Peer Pressure Teen Stress

Peer pressure teen stress can be defined as the way teenagers try to explain due to pressure coming from their peers. This kind of stress is triggered by issues like the need for approval, acceptance and the need to have a sense of belonging. When teenagers, the pressure that comes with trying to gain approval or accept or find a sense of belonging leads to all kinds of circumstances causing stress in the life of adolescents which if not checked may result in health related problems.

Issues that can cause peer pressure teen stress:

The two main settings that teenagers get their peer pressure stress from are the school and the home and there are many issues arising out of these settings which causes stress in adolescents of which some are

1. Issues relating to mixing with others

2. The feelings they have towards themselves relating to how they see themselves and how they think others see them

3. Problems that may arise out of the home with other family members

4. Traumatic or grief related events like divorce among parents, death or illness in the family can also be a likely cause for teen peer pressure

5. Having to adapt to a new school environment

6. Having to move to an environment or place they are not comfortable with

Some ways of dealing with peer pressure stress

1. A positive attitude

One way of tackling this type of stress in teenagers will be for teenagers to encourage themselves to adopt a positive attitude towards life. This will involve them having to adopt a healthy eating habit, avoiding using alcohol or drugs as a way of solving their problems, cutting down on the intake of caffeine drinks amongst others …

Timber Carports Protect and Free Up Storage Space

Timber Car Ports – your professionally good looking, value adding, answer to improving your home's weather protection and releasing your garage to provide essential storage space, extra rooms, granny flat, exercise room, or home office, etc.

Easy to Build with Professional Good Looks Timber car ports – the solution you've been looking for!

That's right!

Planning for a Car Port

Because car ports are considered to be 'temporary structures', they very often do not need planning approval. It's the same for some 'kit' or ready-made garages. Neverheless there are a number of other regulations you will need to observe. For instance if the building will be closer than the front of the house to the road.

You must also observe building regulations, where these apply. For instance making sure that your building is a minimum of 1 meter away from the boundary '.

While generally building regulations may not be applicable for detached single storey buildings that are over a metric from the boundary, if they have at least 2 sides open on and a floor area of ​​less than 30 square meters, you may not need building regulations approval for a car port.

So, easy to design, plan and build, these cost effective professional timber structures add value to your property at first glance.

Storage Shortage

It is well known that Britain's homes are some of the smallest in Europe. Most have a severe lack of essential storage space. As a result many people now use their garage as a 'lock-up' store. Yet more have converted them to a home office, extra bedroom, 'granny flat', or garden exercise or recreation room.

Rain & Snow

With more and more cars being left parked in the drive, loading or unloading the kids, shopping, sports and short holiday break goods are increasingly affected by Britain's worsening weather. Rain … and more rain, seems to be the long term weather forecast for our summers, with occasional feet of snow in the winter.

So, cars and people need the convenient protection that garages used to provide, but which UK homes now lack.

The 'Look Good' Factor

Timber car ports are increasing dramatically seen as the solution.

They can provide the protection you need, while at the same time looking good so as to preserve and enhance the value of your home

UK Planning Regulations

Now that the UK's town and country planning rules have been changed, in many cases you may not have to go through the rigmarole of employing architectural designers and engineers to get permissions before you can build.

Timber Car Port Solutions

Whether you prefer a fully architecturally designed independent solution to your requirements, or a simple to erect, standard 'Kit' package that enables most competent DIY'ers to achieve professional looking results with few, if any, problems, a Timber framed car port is most probably your best solution.

A Review of Ducati 1098 Carbon Fiber Termignoni Exhaust Silencers – Money Well Spent?

One of the first changes that a lot of Ducati owners make to their bikes after being run is to change the stock exhaust silencers for less restrictive aftermarket ones. This has the twofold effect of making the bike louder and also releasing a few extra training ponies (as if a 1098 really needed it!) – Oh, and they look great as well! Bonus!

There are a dazzling array of manufacturers who are producing two full systems and slip on silencers for the Ducati range, however due to the success of their products in racing, and the fact that they are the weapon of choice for the factory Corse Racing team, Termignoni has arguably edged it's way into pole position as the number one Ducati exhaust manufacturer.

Termignoni have a wide selection of systems to fit the 1098 family, from slip on silencers to full titanium and carbon fiber race systems at a full 70mm diameter. It is the carbon fiber 1098 silencer kit that we are having a look at today and is the focus of this review.

Contained in the kit is the complete inventory required to fit the less restrictive carbon silencers including an updated race ECU to adjust the fueling to match the increased airflow, and also a high throughput performance air filter to balance out the additional fueling. In addition there are the mountings and bands to support the pipes under the seat, so in summary this is an entire turn key solution.

Fitting is not beyond the realms of a competent home mechanic, the pipes are precision made and as such fit without the need for any tweaking, the only tricky bit being the installation of the air filter which requires tank removal. Other than that the ECU replacement is exactly that – remove old, insert new (with battery disconnected PLEASE !!), pipes bolt into place and job done.

So how do they work and sound? Well, starting with the easy answer first – they sound awesome, deeper, more boomy but without the muffled sound of the stock pipes. The kit does include a pair of decibel killers in case your neighbors are members of the sound police but it sounds good even with these inserted.

