The 8 Best Natural Ingredients to Look For in Skin Cream

In the last few years there have been countless new-fangled ingredients in skin care that the sound very fancy and make incredible claims. Some professor to make your wrinkles disappear in one day, others claim that you could bounce a quarter off your skin after using their product, and still others have so many ingredients that you can not pronounce, you might as well be reading a science book .

Ingredients will come and go but over the centuries natural quality ingredients for skin care never change. Some may be the current hot thing, but most if not all have been used for centuries in and they still hold up in modern natural skin care. Do not be fooled by modern fancy sounding names, most are just made up to sound good for the expensive marketing campaign that the giant conglomerates are going to spend 20 million dollars on. Below is a list of the eight best natural additives that you should be looking for in your skin care.

The first ingredient is olive oil. This amazing wonder of nature comes from the most ancient of lands, in fact it was mentioned in the bible and also used by the Greeks and Romans in many of their skin care regimens. Interesting how we have learned so much in modern science about such an ancient ingredient. Olive oil contains polyphenols, which are the known as strong antioxidants and are reported to reduce the incident of skin cancers when applied to the skin directly after UV exposure. Also the vitamin A found in olive oil has been known to be beneficial for wrinkles, age spots, and other skin damaging effects from the environment.

The second natural ingredient is shea butter. Found mostly on the savannah in Africa, shea butter is a natural fat that is extracted from the nut of the karate tree. Shea butter is an amazing natural carrier of Vitamin A & E. Many studies site shea butter for its ability to fight wrinkles because of the high amounts of these two vitamins. The vitamin E is helpful to the skin because it increases the micro circulation which results in better blood supply to the skin, therefore helping the skin recover better from free radical sun damage.

A fruit butter you probably have never heard of, but should of, is cupuacu butter. Grown in the rainforest of Brazil this fruits' seed contains the most magnificent butter, and is also known as the plant alternative to lanoline. Studies have shown that Cupuacu butter is highly beneficial for dry and damaged skin. It has properties that promote long lasting skin hydration which means it gives skin more significantly ability to easily absorb and retain water. Because of the high levels of phytosterols within cupuacu butter, the skin becomes more elastic, and consequently is better able to reduce the appearance and development of wrinkles. It also has been shown to help in the healing of eczema and dermatitis.

The forth natural ingredient is squalene. Derived from olive oil, squalene is chemically similar to the skins Sebum, which is the normal lubricant of the skin. It keeps the skin supple and forms a protective bacterial and fungicidal coating that helps moisturize the skin's surface. It just so happens that the sebum is overflowing with squalene when a person is youngger, but as we age we loose the ability to produce this substance in sufficient quantities that is required for soft and supple skin. Because squalene is part of the natural skin lubrication process, tests have shown that it has the ability to provide hydration and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Squalene is easily absorbed into the skin and makes it the perfect natural non-greasy skin care ingredient that also improves the youthful appearance of skin .

The fifth ingredient is honey. Honey is also one of those ancient skin care miracles that science has only recently begun re-discover. Honey is rich in vitamins and amino acids that nourish the skin; it also contains powerful antioxidants, allowing the skin to fight free radicals, therefore helping to reverse the aging process and also reducing the development of wrinkles. Honey is also known as an antibacterial and antifungal. A University of Wales study concluded that honey produced an antibacterial effect reducing if not eliminating the incidences of skin infections. It seems that ancient wisdom in conjunction with modern science all agree that honey is one of the finest skin care ingredients in natures collection.

Propolis, another incredible bee ingredient, which is a resinous mixture that honey bees collect from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. It is used by the bees to seal the hive, the same way we use caulk to seal gaps in our house. However, unlike caulk, propolis contains flavonoids which makes it a proven antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. Because of the high levels of vitamin C, E, and beta-carotene skin care ingredients containing propolis are known for their ability to stimulate the healing of skin, especially when it is used for anti-redness and other skin irritations.

The Seventh great natural skin care ingredient is silk protein. Silk protein is obtained by the breaking down the actual silk cocoon so it can be used in cosmetic preparations. Silk protein is used in skin preparations as a natural moisturizer, a skin elasticizer, and may even help to control the growth of melanin in skin that leads to age spots. A Japanese study concluded that a type of silk protein even has the ability to suppress skin tumors caused by chemical and UV radiation. So, silk is not just a natural product you should wear, go ahead and use it on your skin.

The final product that must be stated is Beeswax. Some people make the assumption that beeswax when used in skin cream formulas blocks your pores. In fact beeswax is non-comedogenic and will not irritate skin or block your pores. It is one of the only waxes that will let your skin breath while still having the knack to keep it hydrated. Beeswax is one of nature's most wonderful ingredients to use, and does an amazing job as a skin soother and softener. It also has natural antiseptic properties. The mayo clinic even recommends lip balms made from beeswax instead of petroleum based ingredients. Beeswax is an effective multi-purpose skin ingredient that effectively softens your skin and also locks in the moisture while still letting your skin breathe. Look for it in all you skin cream products.

Please use these natural products in your skin care, not only will you be helping the environment by using these durable products, you will feel better, look younger, and probably be more healthy overall.

Contemporary Furniture Design – History And Influences

Contemporary furniture design came about through the combination of enquiring, innovative minds, advances in technology and the ability to produce incredible furniture at more affordable prices. The industrial revolution also played a huge part in this, particularly in terms of cheaper materials, access to factory space and the ability to create artistic furniture pieces at a price more suited to the public at large.

From the late 19th century, designers started to look towards sleeker, simpler designs for modern furniture. Whereas in the past furniture had been constructed almost entirely from wood, resulting in heavy overstated pieces indicative of grandeur and luxury. This access to new materials and different ways of working allowed designers to make more compact and modest sized items. These new furniture designs were easier to incorporate within any required living space and also gave the purchaser an opportunity to buy items that were an expression of their own personal tastes, with less limitations. Contemporary furniture design became known for being serviceable and functional but with a creative slant that saw modern furniture often viewed as pieces of art in their own right.

Odd angles, clean lines, curved shaping and materials such as metal and moulded plastic paved the way for modern furniture to infiltrate into our consciousness. It’s hard to ignore the striking designs of contemporary furniture pieces – the fluidity and sharpness often used in these designs made people really start to sit up and take notice of modern furniture.

Many designers of modern and contemporary furniture are also noted for being incredible architects – contemporary furniture is really about functional items being seen as architectural and artistic designs. Architects such as Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Frank Lloyd Wright and even Antoni Gaudi started to incorporate contemporary furniture design into their overall architectural visions. Gaudi would often design furniture pieces to complement the interesting nuances of his buildings, creating a harmony between the external structure and internal decoration.

Other notable contributors to the contemporary furniture movement include Marcel Breuer, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Eileen Gray, Le Corbusier and Lilly Reich. Mies van der Rohe invented the now famous and often copied ‘Barcelona chair’ and his contemporary furniture often used cantilevers to enable supportive yet delicate framework, often created out of chrome. Mies worked in collaboration with Lilly Reich for over a decade, sharing both a professional and personal relationship. In addition to her involvement in the design of the Barcelona chair, the couple also worked together to create the Brno chair, another iconic piece of modern furniture that continues to be cited as both inspirational and aspirational.

Using a TENS Machine to Fight the Negative Feelings of Depression

First of all, I’m not a doctor or therapist. I just have spent most of my life learning from them, to undo the effects of major depression that I’ve had from childhood. If you suffer from depression, first talk to your medical professional to see what approach is best for you. That is what I’ve done, but I add to what I’ve learned by trying a few other things on my own. Don’t do anything to yourself that is potentially self-injurious, it pays to research any new technique or approach thoroughly, just to be safe. Whatever works for me may not work for you, we all have our own ways of responding to different treatments. I just know that not all my recovery has come from what was learned at the doctor’s office. Being exceptionally strong-willed, my mission has mainly been to boost self-esteem, and fight those inner feelings of sadness that never go away (effects of depression.) Here are some ways that have helped me live a productive and successful life, despite mental challenges.

Six months ago, it was necessary for me to go for physical therapy for a slipped disk in my back. The therapist hooked me up to a small machine called a TENS unit, for one of my treatments. They put small, non-invasive sticky circles (electrodes) on the part of my body needing therapy and then turned the machine on. It felt really good, sort of like a massage. Depending upon how the therapist adjusted the dials, the machine would make knocking or pinging sensations on my back. There are also knobs to adjust the intensity of each sensation. After researching the TENS unit on the internet, I ordered a small one, about the size of a deck of playing cards.

According to what I read about them, TENS machines are not only good for distracting your body into feeling good sensations rather than pain, but they can make your body produce endorphins, or feel-good chemicals, too. This intrigued me, since having depression, I’ll take all the feel-good anything I can get (as long as it is both moral and legal.) So, I set up to test this on myself and see if there was any merit to the theory. After years of taking various anti-depressants, some work more than others but none completely take away depression, in my experience. Not being a scientist or doctor, I read up on everything about the TENS machine. There are rules that come along with the machine, like not putting the electrodes on the head, neck or the heart areas. Make sure to follow all of them thoroughly. People with pacemakers should not use TENS units, because it can interfere with the way they work. As with medicines, ask your doctor before using one.

