Operating System Options and Installation Methods

An OS is installed on the computers' hard disk, inside an area called hard disk partition. There are several ways for installing a new operating system. The installation method is based on the system hardware and end-user requirements. Typically, you have four basic options for the installation of a new operating system:

Clean Installation

We can perform a clean installation on a new computer or in those cases where there is no upgrade path between the current operating system and the new one. This type of installation deletes all data on the hard disks partition where the current operating system is installed. A new PC requires, of course a clean installation. You can also do a clean install when the current operating system installation has corrupted files or does not work properly.

Upgrade Installation

Sometimes, it is also possible to perform an upgrade. When you perform an upgrade, OS configuration settings, installed programs and data are preserved. With this installation you have nothing to worry about, because you will not lose any personal data. You will just replace the old operating system files with the new, upgraded files. However, keep in mind that after the upgrade the applications and drivers that are incompatible with the new OS will not work as expected.

Multi-boot Installation

Another option is to install multiple operating systems on a single computer. You can install each OS inside a different disk partition and this way every OS will have its own files and configuration settings. On multi-boot installations, the users see a menu when they open their computers and they have to select the desired OS. Of course, only one operating system can run at a time.

Virtualization

This is relative new technique that is often used on servers. With virtualization we can run numerous copies of an operating system on a single set of hardware and create this way some virtual machines. Every single virtual machine works like a separate computer. This technology makes a single physical hardware resource to appear like multiple logical resources.

Before starting any operating system installation you have to make sure that all the hardware is certified to work with the new operating system. Also confirm that the hardware resources meet the minimum installation requirements. Moreover, when you perform an upgrade it is a very good practice to perform a virus scan before starting the installation and a complete full backup of all your personal data.

One method that helps you protect your data is this: Create multiple partitions on the hard disk and install a different OS on each partition. Then copy all your data inside an empty partition that does not contain an OS. This way you can upgrade the operating system without the risk of losing any data. Backup and recovery of data files is also easier with this design.

It is also important to decide the type of file system to use. The file system controls how the OS stores and tracks the files. There are several different file systems available. The most well-known are: FAT 32, NTFS, HPFS, ext2 and ext3. Every operating system is designed to use one or more of these file systems. There are advantages and disadvantages on every file system. Careful consideration should be made to the type of file systems supported by the selected OS and the benefits of each.

You can find several programs to modify the partitioning structure and file system of a hard drive after installation, but it is better to avoid them if possible. When modifying either the file system or partition structure on a hard drive, data loss may result. Careful planning can help preserve the integrity of the data.

Cowboy Etiquette

Most folks would not automatically conclude that cowboys have manners, but in my day, most cowboys were considered true gentlemen. The tipping of the hat to a lady still applies in many cases, but let's examine some less familiar forms of cowboy etiquette.

Growing up on a ranch in NE New Mexico brought numerous lessons in cowboy conduct, many of which are still alive in today's less formal environment. To go to dance in most places meant leaving your hat on the table while you were dancing (upside down, of course, to protect the brim). Spurs were never worn on a dance floor, even if you felt they looked cool.

This code was even more pronounced while out working on the ranch. We, who were fortunately enough to live the life, learned the lessons, sometimes the hard way. One sure way of approaching a cowboy's was to ride in front of him, or between him and the herd.

When gathering cattle, the riders converged on a pasture in a way similar to an army surrounding the enemy. Dropping off riders until one end of the pasture was fully enveloped; they converged simultaneously in a wide loop and remained in the same formation, as the loop squeezed the cattle toward the corral or gate you were heading for. A cowboy who got out of this formation was in for a difficult time.

This could call for some tricky decisions, especially if you were riding next to someone who did not know what they were doing. It was considered ok, though, if the cattle were getting away, to close up the gap by riding in front of someone, however, you needed to apologize as soon as possible.

You never handled another cowboy's hat, unless given permission, other wise this was grounds for a fist fight. Never set your hat on a bed either, although I think this had more to do with superstition than manners of any kind. It's supposed to bring bad luck.

One summer while helping neighbors brand, they had a chuck wagon, which we gathered at for meals. One cowboy had been consistently disrespectful and uncaring about the cowboy code, and one afternoon it all came to a head. He was introduced to the age old tradition of chapping.

Several cowboys grabbed him and held him over the tongue of the chuck wagon, while an older cowboy took off his chaps and proceeded to whip him across the back side with the chaps. This hurt the ego, much more than the rear end. I think the "chappers" got more out of it than the "chapee," as it certainly did not improve his disposition, but it was a lesson for us all in the code of the cowboy.

