Weak Hamstrings: Cause Of Lower Back Pain

Tight, inflexible hamstrings get a lot of attention as a cause of lower back pain, but weak hamstrings may also be the source. The hamstring is actually a set of three muscles that run from the pelvis to the knee in the back of the thigh. These muscles are used to facilitate the bending of the knee behind the midline of the body while the hip is extended, such as when running or walking. The group also helps to keep the knee aligned.

Tight quadriceps and weak hamstrings are a common muscle imbalance. We tend to use our quads more in everyday life, and many popular exercises at the gym emphasize the isolated development of quads. There are two main ways in which weak hamstrings can cause back pain.

1. Biomechanical

Hamstrings work with the quadriceps to stabilize movements of the knee and pelvis. This requires that the muscles are equal in strength, length and flexibility. If the hamstrings are weaker than the quadriceps, then the pulley system formed by the muscles is disrupted. The tighter, shorter quadriceps will pull downward on the pelvis in front and upward on the knee, since the hamstrings are too weak to exert a counterbalancing pull.

When the pelvis is pulled down in front, the lower back arches inward. This is called hyper-extension of the lumbar spine. Tight hip flexors and erector spinae muscles in the lower back often accompany weak hamstrings because of this postural change. As vertebral angles change in the spine, there is an increase of pressure placed on the back side of spinal discs, which can lead to premature disc wear, bulging or herniation. These disc changes can cause sciatica.

2. Fatigue

Weak hamstrings can quickly turn into tight hamstrings. Weak muscles tire quickly due to their lack of strength, and tired muscles go into contraction to protect themselves from further use. This forcible tightening of the muscle sets up a ripe situation for strain; the quadriceps fire into action before the hamstring has recovered and lengthened. A pulled, strained or torn hamstring can result.

When the hamstring is injured, the body will naturally compensate for it by employing other nearby muscles to do the work the hamstrings normally do. Lower back muscles may be called into action when the leg is moved, though this action is beyond its scope of natural duties. The muscles in the back and hips that compensate for hamstrings can become sore and strained.

Signs Of Hamstring Weakness

There are a few symptoms that point to hamstrings as the cause of back pain. If your hamstrings are weaker than your quadriceps, you may notice that your bottom sticks out and that you have an exaggerated lumbar arch.

If you have localized pain in the hamstring and pain in the lower back, then a strained hamstring is indicated.

Another sign of a quadricep/hamstring imbalance is clicking or cracking of the knee when it is bent or straightened.

Prevention and Treatment

Hamstring weakness and injury can be prevented by pursuing an exercise regimen that includes both strengthening and stretching of the muscle group, balanced with strengthening and stretching of the quadriceps. See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGTcgPVexrI for a number of hamstring exercises. See 4 hamstring stretches at http://physicaltherapy.about.com/od/flexibilityexercises/a/hamstingstretch.htm.

Treating a well-established muscle imbalances requires a combination of myofascial release and targeted exercise. If your quads have been chronically tight, they will need to be forced to relax and re-lengthen. Foam rolling at home or myofascial release performed by a practitioner can accomplish this. Once the quadriceps have regained elasticity, the hamstrings can be developed.

A pulled hamstring can usually be resolved with a brief period of rest and ice. The above steps will need to be taken in addition to rest and ice to prevent re-injury if a muscle imbalance is responsible for the strain.

It is important to understand that weak hamstrings may be at the source of back pain and hamstring strain. Keeping your body in balance will help to resolve lower back pain.

Zen Tea Tea Room in Bacolod City Offers Affordable Green Tea Based Beverages for the People

Zen Tea is a tea station found in various cities nationwide like in Nuciti Central Batangas in front of Robinson Supermarket. A franchise branch of Zen Tea here in Bacolod City is located at La Salle Avenue. It is part of the many business and food establishments of Main Strip Alley found near the University Courtyard and in front of the second entrance gate of University of St. Louis. La Salle Bacolod. The tea station opened on March 1, 2011 and created its Facebook page on April 13, 2011. Since then, Zen Tea has provided one of the best iced tea mixes in the city and has been given a two thumbs up by its costumers every day . Surely, a tea enthusiast in Bacolod should never miss this tea haven.

The franchise branch here in Bacolod has a small space allocation and provides only four to five tables for its customers. Neverheless, the place is usually packed with students from all age groups. Whether it be elementary, high school, or college students they all share the same sentiments about the superb taste of Zen Tea beverages. Even students from nearby schools such as St. Louis Scholastica's Academy, St. John's Institute, and San Agustin Bacolod visit the place to have a refreshing beverage after a long stressful day at school.

One of the secrets of the tea station's popularity among different age groups and different kinds of people is that it offers a wide range of green tea based beverages that suit a wide range of taste among the populace. The categories of Zen Tea available at its Bacolod Branch include Classic Milk Teas, Green Tea Iced Tea, Personalitea Mix, and Tea Creations. All of their teas are available in two sizes, Large and Extra Large. The prices vary depending on the four categories. Green Iced Tea and Personaliteas are more affordable than the other two categories. The large size beverage is worth 45 pesos and the Extra large is worth 50 pesos. Large sized classic milk tea prices range from 55-75 pesos and extra large sizes range from 60-80 pesos. Tea creation is the most expensive category where prices vary from 75-80 pesos. Add-ons such as pearl, black jello, pudding, and nata are also available with an extra charge of 10 pesos. Green Apple, Nai Cha, and Taro are among the best sellers in these categories.

With so many tea mixes to choose from, it suits whatever mood and circumstance you have for the day. A trip to this place can brighten up a bad mood or it can perk up an already elated feeling. Definitely, Zen Tea is the place to go.

10 Skin Care Tips For Women Over 50

Taking care of your skin is a must at any age. But once you cross 40, you need to kick it up a notch with a few extra steps. Age really takes a toll on your skin. It weakens the collagen structures impacting the texture and tone of your skin. The result, you are left to grapple with ugly wrinkles and blotchy sagging skin.

While you simply can not turn the clock back on life, you can at least age gracefully. And, here are 10 beauty and skin care tips to do so.

1. Go easy on the makeup

Women over 50 should opt for light, more natural looking makeup. Make sure you are using the right makeup. The makeup items should be of good quality. It should also be designed for your skin type.

2. Do not step out without sunscreen

The sun causes more damage to your skin than anything else. It is the culprit for wrinkles and brown spots. Build your skin's defense by applying a sunscreen every day. Slather it generously on your face, neck and hands. Do not set for any sunscreen less than 30 SPF. Carry a travel size sunscreen in your handbag so that you can reapply it whenever necessary.