By placing the electrodes along my spine, and setting the TENS settings to the recommended low frequency (pulse) levels. You want low muscle contraction, and to use the TENS for approximately 20 to 40 minutes. If you set it for higher muscle contractions, your muscles may ache later, so I rely on what the experts say, to use it at low settings. For more detailed information, I found these sites helpful:

http://www.bootsmaternityrentalproducts.co.uk/abouttens.php
http://www.medcareservice.com/Pain-Control-Mechanism-Article.cfm

Using the TENS unit has helped my overall mood, it seems, as after using it, my demeanor is calm and relaxed. Though I don’t know if this is due to the machine itself or not, but I believe that using it has helped me. Combined with other treatments, this TENS therapy is assisting me (along with other techniques for reducing depression) in making a more enjoyable life. Go ahead and research TENS units online, and see if this is something suitable for you. In my point of view, it is a viable way to help combat depression.

My Husband Wants Me To Leave, What Now? Tips And Advice On How To Handle This

I often hear from wives whose husbands are going to leave them. Sometimes though, there’s a different variation on this same theme. I recently heard from a wife whose husband wanted her to be the one to leave the house. They had been having marriage issues for some time and the husband felt that the wife should be the one to leave since she had family and friends with whom she could easily stay.

The husband didn’t want to leave the home for which he felt he’d paid for several years and (in his opinion) had the right to stay in. So, he felt it only fair that the wife be the one to leave. Needless to say, this is not what the wife wanted to hear nor was it what she wanted to do. The idea of packing her bags and walking out of the house where she had lived and dreamed for years (and on the man that she had loved for years) was absolutely appalling to her.

She said, in part: “I can’t believe my husband thinks that I’m going to just leave because he wants me to. How is this fair? I have no idea what to do. If I stay, he’s going to make it very clear that he doesn’t want me there and he might eventually leave me. But if I go, it looks like I’m giving up my marriage and that is definitely not what I want. I don’t want to leave or divorce my husband but he seems convinced that this is the course he wants to take. What can or should I do?”

This is a unique and tricky situation because I often tell wives whose husband is insistent on leaving them (and won’t accept any alternatives) to be the one to leave. This is not ideal, of course, but often there’s really no alternative and at least if you are the one to go, you have more control. You can be the one to come home rather than trying to get him to come home (which increases your chances of saving the marriage.)

So when there’s no choice, I usually do feel like it’s better to be the one to leave than to allow him to leave. Still, this situation wasn’t ideal. And I felt that there were some things to try before the wife just gave in and left. I will discuss this more in the following article.

Try To Take As Much Drama And Immediacy Out Of The Situation As You Can: Right now, both the husband and the wife were filled with emotion and were reacting very quickly to every thing that was happening between them. In situations like these, people tend to make snap decisions and say or do things that they either regret or which are impossible to take back.

So I always feel it’s important to try to bring some calm to this situation so that you get out of reactive mode and get into a mode where you are being proactive and aren’t just reacting to someone else’s whim, words, or actions. So as hard as it was, I wanted for the wife to remain calm and deliberate. As it was now, doors were slamming, tears were being shed, accusations were being made, and the couple were just becoming more and more distant from each other with every passing hour and day.

So, the next time the husband approached her with something hurtful, I didn’t want the wife to engage. I wanted her to deflect whatever it was he was throwing at her and make it clear that their interactions were going to be different and weren’t going to follow the same path.

She might say something like “yes, I know that’s how you feel and I know that you want me to leave because you’ve been telling me this for days. But I’m no longer going to react like I have been. There’s no need. I know how you feel and you know how I feel. I have no idea if we’re going to reach a compromise or not, but I’m not going to fight with you and continue to damage our relationship because it’s still important to me. So, I’d rather wait and discuss this when we are both calm and aren’t going to hurt each other or the relationship. Can we agree when we might discuss this again at a later time when we’ve both calmed down?”

This is an attempt to slow things down and create an environment that is more conducive to working things out. I felt strongly that the longer the wife continued to engage or argue, the better the chance that one of them was eventually going to leave the house. But if you can interrupt the sense of urgency and the drama, you’ll often find that the hurtful words and behaviors are much lessened so that you might actually make some progress and hopefully not have to leave in the first place.

With that said, if you are offered this type of reprieve and end up staying and not having to leave, you’ll need to address and improve your marriage so that whatever issues lead to your husband wanting you to leave don’t remain so that you’re not dealing with this again in the future.

If Your Husband Won’t Accept Anything Less Than Your Leaving, Then Don’t Leave Things Open Ended. Try To Set It Up So That You Can Still Communicate (And Hopefully Improve Things) On A Regular Basis: In some cases, even when you’re calm and are taking a cooperative attitude, your husband will still insist that you leave. When this happens, sometimes it becomes clear that he’s not going to be happy with anything (or accept) but you’re leaving. However, this doesn’t mean that you should just pack your bags, walk out the door, and hope for the best. My suggestion is that if you have to concede (and you shouldn’t do this unless it’s clear that you have to), at least control the terms.

Agree to the least amount of time that you possibly can. Suggest going away and staying with friends for the weekend, or if possible, for less than a week. Define how often you’re going to call one another to check in. If possible, schedule some time to get together during the short separation.

Sometimes, being apart for a short amount of time can actually improve things because you’re not engaging, every one calms down, and your husband realizes he misses you. But the ideal thing is to keep the separation short and to keep the communication going while keeping the tone positive rather than negative.

Shoot For the Stars and Settle For the Moon – Forget That Noise – Let's Go All the Way!

Many people believe that we need to get our up and coming generations to shoot for higher goals, not succumb to mediocrity, and when they shoot for those tougher goals, they will not make it more than if they had not . Not long ago, the TED Conferences put forth an old video along this line of thinking, it was a rare clip from 1972, "Legendary Psychiatrist Viktor Frankl delivers a powerful message about the human search for meaning." His message was in a nut shell; "Shoot for the Stars and Settle for the Moon."

But I say; Forget That Noise – Let's Go All the Way! Yes like that famous pop hit with the lyrics; "Ya, Ya, Ya, let's go all the way," because as far as I am concerned, if you are going to go for it, do it, go all the way, not half way and then congratulate yourself. Either you are "in it to win it," or you are not. As far as I am concerned Viktor Frankl, the so-called legendary psychiatrist sends the wrong message to American youth and their coaches, teachers, and mentors.

"Do not try, do!" said Mr. Miyagi in the Karate Kid. A great quote indeed, and it is completely and 100% on the money, that's what matters in life; winning, accomplishing what you set out to do, not trying, or trying and then settling for the less, no way, not in this life time, you must make your life count. Not sure if it's just me but TED, and the people who lean far left seem to believe that simple praise of the next generation is acceptable. Propel their self-esteem with certificates and accolades.

Personally, I say these kids need a good kick in the butt, because half way, is not good enough. Our ancestors did not come half-way to get here, we did not go half way against NAZI Germany, and it's quite frankly un-American to go half way; forget that. Let's go all the way, all the way to the top, the number one slot, where we belong. We have the history, we have the genetics, we have the intellect, and we have opportunity, so there is absolutely no excuse not to.

Do not settle for less in your life, do not give up, do not give in, stand tall for what you believe in, and believe in yourself too, and then we will see you in the winner's circle, where you belong. Personally, I do not believe in second place, or going halfway way, I believe in winning and going all the way!

The Monastic Life – The Path To Spirituality?

INTRODUCTION

Elijah and John, like other hermits (a monastic way of life) lived in the deserts. Jesus did not. What then is the pathway to spiritual maturity? Is it the life of the monk or otherwise? What we achieve, it must be noted, the monastic life or otherwise, is by the grace of God. God looks at the heart. What was Jesus' first miracle? In which ceremony did he perform it? If Jesus performed a miracle in a wedding fever, so promoting joyful celebration (though, with limitations), is this not a hint that, the monastic, celibate or ascetic life is not godlier than the wedded, celebratory life? Is monasticism the path to spirituality? Although there are good principles in the monastic life, it must be emphasized, echoed and re-echoed that only God can bring us to spirituality. From the foregoing, spirituality is not by works of righteousness but but by His grace alone.

1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

a. Spirituality

The term spirituality is defined as living the Christian life with a consciousness or sensitivity to religious values. Striving or aiming for perfection and making particular use of prayer are therefore very important considerations in many different Christian circles. However, it must be emphasized that spirituality asserts various forms in several Christian traditions, for instance, from the solitude of the Orthodox monks to the activism of the Pentecostals.

b. The monastic life

The monastic life refers to a way of religious life that is usually pursued within the confines of a monastery where the residents take several vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, living by the rule of the order to which they belong. Generally celibate and universally ascetic, the monastic individual separates himself or herself from general society either by living as a hermit or anchorite (religious recluse) or by joining a society of others who profess similar intentions. It is believed that despite St. Anthony is viewed as the founder of monasticism, the founder of the rule of life is St. Louis. Benedict. The goal of the monastic way of life was the achievement of personal salvation with God through a continuous spiritual battle with temptation. It is therefore reasonable to note that "the chief aim of the monk, therefore, is personal sanctification …" (Cross, 1975, 914).

c. Monastic spirituality

Monastic spirituality implies a single-heart solitary seeking of God, an approach to Him in response to His invitation found in Scripture, for instance, "seek ye first the kingdom of God" (Mt. 6:33). It is meant to be transported out in a lifetime and perfected or finalized in eternal life after one's death. It is a "way of life … that requires a certain discipline to dispose oneself to meet the living God" (Monastic Spirituality 2004). It therefore flows from a belief in a God who comes to those who are disposed to listening, who will persevere in seeking God even when it seems pointless boring. The forty-eighth verse of The Rule of St. Benedict states, "Do not be daunted immediately by fear and man away from the road that leads to salvation." It is bound to be narrow at the outside "(The Spirit of Benedictine Life, 2004).