Cowboy courty is alive and well today, but the lines have been somewhat blurred by our permissive society. I've always felt it was an honor to be a cowboy, something to be proud of. Mutual respect between cowboys should always be the norm. Let's keep the tradition alive, and allow the dream of the American cowboy to live on.

Best Fabric For You – How to Buy and What to Look For

Here's some helpful hints when buying fabric.

You can select the best fabric for you by knowing the advantages and disadvantages.

Make sure you read all labels for care and fabric content.

Here's a guide when you're not sure about fiber:

You will be able to identify fiber absorbency by the wear of ability and durability. The more absorbent fibers are the more comfortable they are to wear. They absorb body moisture and moisture. Since they absorb moisture they are less sooner to static electricity and will clean more easily.

The less absorbent fibers are the less comfortable they are to wear, but since they are less affected by body heat and moisture they wrinkle less and they hold their shape better. However, they become static-prone. Here you can determine the best fabric for you that will wear well by knowing their absorbency.

More absorbent – wool, linen, silk, cotton and natural fibers Less absorbent rayon, acetate, acrylic, nylon, polyester and synthetic fibers.

Here you can determine the best fabric for you that will wear well by knowing the lengths of fibers that will affect its performance and appearance.

Long fibers are synthetics. Silk is the only one that is a natural long fiber, but there are longer wool and cotton fibers that have some of these characteristics: Lustrous and smooth, pill resistant, more resilient.

Short fibers are natural and synthetic fibers cut. They are cut into short lengths twisted into a yarn that has a fuzzier appearance like soft and fuzzy, tend to pill and wrinkle more easily. Now wool gabardine is a long fiber and wool flannel is a short fiber.

Be sure to read the labels on ready-to-wear and on the end of the bolt for your best fabric overall guide to fiber content and care.

Manufacturers use blends for decreasing cost, increase prestige, increase wash ability, decrease wrinkling, increase comfort, or increase strength.

A pair of pants that is 65% cotton, 35% polyester will wrinkle less and wear better than all cotton. A pair of pants that is 65% polyester, 35% cotton will wrinkle less and wear better, but be less comfortable.

People today go towards comfort and easy care, so you can determine the best fabric here on the blends of fabrics.

Fabric labels. Here's a list of fabrics that you can decide would be the best fabric for you and they they will wear:

Linen and Cotton – Has increased absorbency and comfort, less static build-up and better dye ability.

Silk is luster, luxury and comfortable.

Wool – Has added bulk and warmth, increased absorbency, increased shape retention and wrinkle recovery.

Mohair has added strength, loopy texture, added luster.

Camel and Cashmere has added warmth, luxury, improved drape ability, soft smooth texture.

Angora rabbit hair has softness and fuzziness.

Acrylic have improved softness, wool-like qualities.

Rayon is a lower cost fabric with better absorbency, lower static build-up and added luster.

Nylon has increased strength, abrasion resistance, wrinkle resistance and lower cost.

Acetate has improved drapes ability, more luster and shine and lower cost.

Polyester has wash and wear qualities, wrinkle resistance, shape retention, durability and is a lower cost fabric.

Spandex has comfort and elasticity.

Different blends can change the care instructions. If you have a wool skirt it can become washable if it has polyester added.

Look at the care instructions and care as you would for sensitive fabrics. For example, a wool becomes washable if polyester is added. If you are not sure of the care read the instructions and care as you would for the most sensitive fabric. Here you can determine the best fabric by how your clothing should look and feel.

The fabric weaves are how it affects the durability and appearance:

Plain weave – For each yarn it runs over one and under another in both directions and produces a strong firm fabric. Fabrics can be of all weights like chiffon, gingham, canvas, flannel, challis are examples of this most common weave.

Satin weave – The yarns passes over several crosswise yarns to produce very lustrous, shiny fabrics. These long yarns can easily be worn by causing snags.

Charmeuse and satin are a perfect example of this fragile weave.

Dobby and Jacquard weaves – There figurative designs are woven into the fabric. Dobby designs like birdseye and pique are usually small, geometric figures. Jacquard designs like damask, tapestry, brocade are more complicated and can be quite large. They are both expensive to make and can be fragile if there are large areas of long float threads.

Twill weave is a diagonal parallel rib that is a formed weave. It is the most durable weave of all. It is strong, resilient, wrinkle-resistant, and often soil-resistant due to the yarn density like denim, gabardine, silk surah, and calvary twill.