You can also reduce exposure to the sun by wearing long sleeved shirts, sunglasses and a wide-brimmed hat.

3. Soothe dry skin

A common complaint in women over 50 is that their skin appears parched and listless. It tends to get flaky at times. This is due to its low moisture content caused by frequent sun exposure. Also, with age, the body's natural ability to produce moisturizing oils is reduced.

One way to restore skin moisture is to use a moisturizer. You must moisturize the skin after a bath or a wash. You can lose lotions as well as essential oils such as almond oil. Vitamin E is an important compound in any skin product.

Do not use cleansers that dry out the skin further. Test the product before you go all out and apply it. Opt for a creamy cleanser that leaves your face soft and supple after every wash. Keep yourself hydrated by drinking lots of water. In addition to that, you must also eat a healthy diet.

4. Avoid very hot water

Your bathing water should not be too hot. It robs the skin of its natural oils making it look dry. Let the water be lukewarm. If your skin is excessively dry, avoid washing your skin too often.

5. Exfoliate on a weekly basis

Your skin repairs itself on a daily basis. The dead cells accumulate on the top layer of the skin. It is this layer of dead skin that gives you a tired look. Here, exfoliation on a weekly basis is a must. You must exfoliate your face as well as the body. The dry brush exfoliation technique before a bath really works wonders for your skin. It not only gets rid of dead cells but also improves blood circulation helping conditions such as varicose veins.

You can use some of the readymade facial masks and body scrubs. However, if you are only about about using natural ingredients on your skin, you can make your own body scrubs.

6. Give up smoking

Smoking causes premature skin aging. So, stop smoking.

7. Anti-aging creams

While most people disclaimer the need for anti-aging creams, you can use them to supply your skin with a little more collagen. Collagen is the structural protein that holds your skin together. There is a less amount of collagen produced as your grow older. Also, the fibers become weaker resulting in saggy, droopy skin.

Anti-aging creams help boost the natural production of collagen in the body; Thus, they play a crucible role in skin repair and rejuvenation. They make the skin firmer. However, do review the products well before you buy and use them. Vitamin A products are great at improving the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Most of them are only available as prescription products.

8. Get enough sleep

It's not called beauty sleep for no reason. The skin repairs and regenerates itself while you sleep. Getting 6 – 8 hours of deep sleep will conveniently take care of skin issues such as dark circles, puffy eyes and fine lines around the mouth.

9. Exercise to the rescue

Exercise can also change the way your skin looks as it improves blood circulation. It also regulates other body functions ensuring the nutrients are properly distributed across the body.

10. Check your skin

You should inspect your skin regularly. Sudden changes in the texture or tone must be brought to the notice of your doctor.

When dealing with aging skin, there's one thing you need to remember. You might not be able to look younger than you really are. But you can definitely look good for your age and comfortable in your own skin!

The De Young Museum – Artwork Highlights & Tips for Visiting

The MH de Young Memorial Museum, located in San Francisco, California houses one of the most significant collections of American artwork on the West Coast. The Museum is located in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and was opened in 1895 by newspaper icon MH de Young, founder of what is known today as the San Francisco Chronicle. The original Museum collection was complied solely of MH de Young's personal art collection that represented over 300,000 articles that were collected during his 20 years of world travels.

The Museum's permanent collection today includes paintings, sketches, art sculpture, photographs, and decorative art objects. Of this, the De Young displays 25,000 works of art at any given time. The majority of its collection is made up of the American art collection with artwork dating back from the 7th century to present day. Highlights of this collection include Wayne Thiebaud's Three Machines , Frederic Edwin Church's Rainy Season in the Tropics , Grant Wood's Dinner for Threshers , George Bingham's Boatmen on the Missouri , and Chiura Obata's Lake Basin in the High Sierra .

The de Young's permanent collection also includes the Art of Africa, that represents artwork from over 80 cultural and ethnic groups in sub-Sahara Africa. The collection combines a large part of the permanent collection and an covers a quarter of the museum's gallery. Among this collection is a wooden Dogon sculpture used in religious ceremonies and a multi-headed bush spirit from Ijo.

The third major part of the Museum's permanent collection is the Art of Oceana. The highlight of the Oceana exhibit is the The Jolika Collection of New Guinea Art, a special exhibition of over 400 tribal artifacts such as tribal masks and ritualistic objects. The Jolika collection is the largest collection of New Guinea Art in North America and includes over 400 works of art alone.

  • Hours: Daily: 930a-515p; Closed Mondays.
  • Audio Guides are available at the Main Entrance. Cost: $ 7.
  • The de Young Memorial Museum offers free guided tours to all visitors. No reservations required. Check with the Museum for scheduling.
  • If you are visiting San Francisco for a few days, you may consider purchasing a CityPASS Card. It gives discounted admission to tourist attractions and Cable Car. Check their website for details.
  • The first Tuesday of every month is Free admission.
  • Admission tickets to the de Young includes same-day general admission to the Legion of Honor.

High School Wrestling: 10 Tips to Help You Succeed

Wrestling, like every sport, has certain rules. However, in this article I want to discuss some “unwritten” rules that may help you in your quest to become a champion.

If wrestling is your sport, these are the rules.

1. You will receive a certain amount of innate, God-given talent.

Some wrestlers have tremendous amount of natural talent. Some have less. I had a fair amount of wrestling talent in my competitive days. Wrestling came naturally to me. I understood the rules, the moves, the timing, the leverage needed in different situations, and other aspects of wrestling. However, I cannot play the piano. I don’t have the talent like Mozart. I can’t play basketball. I don’t have the talent like Michael Jordan. But, wrestling always seemed right. Guess what, though? I could get better at playing piano and at playing basketball. I would never be great, but I could definitely improve. A person can always improve their skills. That is why practicing and drilling is so important in wrestling. Even if you don’t have a lot of natural talent, you can always improve your skills. In addition, I have seen wrestlers with less talent beat more “talented” wrestlers on several occasions. Practice your skills a lot, make sure that you are in excellent physical condition, practice mental toughness, and don’t worry too much about how much so-called talent you possess.

