath.

If you are loath to have professional installers touch your floors, then you will have to learn how to install your own carpets with the right equipment necessary to undertake the job.

If your carpet is coming with a manual, always remember to read the manual first before you begin the actual installation. This way, you can have a better understanding of the procedure and keep from making any costly mistakes that will send you running to the phone to call the manufacturer, or a professional carpet installer. Remember that erroneous installation of your carpets frees the manufacturer from the warranty, so make sure you are doing the installation correctly, by the book.

The first chore you have to do is to move away furniture from where you plan to install your carpeting. Furniture can get in the way of your work, and you'll need to put them far away where they will not snag the padding and the carpet's material that you plan to lay down. If you want wall-to-wall carpeting and a door is in the way, remove the door from its hinges first. This way, you can simply trim the excess length and thickness, and re-install your door as soon as you are done with your installation.

Before laying down your carpet, you will need to clean the floor first. Dust and dirt can soil the bottom of the carpeting and make it harder to clean. You will also want to install the underlay between the floor and your choice of carpet. The carpet underlay acts as heat insulator that serves to keep your floors warm during cold weather. It also sound proofs your floor, as well as keeps moisture away from the cargoing material. Moisture is one of the main culprits that can damage carpets.

Whether you have chosen waffle padding, foam padding, or rubber padding, among the many choices for your carpet underlay, make sure it is the right weight and thickness to suit your requirements for cushioning and insulation.

Check the smoothness of your carpeting. It will not do to have unsightly wrinkles and ripples on the surface. On the other hand, over stretching the material may damage it beyond repair.

Finally, cut any fibers that may have come lose during the installation, and open all doors and windows to ventilate your home from the initial "new carpet odor".

Spray Foam Equipment

Expanding spray foam insulation is a type of insulation based on spraying the insulating foam directly over the area to be insulated. Just as foam board insulation requires foam core boards, expanding foam insulation uses spray foam.

Spray foam insulation is a relative of foam board insulation, using a quite similar material to foam core boards, with the main difference being in the method of applying the insulation itself.

If you intend to insulate your entire house for example, or any other large building, you have two options: one is to hire a specialized company that will do it for you, with a corresponding fee of course, or, if you are a hardcore DIY fan, you may attempt to install the insulation yourself.

It might sound an untouchable idea at first, but with a little study and care you will find that the DIY method might be the cheapest and why not the more enjoying option.

If you are serious in thinking about DIY spray foam insulation, you must first know what equipment you need. The following is a short description of the basic components of a foam spray machine.

The proportioner:

This is the heart of any spray foam machine. It is the part that creates the foam by proportioning the components and pushing them further. The best one for all around use would be an electric one, but make sure it has intuitive controls and balance pressure valves.

The spray foam hoses:

These are basic hoses, which have the sole purpose of transporting the foam from the proportioner to the spray gun. The hoses come in different colors, diameters and lengths, and it's always a good idea to use hoses that are corrosion protected, to prevent any nasty surprises.

The spray foam gun:

If the proportioner is the heart of the installation, then this is the hand. Inside the gun, the two components of the foam are mixed and expelled at certain pressures towards the surface to insulate. The moment the two components come into contact they react, so care must be taken after usage, to avoid clogging. Before, before buying one, try and find out how easy it is to clean.

Al these components will help you succeed in insulating your house. Spray foam insulation can be used instead of foam board insulation, but you should take into account all the advantages and disadvantages of the two insulation methods.

Graphic Design – Topography and Images to Present Information

Meaning

Graphic design is process of visual communication using topography and images to present information and attract people. It gives an interesting mix of presenting varied information in attractive formats to increase the overall users’ base. Whether you are reading your morning papers or commuting by a public bus, or open a book to read, element of graphics can be seen every where. It gives a great way to express your thoughts, ideas and opinion to reach millions of other users. This creative process involves different formats of graphics, which are easily available in today’s world:

Logos

Logo is an important form of graphics that conveys lots of ideas to its readers and users. A logo provides identify to the vision and the purpose of the organizations or any other agencies. In addition, it is difficult to register a company without a valid logo attached with it.

Websites

Websites reflect the major works of graphics aiming to attract promising clients to the organization. So, make sure your website reflect good piece of information prepared through graphic design services.

Business Cards

Business cards are essential in this competitive business boasting world. An impressive business card can get you really good impact and you will be successful to express your mind freely and effectively.