Now to the harder question, do they work? Well, without putting every bike on the dyno it is impossible to comment fully, suffice to say that typically you will see up to an 8% increase in horsepower, impressive given the already high state of tune on the stock engine.

As a conclusion, these are an absolute no brainer, lighter than stock which is always good, sound absolutely fantastic, release a few more horsepower, are easy to install and look like they should be on the grid of a world superbike race. Final bonus is that they are some $ 700 cheaper than the titanium variant.

My only reservation, and it is a small one, I am not a fan of race ECU's as there is a massive variance in output of stock bikes so one size fits all approach is not ideal – I prefer the infinite tuneability of a Power Commander, however these pipes do work well with the race ECU so would not worry too much about the later as it is all within tolerance. So yes, money well spent indeed!

For reference they are Ducati Part No: 9115707B and fit the following bikes -1098 2007/2008, 1098 S 2007/2008

Do You Understand How a GMIB Works?

Is it a big surprise to me that the average investor does not understand how their variable annuity benefits work? No, I wish it was. It is for this reason I launched annuityiq.com. The fact that few people actually understand their variable annuity benefits is absolutely believable.

These benefits are sold as a, "do not worry if it does not work out you will at least get your 5 to 7% rate of return." The rate of return with a GMIB, guaranteed minimum income benefit, builds totally separate from your actual account value. Your investments will fluctuate and be completely dependent upon the sub-accounts performance. A sub-account is the insurance companies name for a mutual fund, but they can not call a sub-account a mutual fund.

The GMIB will grow in a separate phantom bucket called your "benefit base". Your initial benefit base is simply the amount of your initial investment, also known as your purchase premium. The base benefit is what the 5 to 7% will compound on. You have to understand that this is and has no relation to your cash value or market value of your contract.

A GMIB will have a holding period attached to it. The holding period is the minimum number of years that you have to hold the contract before you can exercise the benefit. This waiting period can vary from 7 years to 10 years depending on the insurance issuer's terms. When you exercise the benefit you are annuitizing it and will receive a lifetime of income.

The annuitization tables that are used are based on very conservative assumptions. The insurance company usually guarantees you a minimum interest rate, about 2%, and fall outside of traditional annuitization tables. The company may roll back your age to calculate your annuity payments. This age rollback is not good for you. The company will generally roll your age back anywhere from 8 to 10 years. This means that if you exercise this benefit when you are 75, the company will base your payments as if you were 65 years old.

The end result is you receive lower annuity payments. Also the only way to take these annuized payments is period certain with life. Lifetime payments are lower than period certain payments. Period certain payments range from 5 years to 20 years and are geared to pay you all of your interest and principal back over whatever time frame you had chosen. For example if you chose a 10 year period certain then at the end of 10 years you will not receive any payments. The life with period certain is basically a life time benefit and if you die prior to the period certain time then a beneficiary will receive some payments until that period certain is up.

With living benefits, specifically GMIB's, you have two flavors to choose from.

1. Dollar-for-dollar

2. Proportionate

The difference between the two is major. Dollar-for-dollar will allow you to withdrawal up to the GMIB interest rate amount without impacting your base benefit.

For example:

A $ 100,000 investment with a GMIB of 5%, which is dollar-for-dollar; you could withdraw that 5% without decreasing your benefit base of $ 100,000. You could, if your investments did not perform, annuitize the original $ 100,000 after 10 years, even if your account's cash value is almost depleted. This benefit is good during a declining market.

Proportionate withdrawals will reduce your base benefit by the same percentage as the withdrawal. So you could not take out that 5% compounding without reducing your base benefit. The only time you could take income out is the market, or your investments, did well. This is because you are taking the 5% out of your earnings and therefore you will not affect your base benefit. The only time this benefit is good is when the market, or your investments, go up in value.

I know it is terribly complex to understand exactly how these benefits work. The good news is most of the GMIB's are dollar-for-dollar now, there are only a few that are proportionate. You have to read either the prospectus or the contract to find out if the GMIB is dollar-for-dollar or proportionate. You also need to realize that even if your contract is dollar-for-dollar any withdrawal over the GMIB interest rate will be proportionate and will affect your base benefit.

The question is now why would anyone want a GMIB? I can easily answer that question. People want peace of mind and the comfort so even if everything went wrong I still have this to rely upon. I do think that people do not understand how these benefits work and have bought them under a misunderstanding of information. These benefits can be so difficult to explain that some people summarize it way too much and that leads to the misunderstanding.

I, personally, feel that these GMIB's are old news. I do not, nor have I ever, fully liked them. Like I said before they are difficult to understand and can lead to problems later in life. I also do not like the idea that you have to annuitize to realize the benefit. With the advent of For-life benefits why would anyone want a product that is so restrictive? I do not believe they are anymore.

I view the folks who sole sell GMIB benefits as the last horse and buggy salesmen. They either do not like the For-Life benefits or are hung up on being able to offer "6%" GMIB's. Most For-Life benefits are 5% and are there less less attractive compared to offering 6% or even 7% in some cases.

The bottom line is this; For-Life is the way to go. You have flexibility, the potential for higher income if your investments do well, no annuitization and your money is guaranteed for life. Compared to a GMIB which may be capped as it reaches certain compounding thresholds, you have to annuitize it to realize the benefit, you have to wait ten years to exercise the benefit and you have to be careful about how much money you take out of your investment.