2. You will learn moves.

Wrestling is considered to have seven basic skills. Theses skills are stance, motion, level change, penetration, lifting, back step, and back arch. However, wrestling has thousands of moves and techniques. You should learn as many moves as possible. You will learn a lot in practice. You can also learn a lot from books and videos. By watching videos you can access the knowledge of phenomenal wrestlers like Dan gable and John Smith. The Granby School of Wrestling has many great videos available. There’s no reason not to learn several moves, counter moves, and techniques. Technique is number one in a wrestling match. No matter how strong physically and mentally you may be, if you don’t have good technical skills then you will get beaten. Learn each move and then practice your moves religiously. You won’t use all of them, but you should learn several moves and counters to those moves if you expect to be a great wrestler.

3. You will receive feedback.

Your coach will, of course, give you feedback. Your teammates will give you feedback. Your family and community members may even give you feedback. Make sure you listen to them. They may be wrong, but have an open mind and at least hear them out. You will also receive feedback by simply observing how well you do in practice and in matches. Whether you win or lose, you are receiving feedback. Tony Robbins likes to say, “There is no such thing as failure. There is only feedback.” In other words, you can learn from every experience, including losing a wrestling match. The inventor Thomas Edison once said, “I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.” He also said, “Results! Why, man, I have gotten a lot of results. I know several thousand things that won’t work.” Eventually, Edison would find ways that did work. You will too. Make use of the feedback you receive while engaged in the sport of wrestling and in life in general.

4. Drilling is important.

Drilling involves performing a skill repeatedly so you learn it thoroughly. You want to perfect your skills. You need to immerse yourself in drilling moves and techniques, so that they become second nature. A wrestler’s goal should be to have his skills become deeply engrained through hard drilling. Drill intensely. If your coach gives you two minutes to drill a double leg takedown with your partner, how many repetitions can you do in that time? Drilling is common in sports, the military, and many other areas of life. General George Patton had this to say during a speech to his troops in 1944, “All through your Army careers, you men have (expletive) about what you call “chicken sh*t drilling. That, like everything else in this Army, has a definite purpose. That purpose is alertness. Alertness must be bred into every soldier. I don’t give a (expletive) for a man who’s not always on his toes. You men are veterans or you wouldn’t be here. You are ready for what’s to come.” You also need to be ready for what is to come in every match. Make sure you drill.

5. You can always improve and learn more.

As I mentioned earlier, you can always improve your skills. You can often improve your conditioning level as well. There must be hundreds of ways to set up a single leg takedown. You can always learn new moves and new ways to set up moves. In addition to your coach, you can learn from camps, clinics, books, and videos. Champion golfer Seve Ballesteros said, “To give yourself the best possible chance of playing to your potential, you must prepare for every eventuality. That means practice.” Practice is incredibly important. Always be striving to improve and to learn more.

6. You must be mentally tough.

Being physically tough is only part of the equation for producing success. You need to be mentally tough as well. You need to be focused on winning your match and on nothing else. Do you get nervous, intimidated, or distracted? You can train your mind just as you train your body. Practice visualization and positive self-talk before a match. Have a plan before you step onto the mat. What moves are you planning to use? What is your strategy? If your opponent is good in the top position then you don’t want to get caught in the down position. Make sure you can stand up and escape. If your opponent likes to cradle wrestlers then you need to prepare for that. Believe in yourself and your abilities and you will do well.

7. Show respect and be respected.

Display honor, dignity, integrity, and good sportsmanship. Confidence is good, but cockiness is not. Overconfidence can be a danger as well. I had a teammate who was in a match and just stood there. He wasn’t aggressive. He didn’t respect his opponent and he thought he could just stand there and see what his opponent did. I’ll tell you what his opponent did. His opponent took him down repeatedly and soundly defeated him. Respect your coaches, your teammates, opponents, and rival schools. If you give respect, you will often receive respect. Some great wrestlers have lost matches and yet maintained their dignity by shaking hands with their opponent and then working hard to improve for the next match. Respect is important in sports and in life.

8. Success is your responsibility.

Be a self-starter and a role model. No one can make you work hard. No one can instill within you the desire to win. You have to push yourself in practice. You have to want success. Do you need to be constantly prodded by your coach? If your coach didn’t show up for practice, would you take the initiative to get practice started on your own? Or, would you just leave and forget practice? Do whine or complain in practice? Don’t. You need to be a good role model for your teammates. Nobody will simply hand you a gold medal. Nobody can practice, drill, and work out for you. Success is your responsibility.

9. Learn from others.

As I stated earlier, you can learn from coaches, camps, clinics, books, and videos. Perhaps you have a teammate who is exceptional at a certain move. Watch him closely. Ask him to show you how he does it. You can also learn much from non-wrestlers. I’ve learned new conditioning ideas from powerlifters, boxers, and mixed martial artists. I’ve learned about mental toughness from different kinds of athletes as well as from sports psychology books. I have learned from psychology, philosophy, literature, and other areas of study. I have learned things from military personnel and motivational experts. There is a wide range of people and places that can teach you much.

10. Spirit and heart are crucial to success.

Having “heart” involves displaying perseverance even when faced with difficulties or challenges. Wrestling matches are intense. Wrestling matches can be demanding physically and mentally. Do you have courage, determination, and desire? When your legs are tired and your lungs are burning in an overtime match, can you dig deep and push yourself to win? Have you ever simply given up in a match? Does fatigue crush your motivation and keep from going hard in practice? Do you want to win no matter what the obstacles you may face? Do you love wrestling or is it just an activity to pass some time? Are you motivated? Are you enthusiastic? Are you ready to put in the hard work it takes to become a champion? Boxing great Evander Holyfield said, “It is not the size of a man but the size of his heart that matters.”

I hope that these ten “rules” can help you in your quest for success.

Building Green With Engineered Wood

Building green encompasses many different aspects of the building process. It means using construction materials that come from renewable sources, that are environmentally friendly and toxic free, and that minimize waste and carbon emissions. Building green can be as simple as using recycled building products, insulating to reduce energy waste, or decreasing the size of the structure itself. There are many ways to build green that can lessen the impact on the environment.

With building green becoming more important within the construction industry, it is time that all aspects of building green be explored and utilized in new home building or remodeling. One significant product that will enhance green building is the use of engineered wood also known as engineered lumber in as many areas of the construction as possible. Engineered lumber includes, i-joists, laminated veneer lumber (LVL), rimboard and plywood.

These products are more environmentally friendly than dynamic lumber in several ways:

  • Engineered lumber products can be fabricated from wood by-products produced from the traditional milling process. Engineered lumber products use smaller pieces of wood and wood chips bonded with resins to create structural and dimensionally stable building components, thereby reducing the need to harvest larger trees to achieve lumber of the same size.
  • The resins used as the bonding agents in modern engineered wood products are formaldehyde-free and eco friendly.