Advertisements

Graphics in advertisements have a specific role to play. You can hire a graphic design company to get your advertisement really rocking and reflecting you ideology.

Brochures

Brochures also consist major graphic designing in it. Without a good design, a brochure may not look very impressive. So, graphic can bring a life in brochures.

Billboards

Billboards or hoardings consist of advertisements promoting a product or services so the major attraction point is graphic designing.

Product Packaging

Nowadays, product packaging has a definite role to play in the promotion of a product or a service. Packaging clinches eyes positively and gives you several benefits in future context.

Posters

Posters are one of the popular methods to express the ideas and opinions. Therefore, it becomes necessary to make it really effective with lots of graphics and pictures in it.

Book Design

Graphic has a definite role to play in book designing. While designing a book, it is necessary to represent the content of the book to attract the promising readers.

Magazine Layout

Magazines offer wide information about varied subjects and current happenings. Therefore, it has to be attractive enough to tempt readers to go through its pages. So, the role of graphics can be really important here.

Newspaper Layout

While layout a newspaper, the importance of graphics can not be ignored. Anything colorful and informative attracts readers to a great extent.

Greeting Cards

In greeting cards too, graphics can do wonders and equally express your ideas to the fullest.

Introduction to Nutrient Pollution

Introduction

On August 27, 2009 the State-EPA Nutrient Innovations Task Group issued an urgent call to action to EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson. The task group studied documented levels of excess nutrients in our nations waterways. Current, and past, efforts to control these pollutants have been undertaken on the national and statewide scale. Efforts to date have been predominately "regulation at the pipe" and have not addressed the non point sources that are the root cause of elevated concentrations of nutrients in ground and surface waters. Nutrient pollution significantly affects all of us. It affects our drinking water, our recreational water, such as beaches and rivers and lakes, and it affects, and even kills, aquatic life. None of us want a bunch of dead rivers, but what can we do?

What are Nutrients?

Nutrients are elements that are essential to life. Being essential to life they are also essential components of the molecules that make up living tissue. Decaying organic matter and human and animal waste are significant sources of nutrient pollution in ground and surface water. The chemicals we manufacture and use in day-to-day life may also contain nutrients, as well as the fertilizers that we spread on our yards and farms. It is the broad application of fertilizers, the animal feeding lots, the widespread use of septic tanks, and runoff water from rainfall to school kid carwashes that are responsible for the immeasurable depths of nutrients that find their way into the watershed. These are the non-point sources that can not be easily regulated.

For 30 years the Clean Water Act has regulated industrial and municipal effluents. Limits are getting lower and lower. It is easy to take a sample at the end of a pipe. It's easy to know where the sample comes from, and who is responsible if pollutants are too high. Unfortunately, 30 years of regulation of industry has not significantly reduced the problem. Obviously, there are other sources.

And the sources are us. Our everyday activities of washing our cars, fertilizing and watering our lawnns, irrigating farms, and even desiring green golf courses. The essential nutrients that are in the fertilizers and detergents are entering the groundwater, not by an industrial effluent but down the gutter and into the storm drain. Rainfall is washing nutrients into creeks and rivers and carrying them into basins such as the Gulf of Mexico or Chesapeake Bay. Hypoxic zones, also known as dead zones, are forming where excess nutrients are deposited.

The excess nutrients cause a rapid growth of algae. The algae grow so quickly that they cut off their own light and die. This is a normal, geologic process, occurring more quickly than normal. As the algae dies it decays and the decay process consumes oxygen. Without oxygen aquatic life can not breathe.

What is Nutrient Pollution?

Nitrogen and Phosphorus are the principal elements reported to when discussing nutrient pollution. Other essential elements, such as carbon, silica, and sulfur are not included in this discussion. Organic nitrogen and organic phosphorus are associated with the organic matter we measure and report as TOC. Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential elements in DNA, RNA, and nitrogen is a major component of protein and urine. Nitrogen and phosphorus occurs as both water-soluble and water insoluble species. Unfortunately, both soluble and insoluble become bioavailable. Looking at this table, we see that Nitrogen and Phosphorus are somewhat similar chemically, for instance, the plus 5 ions known as nitrate and phosphate are very stable and highly water-soluble.