There are too many caveats to GMIB's and not enough reward. A For-Life benefit gives you everything you could ask for out of a variable annuity. The question is how are you going to find the best For-Life benefit? I did the research for you, use it, get "The Annuity Report" at http://www.annuityiq.com .

Health Insurance Companies Are Now Using Biometric Technology to Approve Or Deny You Coverage

The next time you apply for individual health insurance will be prepared for a variety of preliminary evaluation testing procedures to see if the insurer will reject or accept you including: testing of blood, urine, presence of alcohol or smoking, and evaluating your genetic composition.

In the individual private healthcare market there is the concept of health insurance medical underwriting. It involves assessing and quantifying a prospective applicant who is applying for coverage as a potential liability or risk to the insurer by a professional underwriter. The process is similar to applying for a loan from a commercial bank. There are basically three types of risk the insurer will screen for.

(1) Physical Risk; The primary concern regarding the applicable. In this context the issue is in regards to the medical condition of the proposed insured or a propensity towards cancer determined by family history.
(2) Morale Risk; A potential insider would forgo consideration of an application alt if there is any explicit or implicit evidence of the applicant involved in hazardous avocations, sports, or occupations.
(3) Moral Risk; An insurer will definitely attempt to avoid the speculation of insuring an applicant who has an inclination to suicidal tendencies, criminal behavior, and certain lifestyle habits or tendencies.

For years insurers predicated on the reliance of multiple sub-systems derived from strategic cumulative integration of intelligent computers to draw their conclusions for the purpose of risk assessment. A new technology currently in experimental phases funded through Kaiser University has discovered a statistical method to ascertain and unify all three risk categories in unison during real time for the purpose of medical underwriting by utilizing genetically calculated risk scoring algorithms. It is a highly interoperable biometric screening application interconnected to a plurality of relational healthcare databases. The silicon apparatus utilizes an infrared thermal touch screen sensor as a biometric identifier that verifies the integrity of an applicant's personal genetic profile with razor sharp precision by credentialing his or her fingerprints against federal law enforcement regimes, national automated verification systems, and a compilation of tabulated DNA repositories.

DNA?

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes containing their DNA blueprint. One member of each chromosomal pair comes from their mother, the other comes from their father. Every cell in a human body contains a copy of this DNA. The large majority of DNA does not differ from person to person, but 0.10 percent of a person's entire genome would be unique to each individual. This represents 3 million base pairs of DNA. In clinical studies this percentage has proved to be meaningful enough to structurally composite predictive valuations of significant importance to an insurance company including approximating personal behavioral tendencies, psychological proficiency, and expectation of mortality or morbidity. It has been so proficient in screening risk that a law was recently passed to protect employees and insured applicants from its discriminatory prejudice known as the Genetic Information Non Discriminatory Act. However, the act is convoluted by pretenses directly or indirectly imposed by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act which places little restriction on the information that can be shared by HIPPA covered entities.

What Does My DNA Have To Do With My Health Insurance?

Over the last few decades insurance carriers began data warehousing many of the popular DNA databases such as the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System and CODIS with mixed usage proprietary commercial datasets such as Ingenix, Physician Computer Network, Intelliscript, Medical Information Bureau, and even Secure Flight Passenger Data compiled by The Transportation Security Administration. The so called purpose of this was for authentication and with the recent caveat of electronic health records identity theft, authenticity of an applicable was the alibi insurance companies needed to exploit and get away with this, at the same time create a more robust underwriting system. Just remember the next time you visit the general practitioner you signed a petition form authorizing all parties managing your care to share knowledge regarding your health which in unique circumstances grants special permissions to all parties above.

How This New System Works.

A fingerprint is made of a number of ridges and valleys on the surface of the finger. Ridges are the upper skin layer segments of the finger and valleys are the lower segments. The ridges form so-called minutia points: ridge endings (where a ridge end) and ridge bifurcations (where a ridge splits in two). Many types of minutiae exist, including dots (very small ridges), islands (ridges slightly longer than dots, occupying a middle space between two temporary divergent ridges), ponds or lakes (empty spaces between two temporary divergent ridges), spurs (a notch protruding from a ridge), bridges (small ridges joining two longer adjacency ridges), and crossovers (two ridges which cross each other ).The unequeness of a fingerprint can be determined by the pattern of ridges and furrows as well as the minutiae points. There are five basic fingerprint patterns: arch, tented arch, left loop, right loop and whorl. Loops make up 60% of all fingerprints, whorls account for 30%, and arches for 10%. Fingerprints are usually considered to be unique, with no two fingers having the exact same dermal ridge characteristics. The biometric device measures kinetic heat frequencies from an applicants touch distributed through minutia points and automates a recognition key cipher query from ridges through a call interface dispatched by an encrypted terminal control program. Basically, the examiner will inquire based on the information presented to him and await an answer from the mainframe computer in remote proximacy. I do not know about you but somehow the thought of my data traveling around through a typical client / server type architecture does not make feel comfortable at all. Just imagine all the errors that can go wrong. The new system is ripe for exploits at at every social level in addition to invading all our rights of privacy as citizens, never mind qualifying for coverage.