2. TYPES OF THE MONASTIC LIFE

The Encyclopaedia Britannica generally divides monasticism into two, organizational or institutional, and hierarchical and status types. The organizational or institutional type could be further divided into eremitic, quasi-eremitic, cenobitic, quasi-monastic, and mendicant monks. The two subdivisions in the latter group include sacerdotal, and secondary and religious orders.

A common feature of true eremitic institutions is the emphasis on living alone on a strict contemplative life. Quasi-eeremitic institutions had loose organizational structures with no external hierarchies. In cenobitic monasticism, ascetism was to be pursued in community life and in obedience. The quasi-monastic groups are Christian military orders. Strictly defined, mendicant monks are those who live by begging.

3. CAUSES OF THE MONASTIC LIFE

Several reasons could have been attributed to the rise of monasticism. An important influence was the philosophical. The dualistic view of flesh and spirit, with its tendency to consider flesh and evil and spirit good- so characteristic of the Orient- influenced Christianity though the Gnostic and Neoplatonic movements. It was thought that retirement from the world could "help the individual crucify the flesh and to develop the spiritual life by meditation and ascetic acts" (Cairns, 1967, 163).

Secondly, it would appear as if some Scriptures seem to justify the monastic life. I Corinthians 7 is a case in point. Some early Church Pathhers like Origen, Cyprian, Tertullian and Jerome, urged celibacy to support correct interpretation of the Scriptures. Furthermore, it is observed, Antony, probably the first monk, "in response to those words (Matt. 19:21), disposed of his property and wave the procedures to the poor, reserving only a portion for the care of his sister" (Gonzalez 1984, 141). He even disposed of the small reserve fund that he had kept for his sister, placed her under the care of the virgins of the church, and left for the desert when a later verse "Do not be anxious for tomorrow" (Matt 6: 34) moved him. Although we do not really know when the flight to the desert really began, "Antony first embarked on the life of a hermit shortly before the year 270; but it sees that he had predecessors" (Lawrence 1984, 5).

The total spiritual poverty that is demanded of Christians and to which monks respond without hesitation appears to be lovingly gifted through in the Beatitudes. This is the core of the Benedictine Spirit – adhering to His teachings, extremely following Him who has introduced the same path from His baptism in the Jordan through the trials, misunderstandings and humiliations of rejection, to His glowing obedience to His Father and the final unblinking act of sacrifice. Furthermore, thirdly, certain psychological tendencies strengthened the desire for a monastic life. In period of crisis there is always a tendency to retreat from the harsh realities. The late second and third centuries saw the beginning of civil disorder which was to become so prevalent in the later history of the Empire. It is evident there that "many left society for the monarchy as a means of escape from harsh reality and the moral contamination of the times" (Cairns 1967, 164). Historically, there was increasing moral deterioration, especially of the upper classes in Roman society and monasticism became a haven for those in revolted against this growing decadence of the times. Geographically, the warm dry climate and the multitude of caves in the hills along the banks of the Nile were conductive to separation of the individual from society.

4. BENEFITS OF THE MONASTIC LIFE

It is a truism that there is so much evil in the best of us and so much good in the worst of us that we have to critically evaluate and learn to accommodate each other in the Christian faith. No denomination has it all right. There are strengths in the different denominations and the Christian needs to have a receptive spirit to learn from each. The monastic life is not an exception. There are several good points in this way of life worth mentioning. It is observed that monasteries "are necessary because the world is not Christian. Let it be converted, and the need for a monastic life will disappear" (Chrysostom, 1972, 52-53). History has not vined his hope. Monasticism has a unique testonomy to the world. It is firmly believed that "monasteries were the conservators of learning and the centers of missionary and philanthropic work." The monks were the authors, preachers, philosophers and theologians of the age …. "(Vos, 1994, 122). This is why Cross believes that "the monks were the chief teachers of Europe and an important civilizing power" (Cross 1957, 104).

The life of the Church between Constantine and the Reformation reveals that "almost everything in the church that approached the highest, noblest and truest ideals of the Gospel was done either by those who had chosen the monastic way or those who had been inspired in their Christian life by the monks "(Noll, 2000, 85). Douglas, Cairns and Ruark argument that "the monks were prominent in the Origenist controversies, intervened tempestuously in the fifth-century christological disputes, and became Byzantine Church's 'democratic front'" (Douglas, 1978, 671). Leaders of the Reformation such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, Thomas Cranner and Menno Simmons used the writings of the monks to draw support for their theology. Luther and Calvin, for instance, reiterated the works of Augustine. In fact, "it should be remembered that Luther, Erasmus, and many other critics of the papacy had monastic backgrounds" (Vos, 1994, 122).
The monastic life was not only limited to manual labor but also extended to copying MSS., Teaching, art, all kinds of scholarly research and translation the Bible. A realistic summary of the influence of monastic life to Christianity could have been summarized thus:

If we read the Scripture in our native languages, we benefit from a tradition of biblical translation inspired by the monk Jerome (ca. 342-420). If we sing the praises of Father, Son and Holy Spirit, we follow where the hymn-writing monks Gregory (ca.540-604) and Bernard of Clairvaux … If we pursue theology, we (are) interested to the monks Augustine and Thomas Aquinas (ca.1225-74). If we pray for the success of Christian missions, we ask for blessing upon enterprises pioneered by monks Patrick (ca.390-ca.460), Boniface (680-754), Cyril (826-69) and his brother Methodius (ca. 815-85) and Raymond Lull (ca.1233-ca.1315). If we glow in the goodness that God imparted to the created world, we follow where the friar Francis of Assisi blazed the trail … (Noll, 2000, 85).

5. SPIRITUALITY OF THE MONASTIC LIFE

From the foregoing, a question that readily comes to mind is whether the monastic way of life is really a path to spirituality? Clebsch realistically observes that Antony's retirement from the world is, at the very least, an ambiguous retreat, for though he separates himself from the distractions and nagging presses of ordinary human community, the wilderness to which Antony flees holds more significant challenges and dangers. When Antony finds no relief from an enthusiastic crowd during a rare visit to the city, "he assures those around him that he must contend with equal numbers – of demons – at his cell in the wilderness" (Clebsch 1980, 8).

Monasticism preaches separation from society, which lives according to the elements of this world, and from its economic, political and social problems. This generally led to the flight to the desert and the later autonomous existence of communities that care for the needs of their members. The monastic republic is Mount Athos, for instance, is a striking example of a social, self-governing life, separated from the world and even opposed to it. The thorney issue is that since everyone can not realistically share this vote, the monastic solution remains limited. It is not the solution for the world in its totality.

Even though the researcher is coming from a war torn land (Sierra Leone), he has come to realize that forgiveness and love are ways to demonstrate true spirituality. It must be noted that monks "headed the Inquisition and persuaded multitudes to participate in the crusades" (Noll, 2000, 140). The question is why was this so If the monastic life aimed at personal sanitation? As Christians, we must be honest to admit that "as they unfolded, the Crusades never accomplished as much good as supporters hoped, while evil consequences, unintended and unforeseen by proponents like Urban, proliferated" (Noll, 2000, 140). Even in Christianity, it is not farfetched to say that the Crusades sealed the Schism. It is unimaginable to note that people living the monastic life took part in political warfare.

The conviction of Protestants (including the researcher of this paper) about the centrality of justification by faith is bound to raise questions about whether the monastic life encouraged harmful notions concerning the possibility of salvation by works. A legitimate question worth asking is whether what the monks owed to do did not obscure the fundamental or foundational reality of God's grace. Paul got it right when he observed that "… it is by grace you have been saved, through faith – and this not from yourself, it is the gift of God- not by works, so that no one can boast" (Eph 2: 8-9). Obtaining salvation by works is nothing but a legal approach which is consistently condemned by Scripture. The tense of the verb in Ephesians 2: 8 establishes the necessity of faith in Christ as the only means of being made right with God. How central is the teaching of grace? This is a question the person living the monastic life would have to struggle with.

Does the ascetic pration of the body by the monk affect the true seat of sinfulness? In response, it is vehemently argued that "the bent of the heart, rather than the disposal of the body, is the key matter in godliness" (Noll, 2000, 103). In fact, an issue in our recently concluded module was sex and spirituality. Although Catholics believe that sex is only for procreation, the Protestant views sex between husband and wife for pleasure also as true spirituality. Even Bro. Lawrence was honest enough to admit some of the problems of a type of monastic life. It is interesting to note that Brother Lawrence began to doubt the wisdom of his decision to live in the desert, wishing instead to live within a Christian brotherhood … Members of the group could have adjusted and exhort one another, protecting them against the changeableness of their individual whims (Lawrence, 1982, 78).