Nitrogen

Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth ranking only behind carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in total quantity needed. The nitrogen gas making up about 80% of the atmosphere is large inert and unavailable to life directly. Lightning will convert small amounts of nitrogen to nitrate. Nitrogen in fertilizers comes from the chemical reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen gas to form ammonia. The ammonia can then be oxidized to form nitrate. Fertilizers will often contain ammonia, nitrate, and / or urea as the sources of nitrogen. Organic matter, referred to as humic matter, manure, mulch, etcetera contains about 5% Nitrogen. This nitrogen is slowly converted to ammonia by bacteria and is always oxidized to nitrite then nitrate. During a storm event, or during erosion the nitrate in soil is easily leached into the runoff.

Dissolved inorganic nitrogen including nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. Dissolved organic nitrogen including water-soluble proteins, amines, amides, and so forth. Basically declined organic life and some man made chemicals that are dissolved in water. Total Organic nitrogen is the sum of dissolved organic nitrogen and particulate organic nitrogen. Particulate organic nitrogen is, well, the insoluble organic compounds, or organic matter, in the water. Total Dissolved Nitrogen is the dissolved organic nitrogen plus the dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and Total nitrogen includes all of the above. Notice, there is REALLY no such thing as total inorganic nitrogen. This is because inorganic nitrogen compounds are all water-soluble.

Chemical Analysis of Nitrogen Compounds

Total dissolved nitrogen, or the result you get when analyzing total nitrogen on a filtered sample complexes of dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia. Methods used to determine TDN typically rely on an alkaline persulfate digestion that converts all of the nitrogen present to nitrate and then the nitrate is determined colorimetrically. Analyzing inorganic nitrogen alone will only recover about 30 – 40% of the total dissolved nitrogen in the natural environment. Sewage treatment and industrial plant effluents, on the other hand, are predominately inorganic nitrogen (nitrate) since the treatment process is designed to completely oxidize dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate.

Total nitrogen, or the result you get when analyzing total nitrogen on a non-filtered sample complexes of dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia plus particulate nitrogen. Since all inorganic nitrogen compounds are soluble, particulate nitrogen is almost entirely organic nitrogen, or PON. Methods used to determine TN can rely on the same alkaline persulfate digestion used to determine TDN with the exception that samples are not filtered. Since samples are not filtered, the automated version is not applicable if there is a significant amount of sediment (or solids) in the sample. In other words, the automated inline digestion methods measure TDN and are only applicable if TDN and TN are essentially equivalent (there is no particulate organic nitrogen).

The DIN fraction, measured to calculate the Total Organic Nitrogen content can be, and should be, analyzed on a filtered sample. Remember that there is no such thing as Total Inorganic Nitrogen since it is equal to Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen. Another infamous parameter in the total nitrogen world is, of course, TKN (Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen). TKN, as routinely used, does not measure nitrate or nitrite. It is essentially a measure of organic nitrogen plus ammonia nitrogen.

TKN is the classical, if you will, analysis for total organic nitrogen. TKN has its roots in food and feed analysis as a way to quantify the amount of protein. TKN has been extrapolated to environmental analysis and is the regulated parameter for Total Nitrogen. Unless steps are taken to include nitrate and nitrite the regular TKN method does not measure it. TKN essentially measures organic nitrogen and ammonia. TKN is sufficient in POTW or municipal influences because these samples rarely have nitrate in them anyway. Recall the nitrogen reactions. An influent to a POTW will contain particulate nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen, and ammonia. The particulate nitrogen mostly settles as sludge removing it from the equation. Organic nitrogen and ammonia are oxidized to nitrate during the treatment process. The TKN digestion boils the sample in concentrated sulfuric acid in the presence of a metallic catalyst to speed the reaction. Potassium sulfate is added to raise the boiling point to about 380 C. The digestion will not completely recover all organic nitrogen compounds making the TKN result actually less than or equal to the TN determined by alkaline persulfate oxidation.

According to the EPA definition, Total Nitrogen equals TKN plus nitrate plus nitrite.

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient found in living organisms as part of DNA among other important molecules. Phosphorus is always found in nature bound to other atoms and usually as the inorganic phosphate. It is phosphate that is available to plants and used as a fertilizer. It is phosphate that is consumed by algae and has the potential to cause algal blooms. Measurement of total phosphorus is important because it can, with time, convert to bioavailable soluble phosphate.