Using these products in building green homes will not only help to reduce our impact on the environment, but when used appropriately will also save in construction costs, will provide a better structure, and have a longer lifespan than traditional lumber products.

  • Some I-Joists can be ordered precut to the exact dimensions that are required for the construction project. This can save in shipping costs, as you are not paying for excess weight, and in labor costs and time at the construction site. When the construction project requires large cross section dimensions or extreme lengths, then engineered wood beams are less expensive than large beams of standard lumber.
  • Engineered wood products are much less acceptable to warping or twisting than traditional lumber, so ensuring that the structure is built truer and will retain its structural integrity better than using standard dimensional lumber. When the project calls for spans of 16 feet or more, engineered wood joists and beams will make the construction easier and will result in floors and ceilings that remain level.

The construction industry is coming around to the advantages of building green, and the engineered wood product industry is leading the way with eco friendly building products. With products that include wooden I-beams, laminate veneer lumber (LVL) and composite material rimboards, all areas of construction lumber are covered with engineered wood products. The industry is continuing to improve the quality of its existing products, while it continues to search for new and innovative ways to use engineered lumber products throughout the construction process.

The Services Provided by House Clearance Companies That Makes Your Life Easy and Stress Free

The level of service that is provided by the house cleaning companies nowdays, have come a long way from the old days when this service was first started in a professional way. The stress is being more environment friendly, so you can be assured that the waste that is collected from your home will be recycled in an useful way, rather than being discarded in a dump yard where it would collect rust. All the ethical companies of recent times are very conscious of this fact and if you hire a reputable company then you can be rest assured that your stuff which has been restored will find a suitable end.

So how do you find a reputable house clearance company that will adhere to all the rules and regulations while carrying out their task in a sensitive an deficient way … well there are a number of methods, and if you keep in mind some points, then you will certainly get a company that carry out the service in a way which does not harm the environment as well as takes care of all your clearance needs. Below mentioned are some tips for choosing the right company:

  • Before beginning the job, specifically ask the company how they plan to recycle your waste products, and what are the fees that they will charge for the entire work. It will be better if the entire thing is taken down in writing, so that there is no answer on the charges applicable while the job is completed midway.
  • Make sure to ask the clarification company what they plan to do with the bulky and hazardous items and how they plan to recycle the same, so that there is no harmful carbon footprint left behind during the clearance process.
  • Make sure that the company you are thinking of shaving has all the necessary legal papers to carry out each clearance task in a proper way, and do not land you into trouble in any way by irresponsibly dumping things where they are not supposed to get dumped. Ensure that they are fully covered with liability insurance so that you do not face any huge damage if by accident there is any damage to the items that you have planned to keep or to the property in general.
  • Pay attention to the fact that the house clearance company that you have hired has all the heavy duty trucks or vehicles that can haul away any item, as well as their manpower are trained and experience so that there is no hitch in the clearance process.
  • Make sure that the company you choose is properly registered with the environment agency, and carry out their clearance function in an eco friendly way. All the materials should be hauled away so so that the grounds around the house or property is not littered and does not mess up the locality.

There can be a number of reasons why the services of a house clearance company is required by a homeowner or a property holder. Whatever the reason it is the main aim of the house clearance company to clear the clutter and bring things to a manageable level. The services of clearance can also be required by people looking for selling off their property or letting them out on rent. The house cleaning company should be trained to handle a wide variety of items starting from washing machines, refrigerators to carpets and furniture, books and bikes, as well as clothing or upholstery items. A qualifies house clearing company provide services that will most likely be charged, based on cubic foot of area to be cleared, in addition to any additional instruction such as removal of toxic or harmful substances and recyclable substance. Molds, mildew, lead based paints all come under the purview of clearance and make sure that you choose a thorough professional who will be able to handle all and everything.

Making Driftwood Picture Frames by Distressing New Picture Framing Timber

A driftwood picture frame is an elegant solution where you desire a unique distracted frame with timeless appeal. One of the techniques you can explore when framing your pictures is to use recycled timber or driftwood that you have collected but often driftwood timber is not available to everyone so you can try to create the look by using new timber you can get from your local hardware shop.

It's not difficult to make a driftwood looking frame but it does take some time and experimentation. All you need to do is visit your hardware shop and get some plain hardwood timber. Sometimes you can get the timber already in a picture frame profile and other times you may need to rebate or rabbet it to accept the glass, backing and picture. Then you can cut it to make it into a picture frame to fit your photo or artwork.

Now the way to get the new picture frame to look like it really is driftwood is to start with the raw wood and then use various materials and tools to distract the surface of the timber.

The first step is to fill any imperfections or nail holes in the frame and sand them back so that you've got a perfectly made frame. The object of trying to get this frame to look recycled or bothered is that the surface mimics a weathered old look. To achieve this you can use an assortment of tools including chisels, rasps, any jagged bits of metal that you've got, bunches of keys and all sorts of things can be used to actually apply different marks into the wood to give it a more natural look.

Start by poking around and making a few holes and rough marks on the wood. You can scrape it using a surform type rasp or a cheese grater type scraper and you can leave it quite rough, do not try to smooth it off. The idea here is that you're going to expose the grain. Take care to avoid the inside edge where the picture fits because that is quite a thin and fragile area. Just concentrate on further back from the sight edge. Try to create a sort of random lot of holes all over the surface of the frame and then you start rasping at it and use various metal objects and tools. Any sort of rough metal tool can be used to apply texture to the frame.

Keep scraping along the molding and remember you're trying to replicate the natural look of recycled timber. Now when you get to the corners you're going to need to use something a little bit pointy so that you can get right into those nooks. A good tool for this is an awl or small gouge. You can use sharpened screw drivers and old tools that have unusual surfaces. You can use bunches of nails they work quite well especially if you tape a whole lot of them together. Use the nails to scrape into the corners and other tight areas.

After you have given the frame a good going over what you want to do is take a look at the whole frame and step back from it. Have a look from a distance and see what the overall effect is. You do not want anything too even. The appearance needs to be random and the texture needs to look natural. Take your time because you can always add more work to it. You can go back and you can chisel bits off, you can add more little holes and tap holes with nails.

After a while you've got a furry, fuzzy kind of wooden frame with all sorts of shavings hanging off it. You then can burn sections with a blowtorch burning off some of the wood shavings. In other areas you can raise the grain by dampening it with water. The water causes the wood fibers to swell creating a different level of texture.