There Is Something You Can Do.

If you do not want to insurance companies having access to your sensitive private health information among many other things such as your financial prowess, consumption, personality or lifestyle the first thing you might want to do is avoid applying with Kaiser Permanent or any of the fellow member insurance companies owned by National Electronic Information Corporation, it is bad enough we have to be arranged by The Medical Information Bureau just to even get health insurance in the first place.

The second thing you can do is visit our website to find more health insurance information or simply leave your information (for the purpose of protecting your privacy, you need not leave any other information you will not feel comfortable to share) We will be glad to provide competitive quote from Major Medical Insurance carriers who do not participate in this practice. Not all insurance carriers participate in this type of screening procedure but you probably will want to avoid the carriers that do as once you are in the system and that one place you do not want to be if you value your healthcare and how much you spend on it.

Discover the Most Dangerous Forms of Water Pollution & How You Can Protect the Health of Your Family

There are many different forms of water pollution, all of which are caused by people's carelessness. Agricultural run-off is a serious problem and one of the largest forms of water pollution. Large factory farms use huge amounts of herbicides and pesticides that all wash into the ground water when it rains, polluting the groundwater for thousands of miles around.

The herbicides and pesticides are deadly cancer-causing chemical compounds that can not be removed from the water by any method but proper filtering. The thousands of tons of manure from these farms also run into the water carrying herbicides and pesticides that the animals have ateen as well as the bacteria and microorganisms in the manure.

Industrial Waste is another major form of water pollution. Factories, large companies, manufacturers, mills and plants often dump their waste directly into the rivers, lakes, streams and oceans. Those who do not dump directly into the water, dump into the ground, causing more groundwater contamination. Recent studies have identified 2,100 of the 80,000 chemicals in North American drinking water to be carcinogenic chemicals.

Household Waste – You and I are water pollution culprits too. Every time someone pours a cleaner, detergent, soap, chemicals, medicines, paint, solvents or anything else that does not occur in nature down the drain, it becomes a form of water pollution.

Sewage – Many countries and states still dump raw sewage into the harbors and bays. Millions of tons of raw sewage are being dumped into the water every day. In some countries raw sewage runs in the gutters along the streets. This sewage obviously puts many different types of toxins into the water.

What Can We Do?

The best thing we can do to protect ourselves is to install a certified multi-layer water filtration system in our homes. All water that you come in contact with must be decontaminated- not just your drinking water.

The chemicals and metals in the water can see through the skin or be inhaled in the form of steam, as well as being ingested. Protect your family from all of these forms of water pollution with a proper water filter.

Understanding the Advantages of Outlook Cached Mode Configurations

Many of us have heard about or actually used the Cached Mode of the Microsoft Outlook application. By specifying various configurations, we can make the best use of this powerful feature. Our article explains the different configurations and how to put them to use.

As all users of Microsoft Exchange Server are aware, they can either work with their mailbox on the server in the online mode or the cached mode. The largest advantage of working in the cached mode is that it allows users to continue working with data from the mailbox as though they were still connected to the server even though they may be offline. Outlook creates an offline storage file, OST file and then copies the content of the mailbox on the server into this file. Mobile users can then access this copy of the mailbox offline. To take full advantage of this feature, users should know about the different configurations of the Cached mode setting, how to protect OST data and if the need arises, how to recover OST data.

Although you can set the different configurations for Outlook manually, if you are a system administrator looking after an entity Exchange organization, you would be better off if you just applied the settings at the group policy level. The OST group policy settings can be located by first going to the main User Configuration menu and then looking at the Administrative Templates. From Microsoft Office Outlook 2007, select Tools and then Account Settings, from where you can click on Exchange. While there may be other options, you should look at the group policy setting for the OST files. Before making changes, you should be aware that some of the changes could cause serious damage to OST files and that there should be a backup option to quickly recover OST data.

1.Rather than downloading all the messages to the offline folders, especially if you are working on a low bandwidth connection, you may want to download only the headers to understand what you need to deal with on a priority basis. If you indicate the 'Cached Exchange low-bandwidth threshold value', when sufficient bandwidth is not available, Outlook will download only the headers for you.

2.One of the most important configurations is the 'Exchange Unicode Mode'. While older versions of Outlook used only the ANSI format for their OST files, from Office 2003 onwards, it is possible to choose the format the user would like for the OST files. However, users should be aware that ANSI-based files have a 2 GB size limit beyond which the files can immediately get corrupted and you have to repair the file to recover OST data. Further, it is not always easy to work on an OST file that has crossed the size limit, as, in order to repair the file, one needs to reduce the size. The best option then is to use specialized recovery tools such as Advanced Exchange Recovery from DataNumen to repair the OST file, bringing the file to a more manageable level and ensure no loss of data. On the other hand, Unicode files have no such restrictions.

3.Some users prefer to work with the data in their Exchange mailbox only when they are online. They would much rather deal with slow and unreliable connections than deal with local OST files. By choosing the 'Do not allow an.OST file to be created', these users do lose out on the many advantages of the Cached Exchange Mode.

Many Aspects of Modern Travel Was Pioneered by the Ancient Romans

Modern travelers take the open road for granted. We can hop into exquisitely engineered modern vehicles, pop onto smooth, straight freeways, well lit, with excellent signage and many roadside conveniences. We can cover as much ground as we might like in any direction, in relative comfort and safety.