Dishwashing, laundry, and many hand detergents and / or soap contain phosphorus. The phosphorus content in detergent can be as high as 8.7%. Phosphate is a very effective way to improve soap quality, especially in waters that contain high amounts of calcium and magnesium. Unfortunately, the phosphates in these detergents find their way into the environment. In the 1970's green rivers and lakes were becoming common and phosphate usage in soaps began its eventual reduction. Although there is not a federal ban on phosphate is soap many states are taking action. For example, Washington State has limited the amount of phosphate in dishwasher detergent to 0.5%

Chemical Analysis of Phosphorus

Phosphorus can exist in water in different forms. The standard method for phosphorus is meant to measure only phosphate, also called reactive phosphate. This is because what is actually measured is defined by the molybdate reaction itself. Phosphorus species are distinguished from each other empirically by filtration, and then a series of digestions that selectively convert phosphorus to phosphate. After the digestion phosphate is measured. Thus, to analyze organic phosphorus only, one digests for total phosphorus in one sample aliquot, and hydrolysable phosphorus in another aliquot. Reactive phosphate is then determined in each digest and Organic Phosphorus is calculated by difference.

Total Phosphate is water-soluble. Instrumental methods require that samples be filtered, or the turbidity and / or solids will interfere. There is certainly to measure total phosphate you must filter the sample. Since total reactive phosphorus is equal to filterable reactive phosphorus the results are the same. Remember though, that for best results, filtration should be in the field. The portion for the total analysis is not filtered. If the particulates (TSS or SS) are high, then continuous flow methods should not be used for the analysis of Total Phosphorus. Total phosphorus is batch digested that converts all phosphorus compounds to phosphate. The digest is filtered and phosphate is then measured, usually by molybdenum blue.

The continuous flow method for TDP utilizes 254 nm UV irradiation to assist in the digestion of organic material. Since continuous flow methods can not be used to adequately digest samples containing high amounts of solids and continuous digestion should not be used unless the total phosphorus is essentially equal to the dissolved phosphorus.

TKN is the classical digestion for total organic nitrogen. The TKN digest can also be used to analyze for total phosphorus. The advantage in this is not added recovery, for the acid persulfate quantitatively recovers all of the total phosphorus. The only advantage in the TKP is the ability for the laboratory to test for TKN and TP in a single digest. The perceived benefit is time and labor savings. Because of the higher acid and salt concentration of the resulting TKP digest compared to persulfate digests, TKP detection limits are typically higher that limits found by persulfate. The other advantage to TKP is, of course, that it is EPA approved.

All of the colorimetric methods used for the determination of phosphate by molybdenum blue are highly dependent upon final acid concentration and the amount of molybdate. Attempts made at analyzing total phosphorus digests without careful attention to acid concentration are often not successful. After the digestion is complete, you are measuring orthophosphate. Any method used to measure phosphate can be used. The problem with extending a total P determination to Ion Chromatography, for instance, comes from the excess sulfate ion introduced in the digestion. Early methods utilizing persulfate in sulfuric acid neutralized the sample and then analyzed orthophosphate. Some continuous flow methods measure the phosphate in the acid solution adjusting the acid in the reagent accordingly. The TKP digestions have really only been tested using a mercury catalyst, and excess chloride must be added to prevent interference from the mercury. Like TKN, the blue color of a copper catalyst may interfere with the method. The auto dialysis method helps to control the final acid concentration and some of the residual color introduced by the copper. Dialysis is essentially an online dilution leading to a higher detection limit than the cleaner persulfate digest. To sum up, for lower total phosphorus numbers (say below 0.1 ppm) it is recommended to use the acid persulfate digestion because the matrix will be easier to control and work with. For concentrations above 0.1 ppm, the TKP digestion is adequate.

Conclusion

The clean water act was signed amid stories of massive fish kills and rivers catching on fire. We all know that these things rarely happen in the US anymore. We have monitored sewage treatment effluents and in many cases applied numerical volumes on the amount of nutrients that can be discharged. We still have a ways to go.

Our chemical analysis methods were written for highly polluted water. The methods we use were not validated at the lower concentration levels we need to measure today. Many of the conditions of these methods assume higher concentrations will be present, and the former rigid nature of the Clean Water Act rules did not let us change anything. Fortunately, in 2007 the EPA added Part 136.6 to the CFR allowing us to make configurations to our nutrient methods providing the modifications improve method performance. These modifications are going to allow us to monitor more water, with better accuracy and detection limits.