Sandpaper the frame with various degrees of wallpaper and try to maintain the textures you have been building up through the distracting process. The sand papering is to give the frame some areas of smoothness and add another detail to the complexity of the surface.

Once you are happy with the overall texture you have created you can add some layers of diluted gesso or diluted white paint to give a limed finish. Do not worry if the white color picks up some of the charcoal leftover from the burning process because it adds to the grayed driftwood effect you are trying to emulate.

When the paint is dry add various colors of wax crayons or other pigmented oil pastels into sections of the frame molding. Blend some of these color layers with old kitchen scourers, steel wool or different grades of wallpaper.

Look at the frame from a distance and see if the finish is what you desire.

Soften and blend the tones within the frame by further sanding or rubbing with scourers or steel wool.

When you are happy with the look of the frame you can finish the surface with a light coating of a good furniture wax. For an added level of finish you can dust powdered rottenstone or pumice into the wax before it has dried. Apply the wax with a clean cloth and after allowing adequate time for drying you can buff the surface with a polishing cloth.

Your frame should then have a natural warm finish ready to insert your picture.

The History of Plantronics

Plantronics has come a long way and has made a name for themselves by manufacturing and providing with high quality communication accessories. After having done the designing, developing and selling them, Plantronics has grown to be the market leader when it comes to communication accessories. Established in 1960, they developed two lightweight headsets for airlines, now they have a plethora of wireless and wired headsets which can be used with mobile phones, computers and any else that has a 3.5mm jack. That said, with countless innovative products in the market, they can be considered as the best communication device providers.

The MS50 were the first headsets introduced in the market by them. That was done in partnership with the NASA. This ancestral devices is composed to two hearing air style transducers connected by a headband. Now they were very quickly adopted because they served as a great replacement to bulky headsets worn by pilots before that. Possessing robust airline technology and being made in a portable body, they quickly became the favorite of the masses. Soon after they were introduced huge companies such as FAA and Western Electric began to incorporate these headsets in their daily operations.

Later in 1980s Plantronics delved deep into the wireless domain and began dishing out wireless headsets. Initially employing infrared technology, Plantronics did not need to use wires to connect to devices anymore. Being one of the first wireless ones, they became much more popular than the wired counterparts. Some of the first wireless headsets were designed to emit an infrared beam which linked it to the phone.

These Plantronics wireless headsets could have been clipped onto the shirt and enhance the user experience.

2003 welcomed further advancement in these wireless headset, in the form of the headset codenamed CS50 made for use with office phones. And with the advent of Bluetooth technology, wireless headsets were made to use it from then onwards. That said, they also develop wireless headsets for use with game consoles or with Personal Computers. Due to that they gained much success, steadily climbing up ladder of fame and fortune.

This California based company kept growing and soon they expanded beyond their city, their country and now they cater to the whole world. Aiming to deliver handsets, headsets, telephones, audio contouring toolsets and speakers, they greeted a plethora of companies on the way. When the partnership with Avaya came to be, contact center solutions and unified communications were realized. That said, it was aimed at bringing a lot of convenience and better experience to organizations at a low cost.

Whatever to be used in a call center, while gaming or in aircraft, the Plantronics headsets are typically preferred over the others. So if you are thinking of getting one for yourself, consider what Plantronics really has to offer. Yes headsets do provide a lot of personal entertainment, nothing can compare to the credibility and the functionality that Plantronics lends. Providing you with un-parallel sound output along with superior noise cancellation, these headsets provide with the best possible user experience.

4 Things to Think About Before Designing Your Own Custom Phone Case

One of the most popular personalized merchandise options available on the market today is the customized phone case. Not only do these make great gifts, but they also allow the designer to express their own creativity and personality through the images and text that they choose to adorn their cases with.

With many people reliant on their devices today to keep in touch with friends, colleges and family, having a nice phone case design can inject a little dose of fun into the everyday, and having pictures of loved ones on the case is a nice reminder of the people that you care about.

Before you start with your design, however, there are a few things that you need to take into consideration – here is what to do when you are thinking about how and where to create your own phone case.

Firstly, ensure that you choose a quality company to order from, as there are more and more service providers on the market today, yet not all of them are equally reliable. Quality is very important when printing images onto a phone case, and this is especially true when it comes to photographs, which need to be crisp and clear.

For this reason, look around at several companies that offer this kind of service before you make your mind up who to order from. If possible, ask to see sample photographs of completed orders and read customer reviews of the products that they received from the company – this will give you a valuable insight into whether it is worth your money or not.

Secondly, look into using a service that provides a clear and realistic online design tool that gives you a very accurate idea of ​​what you will be receiving when you create your own phone case. Some tools can be clunky and too abstract, meaning that your finished design might look different from what you were expecting when you placed your order.

Make sure that the online tool that you use gives you the chance to preview your design, and one that allows you to see a realistic 3D model of the phone case as you apply your images and text. This will help you get a better idea of ​​what the final product will look like and you are far less likely to be disappointed with your order for design reasons.

Another thing to think about is how long production and shipping time is going to be, and if you will be able to return and have the item refunded if it is not to your satisfaction. This is because many companies overseas offer this kind of service, but it may not be the highest quality out there and shipping and returning the product could be lengthy.

If you create your own phone case as a gift for someone else this is important, as you may be on a tight deadline. Take into account shipping times and consider using domestic services with free domestic shipping if you think this could potentially be a problem for you.

Lastly, make sure that on your end you are using high quality photos if you are applying these to your custom design, as blurry and overexposed photos will appear exactly the same on the case once they are printed!

Make sure that you take the time to be careful about the photos and images that you select for your design, that they are the right resolution and that they are of sufficient quality to be printed. A company may be unwilling to refund you for your mistakes in this department, so the onus is on you to be careful when designing in order to avoid receiving an inferior product.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of On Site Landfill Leachate Treatment Versus Off Site

If there is a choice between On Site Landfill Leachate Treatment and off site at a sewage (municipal wastewater treatment) works or even at a commercially run industrial effluent treatment plant, which should you choose?

O.K. Here we go! On the one hand, there’s Pro; In Favor:

The principal point in support of on site landfill leachate treatment versus off site is that it is more efficient to treat leachate in a dedicated treatment plant which has been designed specifically for the high strength of a modern landfill leachate.