CONCLUSION

In all fairness to monasticism, the institution "owes its origin to the desire of leading a life of perfection in greater security than is normally possible in the world" (Cross 1975, 914). Monks for more than a thousand years sustained a lot of noble qualities in the Church. It is reasonable to note that the monastic life, "though never perfect, always in need of reform, and occasionally sunk in corruption- remains today, more than seventeen hundred years after Antony went into the desert, a guide and inspiration to large sections of the Church "(Noll, 2000, 104). However, it would be farfetched to state that monasticism is a path to spirituality. It is incontrovertible that there are good principles in the monastic life. This notwithstanding, one must hasten to note that only God can bring us to spirituality. It is not by works of righteousness but but by His grace alone. The environment is really not the issue. I believe that the inside of the man is the real issue. The philosophers believe that if a man is sick, he will still be at the same place if you were to remove him from the gutters to the palace. Why? The answer is that he carries his disease with him. Did Jesus avoid non-Christians? No. What does He mean when he observes that though the Christian is in the world, he is not of it? The researcher observes that these words suggest or recommend a very unique ministry. This ministry looks to show itself above the desert and the city, since it is called to surpass every form in order to express itself everywhere and in all circumstances. How can monks be given birth to or monasteries be populated without the life on the other side of the monastery? It is suggested that there is only one spirituality for all without distinction in its demands, whether of the bishop, monk or layperson. St. Seraphim left the extreme practices of the hermits and returned to the world. He was no longer a monk retired from the world nor a man living among people. He was both, and surpassing both, he was essentially a witness to Biblical spirituality.

WORKS CITED

Beaufort, Lawrence. The Practice of the Presence of God. New Kensington: Whitaker House, 1982.
Cairns, EE Christianity Through the Centuries. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing

House, 1967.
Chrysostom, John. Her Nature and Task, in Bible, Church Tradition: An Eastern Orthodox View,

Collected Works, Vol. 1. Maryland: Norland, 1972.
Clebsch, WA The Life of Antony and the letter of Marcellinus. New York: Paulist Press, 1980.
Cross, FL, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. London: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Douglas, JDEE Cairns and James E. Ruark, The New International Dictionary of the Christian

Church. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1989 ed. sv Sacred Offices and Orders.
Gonzalez, JL The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation, Vol. 1

Cambridge: Harper and Row Publishers, 1984.
Lawrence, CH Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages.

London: Longman, 1984.
Monastic Spirituality. Available [online]: http://www.christdesert.org/noframes/

scholar / monastic_spirituality.html. Accessed 20th September 2004.
Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids,

Michigan: Baker Academic, 2000.
The Spirit of Benedictine Life. Available [online]: http://www.christdesert.org/noframes/

scholar / benedict / benedict_spirituality.html. Accessed 20th March 2004.
Vos, HF Introduction to Church History. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1994.

The Real Estate Investors' All-Cash Formula For Buying a House

As you move forward into the business of buying and selling houses, you'll need to start looking at how successful investors make offers. Let's say you already have your marketing in place. You're getting leads, and you know how to pre-screen those leads by asking three questions:

1. Is the house pristine or neglected (pretty or ugly)?
2. Can you buy the house with immediate equity built in the day you buy it, or can you create equity?
3. What is the degree of the seller's motivation? The way you can answer that is by looking at the WWOW:

W : What is the property WORTH (value)?
W : How much do they WANT (asking price)?
O : How much do they OWE (the loan balance, if any)?
W : WHY are they selling (their motivation)?

Let's say a lead comes in on a property estimated to be worth $ 100,000 (after the house is fixed-up) by a certified appraiser, but the seller is asking for $ 75,000. They owe nothing on the house, and the reason they're selling it is because it was inherited.

You've now got clues to answer all three of the questions above. To the seller, that house is little more than a free pile of money gifted to them from a relative. Not only are they not emotionally attached to it, but they are telling you by their asking price that they are willing to give up $ 25,000 worth of equity. That immediately answers questions two and three. You know you've got them ruling in the right direction. Their motivations are in your favor.

By looking at the average house price in the market of the lead, you can tell whether it's a pretty house or an ugly house. In this case, let's say the market average in that area is $ 200,000. With this house being below market average (because it's only worth 100k) we would lean towards this probably being an ugly house, most likely needing some degree of repairs. Now there are really only two buying strategies when it comes to buying ugly houses-either All-Cash or Split-Fund!

The other four buying strategies are for pretty houses only because your exit strategy for getting rid of a property that you get a deed on, for example, is to owner finance or lease option that property when you sell it. You're taking over someone else's mortgage and then you're going to create financing with your buyer that wraps around the mortgage that you took over. You are only going to do that with pretty houses because you'll be selling to a higher-end buyer-they're usually more responsible and can pay bigger down payments.

Even if you can get a super deal on a house buying all-cash, you never do it on a pretty house because there are only two ways to lose money in real estate-writing a big check to buy a house or signing your name to a big bank loan in the process of buying. Even if you could get an $ 800,000 house for $ 500,000 all-cash, you do not violate those rules. Not that it's out of the question that this can turn out to your benefit, but it's rare-it'll happen maybe once or twice in your career career as a real estate investor, if at all. As a rule, it's a safer bet to take an option on a pretty house rather than risk your cash.

So we're going to focus on the all-cash strategy in this example.Since we've determined that it's an ugly house, we have to consider that it will need repairs. You do not have to be absolutely accurate about what estimated will be. In fact, you can underestimate and still not get hurt poorly because when you're using the all-cash formula, you'll be guaranteed to turn a profit. Based on what the owner says the house needs-new paint, carpets, minor upgrades as such-we can make a ballpark estimate that repairs will cost about $ 10,000. So what can you offer based on this scenario?

The maximum offer for an all cash purchase is 65% of the ARV (After-Repair Value) of the house.

That leaves a 35% profit, hedge factor, cushion, whatever you want to call it. For this example, let's say the ARV, based on legitimate comps, confirm that the house is indeed worth $ 100,000. Multiply that by .65, then subtract the $ 10,000 in repairs, and your maximum offer would be $ 55,000.

The reason why we buy at 65% is because we leave open one of our selling strategies-wholesaling. When you wholesale the house to someone, you're typically selling it to an investor who is going to buy it in cash from you, then rehab it and sell it again. When you buy at 65%, you can typically sell it fairly quickly to an investor at 70%, turning a 5% wholesale profit.

This formula only changes when you write a check and pay cash for a house when you current real estate market conditions decreasing in value. In such cases, you may want to lower your buying all-cash formula factor down from .65 to .50. Before you make the offer, make sure you have reliable comps on the house and include a repair estimate, a ballpark number that's reasonably considered. Also, when making an offer, you do not want to come out of the gate making your MAO (maximum allowable offer). You might want to start out around $ 48,000 in this case, or where you'd like, but you know that the most you will offer is your MAO of $ 55,000.

If we're writing a check for anything, we're either getting it at a great discount or we're not doing it. As long as the ARV is correct and you factor in repairs somewhat accurately, you will never get hurt using this formula.

Spray Foam Equipment

Expanding spray foam insulation is a type of insulation based on spraying the insulating foam directly over the area to be insulated. Just as foam board insulation requires foam core boards, expanding foam insulation uses spray foam.

Spray foam insulation is a relative of foam board insulation, using a quite similar material to foam core boards, with the main difference being in the method of applying the insulation itself.

If you intend to insulate your entire house for example, or any other large building, you have two options: one is to hire a specialized company that will do it for you, with a corresponding fee of course, or, if you are a hardcore DIY fan, you may attempt to install the insulation yourself.

It might sound an untouchable idea at first, but with a little study and care you will find that the DIY method might be the cheapest and why not the more enjoying option.

If you are serious in thinking about DIY spray foam insulation, you must first know what equipment you need. The following is a short description of the basic components of a foam spray machine.

The proportioner:

This is the heart of any spray foam machine. It is the part that creates the foam by proportioning the components and pushing them further. The best one for all around use would be an electric one, but make sure it has intuitive controls and balance pressure valves.

The spray foam hoses:

These are basic hoses, which have the sole purpose of transporting the foam from the proportioner to the spray gun. The hoses come in different colors, diameters and lengths, and it's always a good idea to use hoses that are corrosion protected, to prevent any nasty surprises.

The spray foam gun:

If the proportioner is the heart of the installation, then this is the hand. Inside the gun, the two components of the foam are mixed and expelled at certain pressures towards the surface to insulate. The moment the two components come into contact they react, so care must be taken after usage, to avoid clogging. Before, before buying one, try and find out how easy it is to clean.

Al these components will help you succeed in insulating your house. Spray foam insulation can be used instead of foam board insulation, but you should take into account all the advantages and disadvantages of the two insulation methods.

How To Get Rid Of Centipedes In The House Effectively

In order to get rid of centipedes in the house it is necessary to follow a 2 step process that involves humidity and food supply. Centipedes are invertebrates with an exoskeleton, multiple pairs of legs and inhabit most parts of the world. There are about 3000 known species of centipedes with legs ranging from 15 to over 300.

However adaptable they may be, they always need a moist environment to survive because they lack the waxy protective cuticle of insects or spiders. Hence their preference for rocks, piles of leaves or vegetation, wood and so on. At spring time they come out for reproduction and at fall they are lured into houses seeking warmth and food. Because of their need for moist, they are usually fund in parts of the house that mimic their natural environment like basements, kitchen basins, washing machines or laundry rooms.

The common house centipede is called Scutigera Coleoptrata and like all centipedes is a predator. The house centipede is 1 to 2 inches long and has 15 pairs of legs developed in several molts from an original set of just 4 legs when newly hatched. Other larger centipedes like the tropical Scolopendromorpha are born directly with 21 pairs of shorter legs and flexible segments, can reach gigantic size up to 12 inches (30 cm) and feed on mice, lizards, frogs and even tarantulas, while the house centipede has a rigid segmented body with long and fast legs and feeds on other house pests. Unlike other species of centipedes, the house centipede has good eye sight but catches its prey with the aid of antennae too.