We have more to go, because regulation of point sources has not solved the problem. Much of the problem is the non point sources we call storm water run off and irrigation water. We need to watch what we do when we apply fertilizers and watch what goes down our storm drains. But more importantly, what we need is increased monitoring of our rivers and streams. The only way we can begin to solve our problems is to know exactly what they are. To understand this problem we need more data, and the data we need is accurate, low level quantitative analysis of nutrients.

Using Shed Kits Vs Building a Shed From Scratch

Have you decided to build a garden shed yourself? That's a great thing to do but you need to plan it well. Many people start full of enthusiasm but soon give up because they lack planning and experience. Building a shed is not hard at all, you just need to estimate your skills well before rushing into the actual work.

Based on your experience in do-it-yourself projects – wood or metal working, slicing, snapping, cutting out and reading sketches – you have two options: to buy ready plans and construct your shed from scratch using them as a guide or to buy a shed kit. Which is better for you? Consider the following criteria:

Advantages of using shed kits

Building your shed from a kit is easy. With a good kit an averagely complex shed can be built together in just a day or two. It's really not a rocket science.

It's also fool proof. When you have all the parts cut out and sliced ​​you just can not go wrong. Yes, you can probably put some parts at the wrong places (but you do not read the instructions) but it's very easy to realize the mistake and fix it.

Another advantage is that the kits are serially manufactured. Each kit has been sold, built, tested, fixed and proven itself many times. Often you can research online for the kit model you plan to buy and find opinions of people who have used it to build their sheds.

Disadvantages of using shed kits

The shed kits are not cheap. The price of the more complex quality kits extends several thousand dollars per piece.

As every physical product, the shed kits have a logistics problem. If you want to buy the kit from your local store, they'll probably have too few models in place and you'll have to wait for delivery. If you purchase online, you'll have to pay for shipping and wait again.

Building a shed from a kit limits your creativity. You can not change the plan, you can not change the material, sometimes you can not even change the paint. That's fine for some people, but if you are a real do-it-yourself fan you may want more freedom.

Advantages of building from scratch or with plans only
You can buy downloadable shed plans only for $ 5 to $ 30. If you want to buy printed plans (from local store near you) it may probably cost you up to $ 50. The materials add to the figures but it's almost sure that you'll build a shed cheaper this way rather than purchasing a kit.

The shed plans that are sold online can be downloaded instantly or at the worst case you'll have to wait a few hours until the seller sends them by mail. It's much faster than waiting a couple of weeks for your kit to arrive.

Working with plans gives you more freedom. The plans of course contain exact instructions and measurements, but if you are knowledgeable you could easily make improvements and customizations to them before you start cutting. You can even choose the most preferred material yourself.

Disadvantages of building from scratch
Of course building a shed yourself, by using only a shed plan, is much harder. You need to have good skills and experience in doing things yourself.

It also takes longer to do it this way. Some complex sheds may take more than a week of hard work to get them done well.

Finally, there are many better opportunities to do the things wrong and waste materials. If you confuse the measurements you can waste an entire wall or floor from your shed.

There is no better or worse option, it all depends on your preferences and goals. If you are die-hard do-it-yourself fan or are very short in money you'll probably want to build with plans only. If you just want to have a shed done at reasonable price, then a kit is what you need.

Installation of Polystyrene Insulation on Fiberglass

Insulating a home can be performed by setting up a blend of fiberglass and the polystyrene foam insulation. Generally the fiberglass filling is utilized in between the hoops of the walls that are outside the home and is set up from indoors. On the other hand the polystyrene foam insulation is generally set up and fixed to the externals side of a home. The polystyrene insulation and the fiberglass insulation combine in a form where the polystyrene filling is set up on the fiberglass one. Given below I have provided the process by which these two kinds of insulation can be combined.

Utilize a measuring strip in order to determine the proportions of the place that requires to be covered with polystyrene foam insulation. Determine the altitude from the peak to the base and then measure the breadth from sides. Buy the panels of polystyrene insulation from any house development store. Utilize the calculations that have already been taken of the entire place in order to decide the number of panels you must buy.

First of all set up lone panels as they will not require to be slashed for fitting. Now set a panel straightly on the fiberglass filling and then fix it to the side. Utilize a mallet and fixers to secure the panel of the filling to the hoops in the side. Afterwards determine the dimensions of places that will require a particular range of filling cut. Always remember to create a mark on the panel of insulation with a pen or marker at the place from where you are going to cut it. Finally take the help of a sharp blade or saw in order to slash the panel of the filling to accurate dimension and after fix it on the fiberglass filling on the wall.