Your second supporting point shall be that the investment profile more closely matches a landfill business where a leachate plant built at the start can be paid for from the income (gate fee and landfill gas revenues) generated while the landfill is being actively filled. If someone else treats the leachate off site it will be on a per cubic metre treated basis for 30 to 50, or more, years. But, after the site has been closed the income drops, and soon there is only money put by for treatment to pay for it. So, it is much better to invest in the asset of a treatment plant on-site which will be in use for many years after the initial investment, so that only the running costs have to be paid for it once the landfill site closes and revenue from the landfill to pay for the leachate plant dries up.

The 3rd positive point is the owner of an on site leachate treatment plant has a much secure disposal route for their leachate than for an off site option treatment plant, because the provider of the external service can with little notice cease to accept the discharge.

A fourth big benefit is it is more efficient to treat leachate treatment in a dedicated plant optimized for the purpose, than in a sewage works or an industrial effluent plant where both are usually better suited to treating more dilute / lower strength effluents.

Lastly, the fifth point in support is going to be ((6))).

And conversely, for balance, the Con side, against:

The first point in contra for on site leachate treatment versus off site will be that site owners and environmental regulators (EA, EPA, Water Purification Board, River Management Authority) etc) are often concerned that an on site leachate treatment plant may fail and discharge polluting water into a river or stream. Although, this can be avoided with good design and training of the site staff in leachate treatment plant operation.

The second point in contra is going to be the landfill company may find it hard to finance the capital cost of an on site leachate treatment plant (although a rise in gate-fee to pay for it might be possible)

3rd point against will be there is a lack of space, which is unlikely on a large landfill.

4th point in contra will be the cost of bringing-in a power supply for the leachate treatment plant, although a supply line and electricity are usually available from the landfill gas (energy from waste) generators on site already.

Fifth and finally, last point in contra shall be a lack of landfill site forward planning to make the right decisions to save money on an on site leachate treatment plant over a long-term period.

Now both sides have been heard from and the Pros and Cons are stacked up, in favor and against.

So, who won? What could we conclude? Is on site landfill leachate treatment is more good than bad? or more bad than good?

We have a “Yes” response to both questions! on site landfill leachate treatment versus off site is a decision which will vary according to the circumstances of each landfill site, and the debate is a combination of good and bad… You, dear reader, will need to determine which side, the good or the bad, outweighs the other for your site.

8 Head Games the Narcissist Plays – Ping-Pong, Anyone?

Narcopath Manipulation Characterized as Games

Narcopaths (malignant narcissists, narcissistic sociopath) are masters at playing mind games. They play to win and take no prisoners. They are sore losers and if they don’t win they will often react in a fit of rage and stomp away like a little child.

I have to say upfront, I am not comfortable calling what a narcopath does to us as games, but I can’t think of a better alternative. I used manipulation characterized as games, but that’s a mouthful. Anyway, every therapist I’ve talked with uses the term, so I will, too. When I think of games, I think of fun, laughter and enjoying myself. Nothing about my experience with the narcopath comes even close, so it’s hard for me to think of the narcopath and games in the same setting. Polar opposites in my mind.

I don’t want to play games with a narcopath anymore. The rules are not written down and change according to her whim. I’ve lost before the game even begins. However, I am not a pacifist by any stretch of the imagination. I won’t walk away when I’ve been challenged very often, so when I urge you not to play the narcopath’s games, it’s not because I don’t like a good challenge. I just want a fair playing field or at the very least be playing by the same rules. The narcopath is too skilled and had far more experience playing these games than we ever will. If we are going to triumph against the narcopath, and we are going to, we have to play by OUR rules, not theirs. Oh, you may win a skirmish here and there, but remember, they don’t think like we think. This article reminds me a story a friend of mine, Dale, told recently. He and his young five-year-old son had a marathon checkers match one evening, and after several hours of winning game after game, Dale told his son he was calling it a night, but his son looked perplexed and exclaimed “But, the game’s not over yet!” Dale said he told him they played about a hundred games already, and what did he mean “the game’s not over?” His son looked at him with the most serious look a five-year-old could muster, and said, “the game’s not over until I win”. This mentality is what we face with the narcopath.

The most important thing you must remember about all these game is that no one can know the rules except the narcopath. Here are some of the more common “games” that narcopaths play:

  1. Ping-Pong: When a person begins to understand how a narcissist works, he or she realizes that it’s a bit like playing ping-pong. Anytime a narcissist has to self-reflect about anything, they will immediately throw the ball back to the person they consider their opponent. Narcissists will always throw the ball back to the other person. They do this in the expectation that they won’t have to take responsibility for their behavior. Narcissists hope that by not taking responsibility for their own actions (by using blaming, shaming, projection, denial, etc.) their partner will do what they have always done-forgive the narcissist, make excuses for the narcissist’s behavior, claim the narcissist couldn’t help himself because he was having a bad day, and so on. The narcissist is a moving target and you are always on the firing line. To get away from them (or expose them), you always have to keep an eye on the ball i.e., their actions and motives for playing their games with you. You have to stop wanting to play. You can stop catching the ball and put it back in the narcissist’s court by setting boundaries and making him aware of his actions. He then realizes he has no one to play with anymore. He will either drop the person like a hot potato, try to punish the person, or run away.
  2. Crazy Eights: This is a favorite game of narcissists. YOU are called crazy anytime you confront them, bring up past issues or behaviors, or expose them when they’re doing something appalling. The game goes like this: he/she tells you that you have an overly active imagination, you don’t know what you’re talking about, they have no idea what you’re talking about, or that you’re simply making things up to cause problems. They’ll tell you that it’s obvious that you are the one who is crazy (and tell you that everyone around you agrees with them about you being crazy). They will claim not to remember even unforgettable events, flatly deny they ever happened, and will never entertain the possibility that they might have forgotten. This is an extremely aggressive and infuriating tactic called “gaslighting”, a common technique used by abusers of all kinds. Your perceptions of reality are continually undermined so that you end up without any confidence in your own intuition, memory, or reasoning.
  3. Liars Poker: Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) play this game fantastically. They lie better than anyone I’ve ever been around. Unless you know them well, they don’t show any of the tells experts look for in exposing deception. My guess is this is how they are able to con so many therapists. I know first hand what that look is on a narcopath. When she was here, the things she didn’t tell us, most with tears in her eyes. I felt so much sympathy for the horrible things that her ex and her parents did to her trying to control her. The stories she told us were outrageous and I bought every one of them, hook, line and sinker. Their persona and their entire world are totally based in lies. Their positive attributes and alleged actions are all made up to trick and seduce others into giving them their fix of narcissistic-supply: praise, adulation and accolades.
  4. Gotcha! The narcopath is a master of phony empathy. He/She appears to take you in, appears to understand what you are experiencing, and appears to genuinely be able to put himself in your shoes. These acts cause you to let your guard down; just when you think there is a genuine give-and-take in your relationship, he pulls a fast one on you-a “gotcha”- most often when you’re at a low point. He will suddenly tell you about his extraordinary new career move, a luxurious trip that he’s taking, or a huge shift in financial status that will make you feel even more diminished. Narcissists perfectly execute an unexpected psychological pounce; their purpose is to grind you down, to humiliate you, and make you feel small and inferior.
  5. Death by a Thousand Cuts: This is a really fun game that all narcissists like to play! Some of your strongest trauma bonds are created with this sadistic game. It involves destroying your soul, your ego, your accomplishments and any belief system you have that does not agree with their beliefs. You both start with empty buckets. The first one to fill his/her bucket wins. They win the game if they are successful at turning everything about you and everything you do into a complete failure. They earn extra points when they successfully take all the credit for everything good that has ever happened in your life, and you thank them. They earn double points when they manage to put all blame for everything bad in your bucket.
  6. King/Queen Game: Either the king narcopath or the queen narcopath gets to make up the rules as they go along; they don’t have to tell the you the new rules, and they change the rules when it suits them. They are the king/queen and, as your superior, entitled to win this game, always. You suffer the consequences for breaking the rules, even those you didn’t know existed.
  7. Cat and Mouse: This is a kind of competitive patience (solitaire) game for two players. It is also known as Spite and Malice. You start this game by arranging the cards from low to high with the Kings/Queens being wild. Suits (the normal order of things and/or common societal rules) are irrelevant in the game. The game ends when someone wins by playing the last card of their “pay-off” pile. The game can also end if the players run out of cards, in which case the result is a draw. Cat and Mouse (or Spite and Malice) is a perfect game for a narcissist because it is actually a form of solitaire, it requires “one-upmanship”, and involves pulling out “better” cards to beat the opponent. It involves a “payoff” and for the narcopath, that usually means hurting you somehow. They keep track of real and imaginary things you do, have done, or might do. This is their “pile” and they will pull a card from it and use it against you when they feel like it.
  8. Guess Who?: This is a pretty simple game, and quite popular. The rules are few. Basically, you must summon all your psychic skills for this game. It is your job to read the narcopath’s sick mind, then decide what kind of mood he/she is in, and respond to her without her saying a word. Your options include, but are not limited to, two-year-old throwing a temper tantrum; Guilt-tripping puppeteer; Poor unappreciated Cinderella; Cock of the Walk; Coy tease; Inquisitor; Keeper of the Gate; add your favorites to the list. If you get it right, then you win the right to change your behavior to mirror his/hers, and your day will be a good one. Get it wrong and you lose. You get to listen to what a loser you are all day long. Either way, they win. OR, you don’t guess at all this time. Instead, you pack up and leave crazy narcopath and win you back.

The only way for the you to win any of the narcopath’s games to not play. If you are in a relationship, you can walk away from the toxic narcissist in your life. If your boss is an abusive narcissist, you can find another job. You can walk away from your parents, too, if they are abusive. If it’s a family member, move away, go no contact or low contact.

Keep Away Game for You: Keep Away is a game the narcopath doesn’t play, but if you must stay in near the narcopath, it’s one you need to master, and the rules of this game are not to respond the any of the narcopath’s attempt to pull you into one of her no-win games. You are not allowed to respond to jabs, barbs, promises, put-downs, etc. It will take focus and determination to break old habits and create new ones. It only takes 21 days of consistent behavior modification to create a new habit. This is not going to be easy, but you’ll get the hang of it pretty quick. Think of it like this: if you’re playing a game of catch, the only way to stop the game is to not catch the ball when someone throws it to you. It’s possible to stop playing games with a narcissist, as long as you mentally prepare for the challenge, and prepare yourself for the onslaught of negativity, accusations and histrionics. Ignore inciting words, don’t respond to inciting words, hang up the phone politely or leave. Take a drive, go for a long walk, anything. Just get away. There are many ways you can refuse to catch the ball and not throw it back. This is the game of “Keep Away”. You stay away, walk away, and refuse to play. This is a game that you, yourself, must learn to play. It is important to recognize that the narcopath will never acknowledge that he/she is now, or has ever played mind games. It’s up to you to stop playing. Don’t try to get them to acknowledge or take responsibility for their words or actions because they will always say they didn’t do it or it never happened or it was your fault.

Commitment Phobia & Fear Treatment and Cure

Commitmentphobia phobia can affect all areas of a person's life. Commitment phobics often fear committing to a relationship, a job, a pet, or anything else. These fears are exaggerations of normal fears of making the wrong choice of a mate or job. The sufferer generally fears most that which he or she wants most, which suggests the phobia is born of a fear of failure or a feeling of unworthiness and so subconsciously decide to reject someone before they can be rejected.

While most phobias can be treated by frequent brief exposure to the item or situation feared, a therapist can not expose a client to repeated relationships.

The only way to treat this condition is to hide and treat the root causes. Many commitment phobics experienced the death of a parent or a parental divorce or some other abandonment issue. Someone may have been abused or betrayed by a member of the opposite sex and so is afraid to trust.

These negative experiences and beliefs can be self perpetuating. The phobic person does not see his or her part in the break-up. This reinforces the belief that he or she can not trust members of the same sex and so rejects the next person who gets close.

There are some classic behaviors exhibited by phobic men and women. For clarity's sake we will use it in this list of common commitment phobic behaviors. You may see yourself or a friend in some or many of these behaviors.

– A history of short relationships – he may bolt when he senses you are looking for a commitment.
– He may be quite satisfied with a long distance relationship and resist suggestions that either of you move to be closer.
– He will be moody and distant and blame you for his behavior.
– He refuses to plan ahead because this represents commitment for him.
– He is evasive and secretive in order to keep you out of his space.
– He is not willing to socialize with your friends and family for fear this will be construed as commitment.

We could go on for pages and pages listing behaviors common to commit phobics. However one or two of these behaviors in an individual does not make him a candidate for commitment phobia and fear treatment and cure.

You may be wondering what kind of treatment is available for commitment phobia. First the person has to want the help and will willing to work with a therapist.

The therapist or counselor needs the determine whether or not the person really is a commitment phobic or if there is some other personality disorder present. If it is determined that the person truly has a commitment phobia, then the therapist and her client need to work on clearing what triggered the problem.