Typical house centipede preys include ants, termites, bed bugs, spiders and cockroach nymphs as well as opportunistic kitchen left overs. They hunt at night and this is the time they are usually sighted. Over all the house centipede provides a good service in that it naturally preys on other unwanted house pests that are objectively far more hazardous than the centipede itself. Just think of the many germs and illnesses transmitted by roaches, fleas (including the historic bubonic plague through rat fleas), or blood feeding bed bugs. Centipedes are not after humans nor are they a health hazard like other pests, however there are 2 reasons why home owners want to get rid of centipedes in the house the moment they see one of them.

One reason is that their presence may be the tell tale sign that there is another infestation on which the centipede feed on. The other reason is just their appearance. Centipedes are quite revolting. Couple this with their speed and manoeuvrability and you have a horror movie like creature alive, right in the middle of your room. Unfortunately, as long as centipedes have no reason to leave, they will stay and multiply. So the solution to eliminating them is to give them a reason to leave.

How to get rid of centipedes in the house then? Tidy up the clutter in the bathroom, kitchen, basement and all known humid spots where centipedes rest. Use dehumidifiers and desiccators to dry up as much as possible the environment and allow for maximum ventilation. This way the centipedes will have a hard time in keeping their body moist and may want to leave.

In their presence is persistent it may be a sign that they have found a steady food supply on which to feed on. This means you may have more than just a centipede problem but also roaches, ants or any other bug enticing the centipede to stay. In this case you may need to follow a pest eradication procedure in 2 steps, both indoor and outdoor to get rid of all pests including the top of the food chain, the centipedes themselves.

Introduction to Nutrient Pollution

Introduction

On August 27, 2009 the State-EPA Nutrient Innovations Task Group issued an urgent call to action to EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson. The task group studied documented levels of excess nutrients in our nations waterways. Current, and past, efforts to control these pollutants have been undertaken on the national and statewide scale. Efforts to date have been predominately "regulation at the pipe" and have not addressed the non point sources that are the root cause of elevated concentrations of nutrients in ground and surface waters. Nutrient pollution significantly affects all of us. It affects our drinking water, our recreational water, such as beaches and rivers and lakes, and it affects, and even kills, aquatic life. None of us want a bunch of dead rivers, but what can we do?

What are Nutrients?

Nutrients are elements that are essential to life. Being essential to life they are also essential components of the molecules that make up living tissue. Decaying organic matter and human and animal waste are significant sources of nutrient pollution in ground and surface water. The chemicals we manufacture and use in day-to-day life may also contain nutrients, as well as the fertilizers that we spread on our yards and farms. It is the broad application of fertilizers, the animal feeding lots, the widespread use of septic tanks, and runoff water from rainfall to school kid carwashes that are responsible for the immeasurable depths of nutrients that find their way into the watershed. These are the non-point sources that can not be easily regulated.

For 30 years the Clean Water Act has regulated industrial and municipal effluents. Limits are getting lower and lower. It is easy to take a sample at the end of a pipe. It's easy to know where the sample comes from, and who is responsible if pollutants are too high. Unfortunately, 30 years of regulation of industry has not significantly reduced the problem. Obviously, there are other sources.

And the sources are us. Our everyday activities of washing our cars, fertilizing and watering our lawnns, irrigating farms, and even desiring green golf courses. The essential nutrients that are in the fertilizers and detergents are entering the groundwater, not by an industrial effluent but down the gutter and into the storm drain. Rainfall is washing nutrients into creeks and rivers and carrying them into basins such as the Gulf of Mexico or Chesapeake Bay. Hypoxic zones, also known as dead zones, are forming where excess nutrients are deposited.

The excess nutrients cause a rapid growth of algae. The algae grow so quickly that they cut off their own light and die. This is a normal, geologic process, occurring more quickly than normal. As the algae dies it decays and the decay process consumes oxygen. Without oxygen aquatic life can not breathe.

What is Nutrient Pollution?

Nitrogen and Phosphorus are the principal elements reported to when discussing nutrient pollution. Other essential elements, such as carbon, silica, and sulfur are not included in this discussion. Organic nitrogen and organic phosphorus are associated with the organic matter we measure and report as TOC. Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential elements in DNA, RNA, and nitrogen is a major component of protein and urine. Nitrogen and phosphorus occurs as both water-soluble and water insoluble species. Unfortunately, both soluble and insoluble become bioavailable. Looking at this table, we see that Nitrogen and Phosphorus are somewhat similar chemically, for instance, the plus 5 ions known as nitrate and phosphate are very stable and highly water-soluble.

Nitrogen

Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth ranking only behind carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in total quantity needed. The nitrogen gas making up about 80% of the atmosphere is large inert and unavailable to life directly. Lightning will convert small amounts of nitrogen to nitrate. Nitrogen in fertilizers comes from the chemical reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen gas to form ammonia. The ammonia can then be oxidized to form nitrate. Fertilizers will often contain ammonia, nitrate, and / or urea as the sources of nitrogen. Organic matter, referred to as humic matter, manure, mulch, etcetera contains about 5% Nitrogen. This nitrogen is slowly converted to ammonia by bacteria and is always oxidized to nitrite then nitrate. During a storm event, or during erosion the nitrate in soil is easily leached into the runoff.

Dissolved inorganic nitrogen including nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. Dissolved organic nitrogen including water-soluble proteins, amines, amides, and so forth. Basically declined organic life and some man made chemicals that are dissolved in water. Total Organic nitrogen is the sum of dissolved organic nitrogen and particulate organic nitrogen. Particulate organic nitrogen is, well, the insoluble organic compounds, or organic matter, in the water. Total Dissolved Nitrogen is the dissolved organic nitrogen plus the dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and Total nitrogen includes all of the above. Notice, there is REALLY no such thing as total inorganic nitrogen. This is because inorganic nitrogen compounds are all water-soluble.

Chemical Analysis of Nitrogen Compounds

Total dissolved nitrogen, or the result you get when analyzing total nitrogen on a filtered sample complexes of dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia. Methods used to determine TDN typically rely on an alkaline persulfate digestion that converts all of the nitrogen present to nitrate and then the nitrate is determined colorimetrically. Analyzing inorganic nitrogen alone will only recover about 30 – 40% of the total dissolved nitrogen in the natural environment. Sewage treatment and industrial plant effluents, on the other hand, are predominately inorganic nitrogen (nitrate) since the treatment process is designed to completely oxidize dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate.

Total nitrogen, or the result you get when analyzing total nitrogen on a non-filtered sample complexes of dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia plus particulate nitrogen. Since all inorganic nitrogen compounds are soluble, particulate nitrogen is almost entirely organic nitrogen, or PON. Methods used to determine TN can rely on the same alkaline persulfate digestion used to determine TDN with the exception that samples are not filtered. Since samples are not filtered, the automated version is not applicable if there is a significant amount of sediment (or solids) in the sample. In other words, the automated inline digestion methods measure TDN and are only applicable if TDN and TN are essentially equivalent (there is no particulate organic nitrogen).

The DIN fraction, measured to calculate the Total Organic Nitrogen content can be, and should be, analyzed on a filtered sample. Remember that there is no such thing as Total Inorganic Nitrogen since it is equal to Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen. Another infamous parameter in the total nitrogen world is, of course, TKN (Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen). TKN, as routinely used, does not measure nitrate or nitrite. It is essentially a measure of organic nitrogen plus ammonia nitrogen.

TKN is the classical, if you will, analysis for total organic nitrogen. TKN has its roots in food and feed analysis as a way to quantify the amount of protein. TKN has been extrapolated to environmental analysis and is the regulated parameter for Total Nitrogen. Unless steps are taken to include nitrate and nitrite the regular TKN method does not measure it. TKN essentially measures organic nitrogen and ammonia. TKN is sufficient in POTW or municipal influences because these samples rarely have nitrate in them anyway. Recall the nitrogen reactions. An influent to a POTW will contain particulate nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen, and ammonia. The particulate nitrogen mostly settles as sludge removing it from the equation. Organic nitrogen and ammonia are oxidized to nitrate during the treatment process. The TKN digestion boils the sample in concentrated sulfuric acid in the presence of a metallic catalyst to speed the reaction. Potassium sulfate is added to raise the boiling point to about 380 C. The digestion will not completely recover all organic nitrogen compounds making the TKN result actually less than or equal to the TN determined by alkaline persulfate oxidation.

According to the EPA definition, Total Nitrogen equals TKN plus nitrate plus nitrite.

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient found in living organisms as part of DNA among other important molecules. Phosphorus is always found in nature bound to other atoms and usually as the inorganic phosphate. It is phosphate that is available to plants and used as a fertilizer. It is phosphate that is consumed by algae and has the potential to cause algal blooms. Measurement of total phosphorus is important because it can, with time, convert to bioavailable soluble phosphate.