The Different Types Of Paleo Snacks

A Paleolithic diet (commonly called a Paleo or "caveman" diet) is a diet lifestyle based on the theory that our bodies are not designed to eat processed foods and we should only eat those foods that would have been available during the Paleolithic era. It emphasizes natural, unprocessed foods that can be eaten without preparation. Paleo diet advocates claim that health problems like obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease are "diseases of civilization" caused by modern, packaged and processed foods.

The very first thing on the list of "Paleo Snacks" is "Fresh fruit of any kind." Nuts are on there (limit to 4 ounces a day if you're trying to lose weight) and dried fruit (limit to 2 ounces a day). Cold meats, raw vegetables, avocado and / or tomato slices, homemade salmon and beef jerky, hard boiled egg (limit to six a week – he's not a big fan of eggs) and unsalted sunflower seeds (limit to 4 ounces a day) are all on there.

Beef recipes are packed with nutrients such as amino acids, minerals, and proteins. Beef can be called a powerhouse of nutrients because it is loaded with 10 vital nutrients, that aids in tissue repair and Promotes body functions. Beef dishes are tasty and filling too. You can prepare these beef dishes on all special occasions or otherwise.

An excellent Paleo recipes resource is cookbooks. Paleo Cookbooks are a compilation of the best Paleo recipes available and they gather recipes for different types of meals. When you make stone age recipes with modern foods, remember you want to insure that all of the ingredients are free of (1) Grains, (2) Legumes including peanuts, beans, peas, soybeans, tofu, soy milk and flour (almond flour (4) Salt, (5) Yeast including bread goods, pickled foods, vinegar, fermented foods and fermented beverages (all contain yeast), (6) ) processed sugars, (7) excess added fats except for permitted oils. You should try and choose the leanest cuts of grass-fed free-range meats. remember, the mainays of the paleo diet are fresh fruit, vegetables, lean meats and seafood.

Nutrition is the ultimate legal drug that can make or break your performance, drastically improve recovery, and give you the added mental clarity and focus needed to get through nine grueling events in 48 hours.

Eat meat and vegetables, nuts and seeds, some fruit, little starch and no sugar. Keep intake to levels that will support exercise but not body fat. Practice and train major lifts: Dead lift, clean, squat, presses, clean and jerk, and snatch. Similarly, master the basics of gymnastics: pull-ups, dips, rope climbs, push-ups, sit-ups, presses to handstand, paralettes, flips, splits, and holds. Bike, run, swim, row, etc, hard and fast. Five or six days per week mix these elements in as many combinations and patterns as creativity will allow. Routine is the enemy. Keep workouts short and intense. Regularly learn and play new sports.

Going "paleo" is about creating a new lifestyle habit. It's about lifelong dietary change. Not the typical 2 week diet where you count calories, lose 5 pounds of water weight, then gain it back a week later.

Origin Of Collective Bargain

The term collective bargaining was coined in 1891 by Beatrice Webb in her work cooperative move in industries.

The employment term according to her can be determined either unilaterally by the state, unilaterally by employees, unilaterally by workers and by the combined efforts of the employers and their organs, workers and their organs and the state representatives.

C.I.B study text (1982:258) observed that since the 1960s there have been certain developments in the system of collective bargaining. It explains that negotiating arrangements have been introduced in many organizations at local or plant level, i.e. in “domestic” bargaining. For example, a union might negotiate minimum wage rates at a national or company level and then separate negotiations at plant level might be concerned with extra payments for special arrangements, such as a productivity agreement in the plant.

Before the advent of collective bargaining, employees bargain individually, through the interview i.e. individual contract.

Collective bargaining is therefore collective in the sense of multi-party involvement in form of decision making concerning a broad range of issues that effect all parties in the industry.

Contrary to Webb’s definition of collective bargaining as a collective equivalent and alternative to individual bargaining. Alan Flanders (1975:253) says collective bargaining is primarily a political institution because it is a rule making process, which involves power relationship between organizations or organized interest groups.

Dunlop (1958:302) drew attention to the dynamic of collective bargaining processes, he observed that the major activities of collective bargaining involves the determination of priorities within each side in the bargaining process i.e. there are disagreement within each side. Constant discussions, disagreement and compromise and exists from time to time in these processes.