Knits are a series of interlocking loops instead of yarns that cross over each other at right angles. Knits are durable, comfortable. They give and are subject to snag at times. There are both single knits like tricots and sweater knits and double-knits like interlocks and traditional double knits.

Here are some shopping tips for finding the best fabric:

Wool and wool blend tweeds are very fast to sew because they hide sewing mistakes. They also mold into shape easily.

Solid colors are faster to sew than plaids, prints are faster than both as the print in the fabric does not require matching. Plaids are take the most time because of the cutting concentration and planning required.

Make a note in a small notebook with the following five basic pieces and make sure you take it with you when shopping for your best fabric. Also, make sure you use the yardage conversion chart on the back of the pattern catalog if your fabric width is different.

Jacket, Pants, Skirt, Blouse, Matching skirt, Jacket lining and Jacket interfacing.

Buy the same amount of lining as for the fabric you will need for pants and skirts. Will you be able to tell if this is the best fabric that works for you.

Do the following tests on ready-made clothing:

On wrinkle resistance fabrics crush it in your hand and release. Now, do the wrinkles fall out quickly? If they do not the garment will look like it was not pressed. so, high natural fiber content will wrinkle more.

To check for shape and wearing qualities stretch it with both hands and hold for 5 seconds. If it slips apart easily then strain on the seams could lead to a problem at stress points, but, if it springs back, it will hold its shape.

Tighter knits the heavier it is the less absorbent the fiber and the better it holds its shape.

Take a look at the fiber content for comfort by checking the absorbency and compare it to your fiber. These are lightweight and higher in natural fiber content are more comfortable to wear.

Synthetics are warm and feel clammy because they do not breathe or absorb as well as natural fibers and may not be the best fabric for you.

If you are buying fabric or ready-made clothing you should wisely invest your money into the best fabric quality you can afford for your five basic long wearing pieces. These coordinates need to be durable and make you look great! Here are some advantages and disadvantages. You can determine which would be the best fabric for you:

Here's some advantages and disadvantages on different fabrics:

Wool Gabardine:

Advantages: It wears very well, comfortable and holds their shape well. Wrinkles hang out.

Disadvantages: Dry clean only. It shows press marks very easy. Cleaners can over press too. You can request careful pressing, but it's very expensive.

Polyester Gabardine:

Advantages: It is wrinkle-resistant. It is also very durable and washable. It's a year around fabric except in the hottest and cold climates. It always looks crisp and fresh.

Disadvantages: May snag and is less comfortable to wear than wool, as polyester is cold in winter and warm in summer.

Linen:

Advantages: It is very comfortable as fiber is extremely absorbent. Dark colors or neutrals are season less fabrics.

Disadvantages: It loses body after many cleanings. You can spray fabric finish to restore crisp feel. Dark colors show more wear than light color due to the dyes used.

Crazy-like:

Advantages: Choose the heavier weights for better wear and wrinkle resistance. It wrinkles less than real linen. The blends are rayon, polyester, cotton. Can be worn year round in dark or neutral colors. Washable.

Disadvantages: It loses its body after washing or dry cleaning. It is not as durable as real linen or as rich in appearance.

Polyester Crepe:

Advantages: This fabric drapes very nicely. You can have fullness without bulk. It is wrinkle resistant, very durable, machine washable. Loosely woven fabrics will be more comfortable.

Disadvantages: Pretreat oily stain before washing. Remove from dryer immediately to prevent heat setting wrinkles and puckered seams. Feels clammy with tightly woven types which are not absorbent.

Silk Crepe:

Advantages: This fabric drapes like no other fabric, it feels wonderful and comfortable in all climates. Recommend dry cleaning, but can be washed.

Disadvantages: Very expensive. Must hand wash or dry-clean. Perspiration can damage fibers and stain.

Silk Broadcloth:

Advantages: A sportier fabric that wears better than crepe. Available in shirting stripes, plaids, gingham, also solid colors. Hand washes nicely. Less expensive than crepe de chine.

Disadvantage: Does not drape as well as crepe. Wrinkles, perspiration can damage fibers and stain.

Cotton or Blended Broadcloths:

Advantages: More casual than the fabric above. Washable, usually inexpensive. More comfortable than polyester; wrinkles less than silk. Blends include cotton, polyester, rayon.

Disadvantages: Does not drape as well as crepe. Those with higher cotton content will wrinkle more, higher polyester content will make less comfortable.