Dishwashing, laundry, and many hand detergents and / or soap contain phosphorus. The phosphorus content in detergent can be as high as 8.7%. Phosphate is a very effective way to improve soap quality, especially in waters that contain high amounts of calcium and magnesium. Unfortunately, the phosphates in these detergents find their way into the environment. In the 1970's green rivers and lakes were becoming common and phosphate usage in soaps began its eventual reduction. Although there is not a federal ban on phosphate is soap many states are taking action. For example, Washington State has limited the amount of phosphate in dishwasher detergent to 0.5%

Chemical Analysis of Phosphorus

Phosphorus can exist in water in different forms. The standard method for phosphorus is meant to measure only phosphate, also called reactive phosphate. This is because what is actually measured is defined by the molybdate reaction itself. Phosphorus species are distinguished from each other empirically by filtration, and then a series of digestions that selectively convert phosphorus to phosphate. After the digestion phosphate is measured. Thus, to analyze organic phosphorus only, one digests for total phosphorus in one sample aliquot, and hydrolysable phosphorus in another aliquot. Reactive phosphate is then determined in each digest and Organic Phosphorus is calculated by difference.

Total Phosphate is water-soluble. Instrumental methods require that samples be filtered, or the turbidity and / or solids will interfere. There is certainly to measure total phosphate you must filter the sample. Since total reactive phosphorus is equal to filterable reactive phosphorus the results are the same. Remember though, that for best results, filtration should be in the field. The portion for the total analysis is not filtered. If the particulates (TSS or SS) are high, then continuous flow methods should not be used for the analysis of Total Phosphorus. Total phosphorus is batch digested that converts all phosphorus compounds to phosphate. The digest is filtered and phosphate is then measured, usually by molybdenum blue.

The continuous flow method for TDP utilizes 254 nm UV irradiation to assist in the digestion of organic material. Since continuous flow methods can not be used to adequately digest samples containing high amounts of solids and continuous digestion should not be used unless the total phosphorus is essentially equal to the dissolved phosphorus.

TKN is the classical digestion for total organic nitrogen. The TKN digest can also be used to analyze for total phosphorus. The advantage in this is not added recovery, for the acid persulfate quantitatively recovers all of the total phosphorus. The only advantage in the TKP is the ability for the laboratory to test for TKN and TP in a single digest. The perceived benefit is time and labor savings. Because of the higher acid and salt concentration of the resulting TKP digest compared to persulfate digests, TKP detection limits are typically higher that limits found by persulfate. The other advantage to TKP is, of course, that it is EPA approved.

All of the colorimetric methods used for the determination of phosphate by molybdenum blue are highly dependent upon final acid concentration and the amount of molybdate. Attempts made at analyzing total phosphorus digests without careful attention to acid concentration are often not successful. After the digestion is complete, you are measuring orthophosphate. Any method used to measure phosphate can be used. The problem with extending a total P determination to Ion Chromatography, for instance, comes from the excess sulfate ion introduced in the digestion. Early methods utilizing persulfate in sulfuric acid neutralized the sample and then analyzed orthophosphate. Some continuous flow methods measure the phosphate in the acid solution adjusting the acid in the reagent accordingly. The TKP digestions have really only been tested using a mercury catalyst, and excess chloride must be added to prevent interference from the mercury. Like TKN, the blue color of a copper catalyst may interfere with the method. The auto dialysis method helps to control the final acid concentration and some of the residual color introduced by the copper. Dialysis is essentially an online dilution leading to a higher detection limit than the cleaner persulfate digest. To sum up, for lower total phosphorus numbers (say below 0.1 ppm) it is recommended to use the acid persulfate digestion because the matrix will be easier to control and work with. For concentrations above 0.1 ppm, the TKP digestion is adequate.

Conclusion

The clean water act was signed amid stories of massive fish kills and rivers catching on fire. We all know that these things rarely happen in the US anymore. We have monitored sewage treatment effluents and in many cases applied numerical volumes on the amount of nutrients that can be discharged. We still have a ways to go.

Our chemical analysis methods were written for highly polluted water. The methods we use were not validated at the lower concentration levels we need to measure today. Many of the conditions of these methods assume higher concentrations will be present, and the former rigid nature of the Clean Water Act rules did not let us change anything. Fortunately, in 2007 the EPA added Part 136.6 to the CFR allowing us to make configurations to our nutrient methods providing the modifications improve method performance. These modifications are going to allow us to monitor more water, with better accuracy and detection limits.

We have more to go, because regulation of point sources has not solved the problem. Much of the problem is the non point sources we call storm water run off and irrigation water. We need to watch what we do when we apply fertilizers and watch what goes down our storm drains. But more importantly, what we need is increased monitoring of our rivers and streams. The only way we can begin to solve our problems is to know exactly what they are. To understand this problem we need more data, and the data we need is accurate, low level quantitative analysis of nutrients.

List of Pus and Mucus-Forming Foods

The word “mucus” is from the Latin mucus which means “slime, mold, snot, etc.” Mucus refers to a thick, viscous, slippery discharge that is comprised of dead cells, mucin, inorganic salts, water, and exfoliated cells. It also refers to the slimy, sticky, viscous substance left behind by mucus-forming foods in the body after ingestion. The word “pus” is from late 14c. Latin “pus” (related to puter [putrid] “rotten”), from Proto-Indo-European*pu- compared to Sanskrit. puyati “rots, stinks,” putih “stinking, foul.” Pus often refers to a thick white, yellowish, or greenish opaque liquid produced in infected tissue, consisting of dead white blood cells, bacteria, tissue debris, and serum. It also refers to the substance that dead animal flesh is chemically changed to after being consumed or while rotting in one’s digestive tract. The ingestion of meat and dairy products create pus residue in the body, while starchy and fatty foods are mucus-forming.

The word “mucusless,” or mucus-free, refers to foods that are not mucus-forming. Such foods digest without leaving behind a thick, viscous, slimy substance called mucus. These foods include all kinds of fat-free, and starchless, fruits and vegetables.

All foods that are pus/mucus-forming are acid-forming. The word “acid” is from the early 1600s meaning “of the taste of vinegar,” from French acide (16c.) or directly from Latin acidus “sour, sharp,” adjective of state from acere “to be sour,” from PIE root *ak- “sharp, pointed” (see acrid).In chemistry it refers to a class of substances whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts. From a mucusless perspective, pus and mucus-forming foods are understood to be “acid-forming” inside the human body. Such foods create an acidic internal environment that is detrimental to wellness.

The following is a list of pus, mucus, and acid-forming foods:

FLESH (PUS-FORMING)

  • Blood of Animals
  • Eggs (All Kinds)
  • Lard
  • Meat (Beef, Chicken, Horse, Dog, Mutton/Lamb, Turkey, Veal, Pork:
  • Bacon, Ham, Sausage, Gammon, Chitterlings, Pig Feet; Wild Game: Bison, Buffalo, Ostrich, Rabbit, Venison, etc.)
  • Margarine (Made with Animal Fat)

FISH (PUS-FORMING)

  • Crustacean (Crab, Crawfish, Lobster, Shrimp)
  • Fish (All Types)
  • Mollusks (Clam, Oysters, Mussels, Snail, etc.)
  • Roe (Caviar)
  • Salmon
  • Shell Fish

DAIRY PRODUCTS (PUS-FORMING)

  • Butter, Cow
  • Buttermilk
  • Cheese (All Kinds)
  • Cream
  • Crème fraîche
  • Kefir
  • Milk (All Animals and Kinds; Raw Organic, Skim, 1 or 2 %, etc.)
  • Yogurt

CEREALS (MODERATELY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Barley
  • Breads (All Kinds; Barley, Black, Rye, White, Graham, Pumpernickel,
  • Zwieback, etc.)
  • Cereal Grains (All Kinds; Maize, Farina, Kamut, Millet,
  • Oats, Quinoa, Spelt, White Rice, Brown Rice, Whole or Refined Wheat, etc.)
  • Cornmeal
  • Pseudocereals (All Kinds; Amaranth, Buckwheat, Chia, Cockscomb, Kañiwa, Quinoa, etc.)
  • Pastas

BEANS (MODERATELY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Beans (All Kinds and Forms; Black Beans, Black-eyed peas, Fava Beans, Butter Beans, Cannellini Beans, Chickpeas/Garbanzo Beans, Edamame, Great Northern Beans, Italian Beans, Kidney Beans, Lentils, Lima Beans, Mung Beans, Navy Beans, Pinto Beans, Soy Beans, Split Peas, String Beans (Green Beans), White Beans, etc.)

NUTS AND SEEDS (MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Nuts (All Kinds; Acorns, Almonds, Brazil Nuts, Cashews, Chestnuts, Hazelnuts, Peanuts, Pecans, Pistachios’, Walnuts, etc.)
  • Seeds (All Kinds; Sunflower, Pumpkin, Hemp, Sesame, etc.)