Collective bargaining is an important technique or mechanism in industrial relations meant for resolving goal conflict. It is a joint activity where each side recognizes the right of the other to be present in equal terms. I.e. when you talk of collective bargaining, it is a forum where the employers and employees are to be present. The employer do not tell the employees to leave the negotiating table, they both have fifty-fifty chance.

Employees and employers through their representative come to agreement on pay and condition of employment. The process of negotiating is often referred to as COLLECTIVE BARGAINING.

The development of Collective Bargaining

The C.I.B study text (1988: 355) observed that before the advent of collective bargaining, employers bargaining individually through the interview i.e. individual contract.

It is also observe that since the 1960s there have been certain developments in the system of collective bargaining. Some of these are:

Negotiating arrangement has been introduced in many organizations at level or plant level i.e. in “domestic” bargaining.

Another is that more matters are now brought within the sphere of collective bargaining arrangement because negotiation now might cover not only pay and condition of service or employment but also promotion, training, agreement, job demarcation etc.

Finally, collective bargaining has been extended to more group of employees.

Factors influencing Collective Bargaining

According to the N.U.T study circle materials (1992: 68), some of the factors that influence collective bargaining are itemized below:

(i) The ability to pay

(ii) The mandate of the employers representative

(iii) The relative strength of the union and management

(iv) The sensitive nature of the job and the importance society attaches to it.

(v) Strategies adopted by the union officials

(vi) The quality of work.

(vii) Influence of international financial institution e.g. I.M.F.

(viii) Statistics, which are generally economic in nature, collective, collated and interpreted by the union officials.

However, the C.I.B study text (1988: 355) stated that one final point to note is that there is a complex of factors within an without the organization which affect the bargaining relationship and that although there is an agreement to go through grievances or dispute procedures (in a constitutional way) the majority of conflict in this country are unconstitutional, that is in breach of procedure.

Negotiation procedure

Standoher (1982: 217) defined Negotiation as the act of discussing, conferring in order to come to an agreement, arranged by discussion. He also defined bargaining as making a condition, or give up something in return for something else.

However, Yoder (1982: 471) wrote that the negotiating procedures consist essentially of advancing proposal, discussing them, receiving counter proposal and resolving differences. He asserted that it may involve elements of training, as concessions are granted bye ach of the parties.

Moreover, he stated that negotiation procedures are determined in part by the law, states and administrative board and courts decision regulate the particular issues that bargaining can decide. The law further requires that the parties negotiate their contract in good faith.

Formal negotiation according to yoder (1982: 471) creates the collective bargaining agreements. In formal negotiation, the parties met at predetermined times and places to exchange proposal, agreement and rebuttals. Informal negotiating he said is a continuing process arising out of the day-to-day interoperation, and application of the formal agreement. Representatives of the parties exchange ideas, and arrive at agreement with respect to the meaning of various clauses and appropriate programmed for putting them into effect.

He also observed that informal negotiation can be regarded as part of the total process of contract administration. It is highly important in the relationship established by collective bargaining: the degree to which informal negotiation takes place and how the parties adapt themselves to resulting changes may well be a measure of their maturity and effectiveness as collective bargainers.

Yoder stressed that the formal process of negotiating begins in several ways. If the parties are bargaining for the first time, sessions may follow union recognition by management or certification by federal or state agencies. If the parties have already negotiated one or more agreements, the timing of the negotiation process may be prescribe by existing agreement. It may call for formal, advance announcement by either party if changes are to be sought in a new agreement. The process may begin by an exchange of letters between the parties. Or one party may announce to become news. Negotiation continues until differences are resolved or until the parties find that they cannot arrive at a satisfactory agreement without assistance. Conciliation and mediation services may help in settling their differences. Certain unsettled issues may be submitted to arbitration. If agreement is not achieved in negotiation, employees may strike, in which case, settlement of the strike involves further negotiation.

They may, on the other hand, continue working without agreement while negotiation goes on.

Preparation for Negotiation

Yoder (1982: 472 observed that although the extent of advance preparation by both managers and unions differ, many of them spend month in getting ready for negotiation, unions study the experience with existing agreements in the investigate the financial condition of employers. Union members may be polled to determine their preferences.

He noted that many management undertake similar preparation for the negotiating process. They seek information on the nature of settlement made by other employers in the same or related industries. They study the operation of the present agreement to discover section in which they desire changes.

Moreover, he asserted that they forecast financial prospect and secure information on the labour markets in which they must shop. They try to anticipate union demands and have at the argument they may use in opposition to demands they regard as unreasonable.