The phobic individual needs to figure out what commitment means to him or her.

Talk therapy helps the client to determine these issues. It also helps the person to deal with these things and reduce the stress in his or her life.

People who suffer from extreme forms of commitment phobia may benefit from mood stabilizing medications, since they can become depressed by not being able to carry on a satisfactory relationship.

It is a big step to even acknowledge the fact that you have a problem and being willing to seek help. The burden of having a phobia can be overcome and seeking a commitment phobia and fear treatment and cure is the way to achieve that goal.

For more information on cure go to http://www.symptoms-of-anxiety-depression.com

Top Rated Mississippi River Bridges

Mississippi River, cited as the natural boundary for US divisions, either on west or east sections has made its mark in US popular culture. The construction of different Mississippi River Bridges carries several routes, and interstates made traveling a wonderful experience for the citizens. Until this very moment, new bridges are conscientiously being transported and carefully planned to help ease out traffic in other states.

One of the most popular bridges crossing the Mississippi River is the Rock Island Government Bridge built in 1856. It was the first bridge across the Mississippi River to connect Rock Island, Illinois, Davenport, and Iowa. It has two sets of railroad tracks above auto lanes. This was the bridge rammed by Effie Afton and went up in flames. Abraham Lincoln defended the railroad against a lawsuit filed by steamboat interests and navigation.

Stone Arch is the first bridge upstream built in1883 for Great Northern Railway. It connects Mississippi River and Saint Anthony Falls. It is now used for pedestrian and bicycle bridge.

Eads is the most historic and one of the oldest bridges. It is a combination of road and railway bridge. It was the first to use steel through cantilever construction. It was responsible for the caisson disease or bends outbreak because it used pneumatic caissons. The construction killed 15 workers and injured 77 people.

Poplar St. Bridge, also known as the Popular St. Bridge, was completed in 1967. It is the busiest downtown bridge with 120,000 vehicles passing over it daily. It is a steel girder bridge with 8 lanes.

MacArthur is a narrow truss bridge with a monster curve. It is one of the oldest bridges built in 1917. It is now used as a rail traffic bridge.

Martin Luther Bridge was built in 1951. It is the second newer bridge, also known as the Veteran's Bridge. It has an overall length of 4000 feet with a cantilever style. It was refurbished during the 1980's.

Santa Fe Bridge is also known as the Fort Madison Bridge. It is the largest double deck swing span bridge in the world. It was completed in 1927. It serves as an automobile traffic bridge. It is owned by BNSF railway.

Hernando de Soto Bridge is known for its unique structural letter shape. The arches shaped the letter M and it made it into Guinness Book of World Records. It carries Interstate 40 connecting Memphis, Tennessee and Arkansas. It opened in 1973.

Memphis and Arkansas Bridge is the longest Warren truss bridge in the US. It carries Interstate 55 to Memphis. It is a cantilever through truss bridge, which opened in 1949.

Frisco is the longest cantilever truss railroad bridge in North America. It was opened in 1892. It was formerly known as the Memphis Bridge. It has an overall length of 4,887 feet.

Clark Bridge is also known as the Super Bridge. It is a cable stay bridge built in 1994. It was named after William Clark. It carries Route 67 with an overall length of 4,620 feet.

Norbert Becky is the first bridge to use light emitting diode lights. It is also known as simply Becky Bridge. It was completed in 1972 carrying Iowa Highway 92 and Illinois Route 92. It has an overall length of 3,018 feet.

Black Hawk is also known as the Lansing Bridge. It is a cantilever trough truss bridge with an overall length of 1,653 feet. It was named after Chief Black Hawk, an appointed war chief. It is listed in Historic American Engineering Record.

Julien Dubuque Bridge Connects Dubuque, Iowa and Illinois. It is an uninterrupted steel truss arch bridge. It carries 2 lanes of US Route 20 with an overall length of about 5760 feet. It is also listed in National Register of Historic Places. Last June 2008, it got stuck by 15 barges.

Savanna – Sabula Bridge is a steel truss through deck bridge carrying US Highway 52. ​​It has an overall length of 2482 feet. It was opened in 1932.

Bridge 9340 is also known as I-35W Mississippi River Bridge. It was the one that collapsed in August 1, 2007 killing 13 people and leaving many others injured. It was an 8-lane steel truss arch bridge with an overall length of 1,907 feet.

Is That a Chicken Coop Or an Outhouse? Chicken Coop Construction Plans

Chickens need a safe and comfortable home just like any other animal. Their home is called a coop. For people who wish to raise chickens in their backyard, it is highly recommended to construct a coop where the birds will be kept safe from bad weather and their predators.

But first, you have to plan well for this particular poultry backyard project. Planning means deciding on the number of chickens you will raise, the size of your coop, the materials you will use, the design and the location. If this is a first for you, you can just start with a few say, three chickens and find out how you're doing as you go along. You can add a few more later on if you feel you can manage well.

Other important factors you will have to take into account are the ventilation and insulation of your coop as well as the lighting. Just like humans, chickens also feel the heat of the summer season and when proper ventilation is not provided, the birds can get sick. If you're building a closed coop, you can install vents ideally on the south or facing the east or you can create large holes on the north and south areas preferably at the point where the walls meet the roof.

For the cold winter months, the insulation will help keep the birds dry and warm so do not forget this as well. You can use Styrofoam sheets and place them between the walls and ceiling.

Lighting is as vital. Remember in your Science subject in the elementary grades, you were taught that plants and animals need light, water and air to live. Chickens, therefore, need natural light as often as they can. If you're going to put your coop in a dark or shaded area, build a structure that has openings to allow sunlight to enter or you can also install light fixtures for your birds.

Placement of feeders is another important aspect. Feeders are containers where you put the food of chickens. These have to be placed at a higher level and not on the floor to keep dirt away. Make sure that you place them in a way that you can easily reach them when feeding your chickens.

When building the structure, you do not have to make a complicated one. Start simple if possible. Keep in mind that chickens require sufficient space to move around so determine the right measurements. The standard measurement for each bird is two to three square feet. As your chickens grow, though, additional space will be needed. Do further research if you're special about the chicken breeds and their minimum space requirements.

You can use cheap wood materials combined with chicken wire for the coop. GI sheets can be used for the roof but be sure to build this in a sloping style to keep the water running when it rains.

Raising chickens is a nice hobby and one which can benefit you and your family. You not only have poultry meat for your meals but you can also enjoy chicken eggs for breakfast.