Much that we love about modern road travel was actually available 2500 years ago to the ancient Romans. They created the template for a system of interconnected roads and conveniences that we have simply adapted during the 20th century as the vehicle became the mass method of conveyance. The road system that they built to connect to their far-flung empire is still in use in many places.

As the Roman Empire flourished, conquered and consolidated new lands and needed to efficiently manage these territories the necessity for a durable network of roads became obvious to the ruling class. Prior to Roman ascendancy roads around the world were simple unpaved paths cut into the landscape by pack animals, carts and people moving goods to trade, barter and local markets.

The Romans prospered by trading in the lands that they conquered, but they also needed to move great armies, control supply lines and have the ability to quickly transport edicts, orders and news to the far corners of the empire in a timely manner. To build this essential intra-state network of highways the Romans utilized the manpower always available in their army legions.

The quality and durability of Roman roads still amazes. Hanging on topography Roman roads were famously straight for as far as the eye could see. This engineering feat was accomplished without any of the modern surveying equipment used by road builders today. The Romans invented a simple device called the gromma and this became the principal tool utilized for accurately surveying roads and thoroughfares.

The gromma ingeniously uses two strings with a weight tide to the end of each. The strings are attached to the ends of a length of wood. The surveyor would simply line up the strings until they appeared as one, and would have assistants plant stakes approximately every 100 yards apart. The surveyor, using the gromma as a guide, would have the assistants slightly adjust the posture placement until the strings of the gromma and the line of stakes appeared as one. The result was a roadbed that was true, accurate and easily utilized by the construction crews.

The Romans laid rock above the roadbed so the surface was higher than the land next to the road. This enabled water to drain off to the side and mean that roads did not wash out in inclement weather. Gravel was placed on both sides of the roadway to act as a sort of gutter to carry away runoff.

This system, when viewed on a modern map, appears much as the present day system of interstate highways is constructed. Spain, Gaul (modern France), Italy, Germany, the British Isles, Greece and Northern Africa all were tied closely together by this amazing transport network. Modern roadways parallel this grid in most countries where the Romans built their highways.

The Romans built over 2000 bridges. Many are in use, carrying traffic to this day. The arches they crafted were amazingly strong, with strategically placed keystones supporting the massive weight and pressure of these utilitarian edifices. In addition, these bridges are some of the most beautiful structures ever built. The Roman word for bridge was "pontificat". Today we apply the descriptive name "Pontiff" to the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, as the Pope acts as the bridge between heaven and earth.

Hundreds of tunnels had to be built through the rugged topography of central Europe in order to move traffic to the most expeditious routes. The Romans had no power tools to gouge through rock. They had no dynamite. The technology to construct these tunnels was primitive, but most effective. Engineers would build massive bonfires right against the rock face of the surveyed tunnel. Then they would boil vinegar and have this splashed against the burnt rock face. While the effect of the heat and vinegar was greatest sappers would begin to chip at the weakened surface with chisels and hammers. Some of the tunnels took 20 years to complete.

As the road system grow, the need for roadside services become acute. Travel was typically undertaken in approximately 20-mile daily chunks. As a result every 20 miles or so, along the breadth of the massive Roman network of roads, there were roads inns, workshops to repair transit vehicles, and stables to care for livestock. Maps were prevalent and indicated not only place names, but distances, accommodations, levels of luxury, services, and military garrisons.

As distance was crucial in planning itineraries the Romans perfected the odometer 2000 years ago. They utilized a 42-inch diameter wheel and a series of gears that engaged each time the wheel made a full turn. The interlocking gear system was calibrated so each gear turned as it was activated until a Roman mile (approximately 5000 modern feet) was covered. Then a gravel pellet would fall into a container as holes in the gears came into alignment. This amazingly accurate measuring system enabled the Romans to mark their maps, and place stones along the roadsides marked with precise distances covered and to the next town or service stop.

Today, travel has become a hugely popular experience enjoyed by millions of people around the world. Whether a brief weekend road trip, a cruise or an international vacation, people love to go. So did the Romans. The Romans were the richest people in the history of the world to that time. The system of roads that built were heavily utilized for recreational travel, the first time in history that people had the wherewithal to move freely about for strictly leisure purposes.

Travel guidebooks were omnipresent in ancient Rome. The travel guide for the many attractions of Greece, for example, was 20 full papyrus pages long. Inns and eating establishments were rated for economy, luxury, cleanliness and safety. The modern Michelin and Fodor guidebooks are simply the successors of the Roman travel guides.

At most major crossroads on Roman roads there was a sign offering directions, distances and recommended stops for repairs, refreshments or relaxation. Many also included a news board with recent proclamations, travel warnings and local notices. These were the world's first billboards.

As travel grew in popularity so did the menu of services available to the traveler. Chariots, sedan chairs, carts, wagons and covered wagons with swivel seats and dice tables (for the rich) were available for rent. Accommodations varied broadly in cost and quality. Hostels, servants quarters, private sleeping rooms, luxury quarters with fire, bathing and mattresses were on offer depending on one's pocketbook. Food was offered in similar variety.