PROCESSED FOODS (PUS AND/OR VERY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Dried Convenience Foods
  • Fast Foods
  • Frozen Convenience Foods
  • Packaged Convenience Foods
  • Processed Meat

CONFECTIONERIES/CANDY/SWEETS (PUS AND/OR VERY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Baked Goods (All kinds including pies, cakes, pastries, etc.)
  • Candy (All Types; Bars, Caramels, Chocolate, Fudge, Jelly candies, Rock
  • Candy, Taffy
  • Gelatin (Jello)
  • Ice Cream (Dairy and Non-Dairy)
  • Marshmallow

ACIDIC, FERMENTED, OR DISTILLED DRINKS/SYRUPS (ACID-FORMING STIMULANTS)

  • Alcoholic Beverages (All Kinds; Ale, Beer, Brandy, Champagne, Hard
  • Cider, Liqueur, Mead, Porter, Rum, Sake/Rice Wine, Gin, Herbal Wine, Lager, Fruit Wine, Vodka Whisky, Tequila, etc.)
  • Syrups (Brown Rice, Barley Malt, Chocolate, Corn, Artificially Flavored)
  • Cocoa
  • Coffee
  • Kombucha Tea
  • Soft Drink (Soda Pop)
  • Tea (All Kinds from the Theaceae family)
  • Vinegar (White, Apple Cider)
  • Old-fashioned Root Beer

FERMENTED FOODS AND SAUCES (ACID-FORMING STIMULANTS)

  • Fish Sauce
  • Fermented Vegetables (All; Kimchi/cabbage and other veggies, Olives
  • Pickles/cucumbers. Sauerkraut/cabbage, etc.)
  • Miso
  • Sauces with Vinegar (Hot Sauce, Ketchup, Mustard, Mayonnaise, Relish,
  • Tartar, Barbecue, Salad Dressings, Salsa, etc.)
  • Soy Sauce

VEGETARIAN/VEGAN PROCESSED FOODS (MODERATELY MUCUS FORMING)

  • Chips (corn, potato, plantain, etc.)
  • Frozen Vegan Breakfast Foods (waffels, etc.)
  • Hummus (processed chickpeas)
  • Lab Grown Animal Tissue
  • Margarine
  • Nutritional Yeast
  • Pasta (egg-free)
  • Pasteurized 100% Fruit Juice (potentially acid-forming)
  • Plant milks (grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes including soy, rice, etc.)
  • Plant-based butter (nuts, seeds, and legumes including soy, peanut, etc.)
  • Plant-based creamers
  • Soy Lecithin (food additive)
  • Tempeh
  • Texturized Vegetable Protein (‘mock’ meats including soy, etc.)
  • Tofu
  • Vegan Baked Goods
  • Vegan Confections (All Types; Chocolates, Ice Cream, etc.)
  • Vegan Cheese Substitutes
  • Vegan Mayonnaise
  • Vegan Whipped Cream
  • Yogurts (Plant-based)

OILS (FATTY AND MILDLY MUCUS FORMING)

  • Oil (All types; Avocado Oil, Chia Seed, Coconut, Corn, Cotton Seed, Cotton Seed, Flax Seed, Grape Seed, Hemp Seed, Nut Oils, Olive, Palm, Peanut, Quinoa, Rapeseed (Including Canola), Safflower, Soybean etc.)

SALTS AND SPICES (STIMULANTS/POTENTIALLY ACID-FORMING)

  • Black Peppercorns
  • Cayenne Pepper
  • Chili Powder
  • Cream of Tarter
  • Curry Powder
  • Nutmeg
  • Paprika
  • Pepper
  • Salt (Celery, Crystal, Iodized, Sea)
  • Vanilla Extract

STARCHY OR FATTY VEGETABLES AND FRUITS (SLIGHTLY MUCUS-FORMING)

  • Artichoke
  • Avocados
  • Cassava
  • Cauliflower
  • Coconut Meat
  • Corn
  • Durian
  • Fungus (Mushrooms)
  • Green Peas
  • Olives
  • Parsnips
  • Peas (Raw)
  • Plantain
  • Plantains
  • Pumpkins
  • Raw or Baked White Potatoes
  • Raw Squashes (Winter, Acorn, Butternut, etc.)
  • Raw Sweet Potatoes
  • Rutabaga
  • Turnip
  • Unripe Banana

What are Deceptive Mucus-Formers?

Here is a list of foods that many people do not realize create mucus:

  • Rice (great for creating glue to bind books, bad for the transition to a mucus-free diet)
  • Avocados (fatty item that may be used on the transition, but are highly addictive. Although technically a fruit, if used it is best to combine them with a mucus-free combination salad or vegetables to aid elimination. However, it is recommended to stay away from them if you are not already stuck to them.)
  • Nuts (Mucus-forming, but may be used on the transition. It is best to eat with dried fruits like raisins to aid with elimination.)
  • Plantains (Starchy)
  • Tofu (Slimy and mucus-forming.)
  • Un-ripened fruits like green bananas (the riper the fruit you eat the better).
  • Corn (It does not eliminate well. When cooked corn or corn chips are eating it becomes mushy and slimy in the intestines.)
  • Corn chips (Some people use them on the transition, but they are very addictive and do not eliminate well)
  • Beans (They are starchy and mucus-forming. But, they may be used sparingly on the transition within close proximity to green-leafy salads)
  • Starchy Vegetables (Some vegetalbes are starchy and mucus-forming in raw or cooked forms, such as white potatoes. But, many other vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, become almost mucus-free (starchless) after proper cooking.

The Transition Diet

It is very important that people learn how to transition from the most harmful mucus-forming foods to the ones that leave behind the least amount of waste. To learn more about this transitional process, check out Arnold Ehret’s Mucusless Diet Healing System: Annotated, Revised, and Edited by Prof. Spira.

Tips and Natural Homemade Recipes – How to Repair Dry and Mature Skin

So what can you repair and nourish mature skin? Dry and mature skins need to replenish the loss of sebum on the skins surface with equal moisture moisture to address the signs of visible aging. Homemade anti-aging skin care products do not contain preservative chemicals and you will not have an adverse reaction to ingredients, and most ingredients are inexpensive to buy.

Tip 1- To dry and sensitive skin, you need; to replace any commercial soap with a gentle Ph-balanced handmade soap and moisturize frequently with a rich beauty oil. This will help to relieve quickly tightness

Tip 2- Protect your skin. Minimise exposure to the sun and wind, air-conditioning, hot water, harsh chemical and detergents as much as possible.

Tip 3- Use warm, rather than hot, water. Hot water will strip all the natural oils away.

– Recipe; Dry & Mature skin treatment oil – This will help improve your skin's appearance and it smells divine!

Instructions: Mix in a dark glass bottle;

  • 15ml avocado oil- is rich in vitamins, essential fatty acids, and dry and mature skins respond to this lush oil as it penetrates deeply and softens skin.
  • 10ml Wheat germ oil – An important antioxidant that helps protect fatty cell membranes from becoming oxidized (rancid) through the action of free radicals.
  • 15ml Macadamia oil – Attracts moisture and forms a barrier to prevent a loss of moisture while allowing the skin to breath and function normally.
  • 3 drops Palmarosa Essential oil Excellent hydrating properties. Helps with the elasticity of skin. A mature skin superstar oil !!!
  • 3 drops Sandalwood Essential oil – Balances the skin and helps strengthen connective tissue Repair scars.
  • 2 drops lavender essential oil : soothes skin and accelerates generation of new skin cells

Here is a few face packs which is really great to nourish and plum up dry and mature skin.

– Recipe Gentle Scrub for Mature Skin – A scrumptious scrub for sensitive skins. You will see the dead skin come off and your skin will feel great.

Instructions: Mix a tablespoon of almond powder and add honey and make a paste and apply it on the skin. Leave it for at least 20 minutes. Remove scrubbing gently the skin. Wash off with lukewarm water.

Recipe Repairing Beauty Mask for Mature skin- This pack makes the skin smooth and supple and reduces the dryness and can be used all over the body before you take a bath.

Instruction ; Take wheat flour and add milk cream to it. Make a paste and apply it on the skin. Leave on the skin for 10 minutes and rinse with warm water. Apply the Tonic Vinegar Toner and follow with the Dry & mature skin treatment oil.

* Fruit face packs , made of fruits rich in vitamins and water have a good effect on the dry and mature skin. Some of the fruits that can be used are papaya, peach, watermelon and banana mash it and add some thickened cream or if desired use honey and mix together and apply.

Mashed avocado can also be applied to the skin for a glowing effect.

Take a ripe banana, mash it and add to it rose water. Apply this paste allover the face and neck; wash off after half an hour.

Tonic Vinegar Skin Toner Recipe: a "must" for Mature skin is more efficient when an organic apple cider vinegar is used. It will cleanse and restore the skin, restrict the dilated pores, and improve the circulation making sure the whole skin receives nutrients nutrients it needs.

Ingredients;

  • 1 small bundle of Rosemary
  • 1 or 2 peppercorns
  • 1/2 teaspoon of Ginger grated
  • 1 or 2 clove heads
  • 1 cup of Cider vinegar

Instructions; Place the rosemary, ginger, gloves and pepper in a ceramic or glass bowl.

Bring the vinegar to a boil. Pour the vinegar over the herbal mixture in the bowl.

Cover and let the mixture stand for two days. Strain the mixture and decant into a sterilized bottle. Mix 1/2 of distilled water with 1/2 herbal vinegar in a dark glass bottle with a spray.

The question is, why does skin wrinkle? As you grow older, your body produces fewer of the hormones that keep skin healthy and supplies less oil, protein and natural moisturizing factors which attract and hold water in the skin. This process promises to make the skin drier, you need to keep your skin well moisturized in order to be soft and elastic. The skin needs to be more elastic to have less the chances of it stretching, distorting and breaking under fibers.

Happy Natural skin care Making! Marlene Daniels

LOTRO Crashes – Learn How to Fix Lord Of The Rings Online (LOTRO) Crashes in Computer

LOTRO (Lord Of The Rings Online) is a popular game played worldwide, however, it is reported by its players that LOTRO crashes in PC. There are various problems linked to this game. Sometimes lotroclient.exe crashes and sometimes the game crashes while loading.

This article would brief you on how you can prevent and fix LOTRO crashes. Steps are outlined below but important thing is to keep the sequence while following steps.