Experience is reviewed to provide a basis for further negotiation.

Both management and union need fact as well as philosophy and policy to guide them in actual negotiation. Representatives know the basic policies of the organization they represent. They should be well informed on current practice in the industry and locality and on recent changes in practice. Both parties may require extensive statistical and other information with respect to their experience and that of other firms and unions.

Yoder finally noted an important objective in preparing for negotiations is determining the cost of changes in contract provision.

Strategy and tactics

According to Yoder (1982: 471), strategy refers to the overall plan of how to proceed at the bargaining table to achieve objectives. Examples would be to take a “hard time” or to be con-operative, tactics include the individual method that a party utilizes to implement its strategy. Example would be to table round, bluff or trade-off issues. The behavioral approach of Walton and Mckersie, outlined, lends itself to analysis of strategy and tactics. Strategically, most managers and union leaders view negotiation as a contest in which the “smart player” wins.

This comports with the fact that since most negotiations is distributive in nature, the parties are competing in an “win-loss” situation on individually bargaining items. Thus, negotiation is seen primarily as an adversary relationship.

Yoder (1982: 495) stressed that in applying tactics to distributive issues, both sides typically adopt extreme positions. The unions present a “laundry list” asking for the “sun, moon and stars”, and management typically, offers very little at the onset. He further asserted that both parties recognize the need to bluff.

They may make dire threat with no serious though of carrying them out. Negotiators sometimes fell a need to impress their constituencies that they have fought hard and avoided a catastrophe.

Bluffing may help to create this impression.

However, Standoher noted that one effective position for management may be to make demand of its own in bargaining. Underlying this is the adage that “the best defense is a good offence”. In recent years, management has sought to ease restrictive work rules, and ahs even proposed “take away” lowering or eliminating benefits that existed under the previous contract.

Strike and trade disputes

The C.I.B study text (1988: 380) defined strike as a temporary stoppage of wok in the pursuance of a grievance or demand. It explains that strikes are the most common form of industrial conflict and there are a wide variety of issues that can result into strike and mis-understanding in an organization.

The trade dispute Act, section 37 defines a trade dispute as “any dispute between employers and workers or between workers and workers which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the term of employment and physical conditions of work of any person.

Rug & Carpet Cleaning Options

Whether you are planning on cleaning your wall to wall carpeting or your area rugs, you have certain cleaning options available to you. There are both positive and negative aspects when it comes to cleaning carpeting in your home. You should consider all aspects of cleaning when you are arranging to have the rugs and carpets in your house cleaned.

Shampooing – One option that works well and is easy to do on your own is using shampoo to clean the carpeting. This is not ordinary shampoo but special shampoo and you use this with a machine that will put the shampoo on the carpeting and then clean it up. Your carpet will be soaking wet after this process and will need to be kept for drying after you are done. This is also the least expensive method.

If you are using shampooing to clean an area rug, be sure that the material used is one that can be cleaned with wet cleaning. You can clean synthetic material rugs this way but you should never attempt to use this method on antique rugs or those made of wool as it can ruin the fiber.

Steam Cleaning -Steam cleaning can also be done by yourself with a special machine that you can rent or buy. This also uses moisture to clean the carpeting, but is not as wet as shampooing the carpeting. The steam will get the dirt out of the carpeting where it is picked up by a special machine and cleaned up. Many people prefer this method of cleaning as it is very effective and does not leave the carpet as wet as when it is shampooed.

When it comes to steam cleaning area rugs, the same truth holds for steam cleaning as it does for shampooing. You should not use this method of cleaning on wool rugs or those that are antiques and are most likely made from silk or wool. This method of cleaning is fine for store bought area rugs made from synthetic materials.

Chemical Cleaning

Chemical cleaning has come a long way and is no longer a danger to pets and children. However, some people just do not like the idea of ​​this type of dry cleaning for their carpets. This is a dry cleaning treatment that is similar to what is in a dry cleaning establishment. It can work well to chemically treat both carpeting and area rugs and is usually safe for most area rugs, including those that are made using wool or silk. You will want to talk to your carpeting care cleaner to find out if this will work for you. They may need to see the rug before they can give you a quote.

You have many choices when it comes to cleaning carpeting. Often, you can use the same treatment that you use to clean the wall to wall carpeting to clean the area rugs in your home. If you have a rare area rug or an antique, you will want to be sure that you have the carpet cleaner take a look at it and give you a price on cleaning before you start.