The world's first fast food was also available from some purveyors. The cart simply dropped to a door or opening, the menu card was reviewed and the order placed and delivered to the vehicle to be consumed as the journey continued.

The Roman Empire began to consume itself around the 5th century. The pursuit of luxury, greed and laziness made the Empire corpulent, vainglorious and decadent. The same roads that had been so crucial in their military, recreational and commercial enterprises came to haunt the Romans. Their many enemies used this road network to attack their former masters. The Visigoths, the Franks and the Mongols used the Roman roads to carve back lands formerly taken from them and to attack Rome mercilessly. By the end of the 6th Century Roman hegemony was long a thing of the past.

The demise of the Roman Empire meant that the maintenance and continued construction of the roads came to a halt. This had the unintended consequence of leaving huge swaths of the system in areas where there was no effective government. Trade came to a halt. The roads were deserted. In many areas, especially North Africa, Britain, Spain and France the Roman highways disappeared beneath weeds and fauna.

The result was the banquetment of the Dark Ages. People stopped traveling for almost any reason. Until the Crusades there was almost no interaction between peoples and cultures. The insularity of tribes and fiefdoms lead to a reawakening of ignorance, disease, superstition and hate.

For six centuries the Romans ruled the known world. Their ability to create, invent and improvise has served mancind ever since. The vast Roman network of interlocking roads, tunnels, bridges, mapmaking, services, commercial enterprises and exploration is the guide we utilize to this day in communication, logistics and locomotion. We have much to thank these brilliant Romans for as we utilize so many of theirventions to this very day.

Constructing A Retaining Wall

There are many circumstances in a construction project where retaining walls may be required. One of the most common is to retain an earth bank, either to prevent the earth from sliding or to protect an object or building. There are many ways and materials that can be used to construct a wall including; wood, metal and concrete. Wooden crib walls and sleepers are commonly used for domestic purposes as they are affordable and easier to handle. The domestic uses also tend to be small and have less loads placed on them, there is also an aesthetical requirement specifically for garden wall purposes.

Metal sheet piling is a fast and efficient method of creating a retaining wall. Large sheets of corrugated steel are forced deep into the ground and the material is backfilled against this. One of the main drawbacks of using Wood and Metal for the construction of a wall is their corrosive nature. Wood will rot and metal will rust, this gives them a short life span. Concrete is an excellent product for building a retaining wall as it has excellent structural properties and it also repels the elements. The concrete products are made with steel reinforcement is encased in the concrete which results rust occurring and once cured the concrete provides excellent protection for the steel and a very strong structure. The reinforced concrete retaining wall can be either constructed onsite using steel cages for the reinforcement and wood shuttering to form the structure. The other alternative is to use precast concrete sections manufacturer off-site and then install them on-site which will help reduce the construction time.

There are other types of precast blocks that can be used. These generally interlock to create gravity retaining walls which will sometimes require a gradient sloping back. These are useful where the end product needs to fit into the environment. It may be that plants can be used in order to help the wall blend it into the surroundings. These types of walls may be used near bridges, on the side of roads, or on residential developments. An example of this would be crib walling. These are reliably large precast blocks that interlock and build up to create the wall. They need a granular infill and then plants and other vegetation can be put on the wall so that over time will blend the wall into its surroundings.

There are many options out there so have a look around and work out which products is most suitable for your job.

Advantages And Disadvantages of Using the Wood Frames

Family photos remind us of our past days and probably for this reason people preserve photos in albums. Some good pictures are framed and hooked on the wall the living room wall. A good picture frame enhances the beauty of a photo and provides it a touch of elegance. Though there are many types of photo frames available in the market, most people go for wood frames. The wood is sturdy, durable and is readily available. It holds the picture perfectly and prevents it from degenerating. These frames come in various shapes and sizes therefore people find them just perfect for different pictures.

Wood has a specialty. It absorbs moisture easily and thus prevents it from attacking the photo. Wood has the capacity to absorb any liquid whether it is water, oil or gel. Therefore wood frames provide best protection to photos, pictures and other decorative items which need framing. This quality is missing in plastic or metal frames. Plastic frames retain the moisture for you to rub the fine drops. Metal frames to do the same. There are chances that the moisture on plastic and metal frames could slip inside and affect the priceless picture. But there is no such risk with a frame that is made up of wood.

Wood frames don’t have edges, hence are good for holding priceless family pictures. However, plastic and metal frames do have edges which could harm the picture either while placing the picture inside the frame or while cleaning the frame. If you are looking for a perfect picture frame for a unique photo then consider the wood frame. Wood will ensure that your photo doesn’t gather dust, moisture or fade. Another quality of wood is this that it mixes with the picture and thus highlights the features of the picture. On the contrary, metal and plastic frames drag attention and thus hide the picture.

Wood comes from nature and for this it has no fixed color. You can find wood frames in green color, rustic color, and pale yellow and even off white color. These frames not only look good but they mix with every photo. Sometimes it seems that the frame is the part of the picture. This feature is not available with plastic or metal frames. A wood frame is available at every retail store and you can also find these frames on online stores. Online retailers give fabulous discounts on bulk purchase.

Organic Gardening – Double Digging Your Garden Beds to Improve the Soil's Structure

There are great rewards to be had by double digging your garden beds. It is a very labor intensive method of improving the gardens soil structure. It involves the improvement of the first 2 feet of the gardens soil.