Ø First of all you have to delete the File User Preferences. Follow these steps.

1. Click on the Start button.
2. Go to Documents.
3. In the Documents double-click on the folder named Lord Of The Rings Online.
4. Delete UserPreferences.ini file.
5. Restart game and now it should work.

Ø LOTRO may crash because of improper settings. To fix this problem, you have to restore all settings to default. Try these steps.

1. Click on the game to open.
2. Go to Launcher Options.
3. Press down arrow and restore the game settings to default.
4. Done.

Ø Security permissions may be the cause of Lords Of The Rings Online crashes. You can fix it by performing following steps.

1. Click on the Start button.
2. Go to Computer.
3. Program Files (C: Program Files).
4. Right-Click on Codemasters and select Properties.
5. Now move to Security tab and click on Edit.
6. Then click on Add.
7. Enter user name and press OK.
8. Check the box Full Control in Allow column and now click on OK.
9. Done.

Ø Uninstall the game.

Ø Download a registry cleaner and PC optimizer software.

1. Open a web browser.
2. Download Registry Cleaner and PC Optimizer.

Ø Reinstall game in another location eg (D: My Games LOTRO)

Ø Now run the registry cleaner and PC optimizer on your system.

Ø Clean system junk and optimize your browser with the above software for smooth performance.

Experts believe that using a third party registry cleaner on your system allows you to fix hidden Windows problems for smooth performance of games.

Important Tips to Know Before Living Aboard a Boat and Dropping Out of the Rat Race

Many people have thought about dropping out of the rat race and retire to a live aboard boat in order to experience the simpler life and travel to exotic places. There are many benefits associated with this type of lifestyle, and waking up in the morning to the smell of the salt air and friendly neighborhood tropical birds looking for their morning breakfast in your backyard are definitely in the top two! Once you've made the decision to live aboard a boat, then there are several more choices that you need to decide on.

What type of boat will it be, a mono-hull or a catamaran? What is the length of hull that you're looking for? How much money are you prepared to invest into the boat and where will you dock it? There will be so much less space than what you're used to in a house, and storage places will come at a premium. Some boats have more space than others, and you will soon find that out when you start attending boat shows around the country or world. How much comfort are you willing to give up for a life of adventure on the high seas?

Mono-hulls are usually what people think of when boating comes to mind, but they do have plenty of drawbacks. They have a deep keel in order to help as ballast and to keep the vessel upright, which is highly useful if you are out on the ocean! But because of this keel, there will also be a great amount of rocking and rolling from side to side as waves hit the boat. If you are not used to this motion, you could very well end up with a bad case of sea sickness that will spoil your cruise. Mono-hulls do tend to have more space onboard for living and storage however, because the shape of the hull is very conducive to that in relation to depth. You will immediately realize though, that the width or beam leaves much to be desired and is often narrows with regard to the total length.

In my opinion the hull of choice is the catamaran, which is a much wider or beamy vessel, and some of the larger boats are so stable in rough weather that a champagne glass sitting on the galley table will not tip or fall over! The ideal length for a cruising catamaran to comfortably accommodate a married couple is anywhere from 36 feet to 55 feet, and the price goes up quite a bit each foot that is added on. A catamaran is designed to sit on top of the water more than a mono-hull, and is usually much wider in beam. For example, the typical 50 foot mono-hull might have a 12 -16 foot beam, but a 50 foot catamaran may have a 26 – 30 foot beam! This really leads to stability in very rough seas, with a huge reduction in the side to side rolling of the mono-hulls. A catamaran has two hulls with an open space between them for the seas to pass through and usually the galley and living area sitting out of the water between the hulls. This leads to good visibility above the water, and a nice wide area for cooking, eating, and entertaining yourself and guests. Some models will have the galley located down in one of the two hulls to create even more living space above. The sleeping areas, cabins, and heads are located down in the hulls on either side of the boat, and depending on the size can normally accommodate up to 4 couples.

The biggest drawback I've personally seen with catamaran boats is the "turnaround room" when standing down in the hulls. I always do an "elbow test" when down in the hulls, which means that I am standing with my hands on my hips and my elbows out and then I stand in one spot and turn around in a circle. If my elbows touch or knock anything, it's a very cramped space! Unfortunately, most of the vessels I've tested had this drawback, but I did find one 52 foot South African boat that passed this test. In fact, there was so much living area and storage space on this boat that I call it a "condo catamaran"! It was pure luxury, with up to six cabins on a normal layout, or for the discerning owner they can have one whole hull just for them which is described as the "owner's layout". This is the layout that really appeared to me, and will provide much closet space and a very private living area for those long voyages with guests. I encourage everyone who is looking for the perfect vessel to go to as many boat shows as they can so they can personally check all the various factors involved and to see if it's something you can live on. The Miami International Boat Show will usually have plenty of both mono-hulls and catamarans for viewing and comparison.

Another factor or decision that you'll have to make is whether it's going to be power or sail. That usually depends on your background and where you plan on boating to. For those people planning on doing an around the world trip, they might seriously consider purchasing a sailboat because it's going to be much cheaper and there really are not as many boats that can carry enough fuel for those trans oceanic voyages. For those people planning to stay closer to shore or mainly coastal travel may look for power boats, even though the fuel will still be an issue for most trips. There are a few boats that are designed for long range expedition voyages that are less than 55 feet long, and they can carry enough fuel to comfortably transit the Pacific or any other intensive cruise. However, for a power boat of this size, be prepared to spend close to a million US dollars or more for a brand new boat. By far the vast majority of around the world cruisers will opt for a sailing vessel, either catamaran or mono-hull. Catamarans tend to be more expensive due to the size and desirability of them, and they also may have higher marina fees associated because of their widths. In fact, a good percentage of them may not fit in some marinas due to how wide they are, and will have to anchor out in the harbor and use a dinghy to travel back and forth to the shore. This can be very time consuming and tiring, especially when traveling back and forth with many packages of food, drinks, or other items needed to rest the boat. These are the types of things you'll need to think about before you decide on and purchase your live aboard boat.

Are you an experienced sailor or boater, or will you need to arrange for some classes to learn more about being on the water? There are plenty of Coast Guard Auxiliary or Power Squadron facilities around in the US that can provide the appropriate training needed to safely operate your new vessel. It's very important to feel comfortable with the operation of your boat, and take it offshore for short excursions as often as you can before you embark on any long cruise away from shore. Become an expert, after all, your life will be at stake! Be prepared for any situation, whether it's medical or mechanical, and know what to do to fix it. Take a marine mechanic course, because if your boats engine breaks down far out at sea you'll want to know what to do to correct the problem. You will not be able to just bring the boat into the nearest shop at that point!

There will be many decisions that you'll have to make before choosing and purchasing your new boat and probably training you'll need in order to safely operate it, but the benefits of this lifestyle more than outweigh the negatives. You will need to be prepared for a total changeover compared to living ashore, because of the cramped conditions and inconveniences associated with boat living. Choose wisely, learn all you can before you buy, and get ready for the time of your life! It's what you've always wanted, so get out there and take the plunge!

List Building Strategies And Tips

If you've been searching online for list building strategies and tips, you're probably feeling pretty overwhelmed right about now. There's a lot of information out there, and it can get quite confusing. If you're looking for link building strategies that really work, the following information will help.

A Three-Step Process

There are three primary steps to great list building: creating an opt-in box or lead capture page, getting it out to a large audience and prompting people to sign up. Those three steps are the foundation of today's best list building strategies, but you need to carry out each step in the right way. Specific details about making the most of each step are outlined below.

Step One: Creating an Opt-In Box or Lead Capture Page

You can not successfully build a list without creating an opt-in box or lead capture page first. After all, you need to know what people will be clicking on in order to market it properly. There's a lot of advice out there about completing this step, and it does not really belong in this particular post. At any rate, you're going to need to design this element before you can dig into the actual list building.

Step Two: Drawing in a Large Audience

In order to build a great list, you need a lot of traffic. It pays to study up on traffic generation tips. If people are not coming to your lead capture page, you can not hope to develop a great list. Fortunately, there are several great ways to bring traffic to your opt-in box. A few of the simplest ones include:

  • Social Media Marketing – It's free to join and use social media sites like Twitter and Facebook. These sites make it easy to reach out to a huge audience too. Out of all the list building strategies that I'll share with you, this one is a no-brainer. Get involved in social media marketing and watch your traffic soar.
  • Article Writing – People go online to get information. Why should not you give it? Submit articles to online article directories. Include links to your lead capture page on them. Over time, these articles will draw in considerable amounts of traffic.
  • Video Marketing – You do not need a studio to create a great video. You just need the video to draw people to your lead capture page, so go for it.

Step Three: Compelling People to Sign Up

After getting people to your page, you need to get them to act. To that end, list building strategies and tips like including a free offer or incentive, offering an e-book for download and engaging in cross-promotion are all worthwhile options to consider. It only takes a second for a person to submit their email address, but they need a compelling reason to do so. As with traffic generation tips, there are many possibilities to consider. You can start with something basic like a free sample and branch out later.

By keeping these three important steps in mind, your list building efforts are sure to pay off handsomely. Put them to work right away.

If you have enjoyed this article you can get from Mark Ford a 7 day marketing bootcamp providing you with more list building tips and strategies to make money with an online business. This complimentary marketing material is provided in conjunction with businesses that Mark Ford is associated with.