Double digging is hard work and is not for everyone. If you have health conditions that restrict you to heavy work or back problems I would recommend staying away from this method of gardening.

When double digging it is best to start out small and just work an area that you can handle. It is going to take time so do not try to take on to much because you will only get disgusted and most likely give up on finishing it. I do not want to make this sound like I do not want to make it sound like I am trying to talk you out if if this method to your garden because the benefits that you will get in return will be great. Just take your time.

Several days before you start this project you should mark out the area you want your garden and soak the area with water. Once you have fished that step wait a few days and remove any sod or weeds that are in that area and loosen the first foot of soil with a spade.

The next day you plan on working on your bed you can start by digging and removing a one to two foot wide area of ​​topsoil the width or the length of the garden area, depending on where you are starting. Take this topsoil and stockpile it at the opposite end of the garden from where you are starting. Depending on the size or distance you have to move it a garden cart or wheel barrow may be needed. This stockpile area is where you will end the garden. Pile it on the yard off the garden area on a garden cloth, boards or something that you can easily clean it up from at the end.

Once the topsoil is removed you will need to start loosing the subsoil layer of dirt below where the topsoil was. You can do this by taking a spade and sticking it deep into the soil, twisting or wiggling it until you breakup all the clumps of soil, do this the length or width of where you are working.

Next you will need to spread about a layer of organic matter over the loosened area of ​​subsoil. Once you finish that step it is time to start working the next 1 or 2 foot area that is next to the area you just finished. Simply take the topsoil off the new area and place it on top of the organic matter that you just put in. Continue these steps until you have reached the farthest end of your garden and replace the topsoil that you have stockpiled into the last trench.

Once all the topsoil is all back in place in your garden you need to spread a layer of compost or organic matter over the entire surface of the garden and work it into the top 4 to 6 inches of topsoil.

Now your garden is ready to plant. Remember, only work small areas of a garden that you plan on double digging at one time. The benefits will be great for both you and your plants.

Hair Extensions Not Just Boost Your Hair But Even Your Appeal

Today almost every one can have long and beautiful hair with the help of hair integration or extension. If you've thought that hair extensions are only meant for celebrities or for people visiting formal occasions then you probably need to re-think the whole matter again. The adorning results of professionally applied integrations have over turned the perspective hair styles across the world. Growing number of people are visiting expert salons to assist them in the picking out and application of real hair extensions as a daily have on.

People want extensions for an n number of reasons. Some have fine or thin hair that they wish could appear thicker and healthier, while others badly want beautiful long hair and can not wait for their own hair to grow. Your expert stylist will select the attachment method according to the texture of your hair and its condition. Some flash straight hair and instead want curls. Extended hair can even be applied to very short or thin hair, making them an excellent option for just about anyone who wants better, heavier, or longer hair than naturally grows on their heads.

Adding hair extensions is a very easy procedure if you engage a professional for the task. It bonds well the natural hair on your head by utilizing different techniques such as hot unification, sew-in, braid-in, heat-sealed in, and the famous, clipped-in. One can use either synthetic or natural hair for these procedures depending on the price one can pay for this.

Many professional and reputable hair extension salons have the expertise and knowledge that is required for adding volume or length or whatever you are seeking, without damage to your natural hair. Months later, when it's time to take them out, you'll be all the more surprised that now you are simply in need of a basic split-end cutting. Furthermore, an expert undertaking this procedure can make it last around approximately 3-6 months, based on how quickly your natural hair grow and how well you maintain and care for it.

If you are not a celebrity that does not at all mean that you can not have hair like one. Your skillful stylist will be able to insight you so much about ideal extensions for the styles you want to put up, and will be sure to inform you the best possible ways to care and well maintain your beautiful hair style to keep it long-lasting and beautiful even on the every day basis. So if you want to gain a confidence that boosts through long and beautiful hair, then you can get hair integrations and enjoy your added value. Apart from this they can be a perfect choice for some special functions where you can flaunt your new appeal.

Subcontract Assembly

There are many stages during the manufacture of a product: sourcing, parts manufacturing, etc. But for products complied with many different parts and components, the final stage (or penalty stage if to be tested before sale) is the assembly. Assembly lines are some of the most important procedures in the manufacturing industry, and some are so complex that only a few Subcontract Assembly Assembly has the space and means to tackle them.

Assembly lines were, in fact, not simply 'thought-up' or 'invented' by one individual, but rather evolved over the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A famous example of an assembly line is that of the Ford Model-T: considered to today the first full mass-production assembly line. Ford realized that to really produce a car (still a novel item at that time) they would have to be able to assemble them extremely quickly. So, instead assembling each car individually, they devised a huge assembly line: so that whilst one car was having the chassis bolted, another was having the glass installed, and another was having the wheels put on, while another was being painted etc. This paved the way for modern high-production assembly.

Assembly lines remain very similar today as they were in the time of Henry Ford. However, a new factor in assembly is the introduction of robots, commonly found in many large-scale production facilities across the globe. These are of an advantage to producers as they require less man-power, yet offer much higher precision and consistency, despite higher initial costs.

Entrepreneurs who require assembly services for a product should consult a subcontract assembly specialist. These have wide experiences in the field of assembly, and know how to squeeze maximum efficiency out of the assembly process for those on a tight budget. Please click below for more information on them.

Female Orgasms – How To Give Your Woman An ANAL ORGASM That Makes Her Addicted To Butt Sex

When it comes to female orgasms, most men only know about clitoral orgasms, some know about vaginal orgasms and squirting orgasms — but very few know how to give their women anal orgasms.

Heck, very few men (and women) even know that anal orgasms are possible.

But here’s the thing…

Anal orgasms are not only possible, they are one of the most POWERFUL types of orgasm a woman can have and in this article you are going to discover how to give your woman an anal orgasm so intense and sexually pleasurable — it makes her addicted to butt sex.

Does that sound too good to be true?

I can understand if you answered “YES” to that question.

However, if you read on with an open mind and use what you read with your woman… you will increase the quality of your love-making sessions in a way that words can not do justice.

Just before we get into the sexual technique that will let you to give your woman an anal orgasm, here are:

3 Rules For Successful Anal Play

1. Start Out Very Slowly

Quite simply — if you don’t and you end up doing something that hurts your woman, she will probably stop you from ever touching her anus again.

So always be cautious with anal play and start out slowly.

2. Use Lots Of Lubrication

This one is self-explanatory.

3. Never Put Anything That’s Been In Your Woman’s Ass Back In Her Vagina

Sticking to this rule will prevent any vaginal infections.

Now, let’s get into the fun stuff…

Female Orgasms – How To Give Your Woman An Anal Orgasm That Makes Her Addicted To Butt Sex

Start off by having some FOREPLAY with your woman and getting her very sexually aroused.

I then recommend that you give her a clitoral orgasm and at least one ‘deep spot’ orgasm because this will put her in an orgasmic state, where she’ll be expecting even more pleasure.

Next, make sure that your woman is laying on her back with her legs open and put your middle finger into her anus with your palm facing upwards.

At this point you need to understand that the wall that separates your woman’s vagina and anus is very thin. With that in mind, you are going to stimulate your woman’s G-Spot with the finger that is in her ass.

If you push upwards you will be able to feel her G-Spot through the wall that separates her anus and vagina. Once you find it — rub it backwards and forwards until you give her an ANAL ORGASM.

This is so powerful.

Once you give your woman an anal orgasm like this, expect her to beg you to ‘take her ass’ with your ‘tool’ very soon.

99% of men don’t know about this, so use it wisely and be sure to give your woman incredible pleasure.

Advantage of Face Recognition Security System in Door Access Control

It is not just necessity but it is must requirement. It doesn’t need to say that what I am talking about. I am talking about security. Today, attacks by terrorism organization happen more often. Once you lost then no one would be able to help, even police. But, according to me it is better to take prior steps to prevent.

Today, there are many security systems available in the market. They work on different technologies. Take different factors in concern to authenticate the person. For example, log cards require scanning barcode to give the access to any person and biometric access control require scanning of real human features like finger prints, eye retina, voice and face itself. Each has its own advantage and disadvantage. According to these systems the cost varies as per the security level they provide.

Biometric access control is the new technology which depends on the factors like eye retina, finger prints, voice and signature. So person who wants to access the system require these factors as an authentication. Biometric access control require scanner to scan real human features and convert it to digital format which can be stored.

I want to talk about Face recognition system and its advantages over others. It is one type of system which is based on biometric technology. Face recognition system scans whole face of the person. It includes shapes of face, stains on face, distance between two eyes, distance between eye and nose, retina scan and others. Let me explain the advantages of face recognition system in detail in next paragraph.

Whole face, itself is an advantage

In movies, you might have seen that the thief makes lenses and passes it and access the restricted thing or get entry in restricted region. By this example, you might understand that only one parameter is not sufficient to give full security. It is better that takes full face into scan and concern more than one factor. Same is the case in finger print scan. It is possible to break the security. Again Face recognition has added advantage.

Speed of scan

It is really time consuming to scan the eye. Put your eye against the system. It does require perfect placement of face. Suppose hundreds of persons authenticate themselves takes a lot time. While face recognition system starts scan from the front and until you reach near the gate system opens it for you. In fact, today the systems can scan 100,000 faces per second. It is really good at Door Access Control where thousands of people pass through every day.

Maintenance free system

Biometric access control system is one time cost system. Once you have installed then after you have to maintain a simple database. You can add or remove authorized persons easily and without any cost. On other side, if you use identity card then you have to issue identity card of every authorized person. It leads to more cost. There is also a threat of lost of identity card.

Automatic Continuous scanning

Let me explain, what is it? In other systems, once authenticated, the door stays open for some time. Through that time non restricted person can get entry. Suppose in finger print scanning system, once authorized person put finger door opens. After that two persons can get entry if they are quick. Same case is not possible in face recognition system. The whole door area stays under full security. If one has authenticated and opens the door, and a second person tries to enter without authentication the system detects it and alarms the threat. It means any person without authentication can’t get entry.

So, as I have stated that security is the area where cost is not important. One time cost can hesitate to you but I am sure you will get the reward for sure. My suggestion is, always go for biometric access control and in particular face recognition system. I hope after reading my article you have got clear picture in your mind.