Wool or Wool Blends:

Advantages: It's soft, lightweight, drapeable. Those with wool should be dry-cleaned, some blends (cotton, rayon, polyester) may be washed. Usually has a soft, warm, brushed surface.

Disadvantages: Wool is more expensive to buy and to care for, but most durable. Generally a cool weather fabric.

Wool Tweed, Flannel, Wool Blends:

Advantages: This fabric is easy to sew. Flannel is a good wintertime fabric and comes in medium and light weights for all climates. Blends (wool, polyester, nylon, acrylic) are usually lighter weight, lower in price and some are washable.

Disadvantages: This fabric is for winter season only. Can be expensive. Flannel wrinkles more than wool gabardine. Blends will not wear as well as 100% wools. Can be scratchy. Dry clean 100% wools.

Wool Knit, Jersey:

Advantages: All weights are comfortable to wear. Warm in winter. Drapes well in lighter weights, tailors well in heavier weights. Knits are the easiest fabrics to sew.

Disadvantages: Very expensive. Can snag more easily than a woven fabric. Will stretch out of shape during wear, but can be pressed back to shape. Dry Clean only.

Polyester Knits:

Advantages: All weights are wrinkle-resistant, travel well. Machine washable. Hold their shape. Inexpensive.

Disadvantages: Like all polyester, can be warm in summer and cold in winter because fiber does not breathe. Pretreat oily stains before washing, remove from dryer immediately.

Corduroy, Velvet, Velveteen:

Advantages: Can be sporty or dressy, depending on type. Some are washable others should be professionally cleaned and pressed. Inexpensive.

Disadvantages: Can show press marks and wear lines easily, not very durable. Require special sewing techniques. Wrinkle easily, will stretch out of shape during wear, but will recover shape during washing or dry-cleaning.

Ultrasuede brand fabric:

Advantages: Elegant and extremely durable. It is versatile and comes in two different weights for many types of garments. Machine washable, easy care. Holds shape during wear, can be season less, depending on color. Sews easily.

Disadvantages: Very expensive. Requires special, but easy to learn, sewing techniques. Because it is partially polyester, it will be warm in summer but not as warm as 100% polyester.

After reading about the different types of fabrics you can decide which is the best fabric for you.

Commercial Roof Insulation

Insulation is a way to keep heat inside a room or building, it reduces the loss of heat through certain areas like the walls and the ceiling. There are many different ways to insulate the roof with one of the most popular being Insulation Foam, in fact some insulating foam can be used to not only insulate the roof but repair it at the same time. This gives you a few benefits over re-roofing, for starters it is a much cheaper method, it will save you a substantial amount on your heating bills, has the ability to create a dry, warm, clean loft space and comes with 25 year guarantees.

The foam used is a rigid spray foam that is applied to the underneath of the roof tiles or slats, it fills and seals any gaps that it comes into contact with, creating a very solid foam structured. The council use this method for insulating their properties along with blue chip companies and local authorities. Another benefit to the foam is that after the installation is complete it requires absolutely no maintenance what so ever and can be left alone with peace of mind.

Some insulating methods have a limited lifespan and are not likely to last for the duration that the building will, however the foam insulation has a very long life expectancy and should last for the building life expectancy.

If you are looking in to this for your building make sure you chose a company with a good reputation.

Getting More Information About Sony VAIO VPCCB190X

Sony VAIO VPCCB190X is a notebook that is available in two different sizes, including 14 "and 15.5". This is known as C series of Sony Laptops. The company offers its customers complete customization of their notebook and get the specifications of their choice. The options of customization include all high-profile specifications and you would be able to adjust it according to your requirements and budget.

The machines offer the operating system of windows 7 home premium and you can choose to get professional 64-bit by paying 50 dollars additionally. The processor choice is between Intel Core i5-2410 M (2.3 GHz) and Intel Core i5-2540 M, though one hundred dollars are additionally charged for the higher specification. This laptop is available in four colors, which include Bolt Black, Neon Orange, Neon Green and Lightning White. There are also two options in the battery of the system, firstly there is a normal battery which provides a battery time of 4.5 hour at default setting and you can choose to get a high capacity battery by paying $ 100 more which would give you the battery timing of 7.0 hours.

There are four options available to choose from for your display, two of them are for the size of 14 "laptop and the other two are for 15.5" laptop. The 14 "laptop offers a choice between 14" display with LED backlight technology, which provides resolution of 1366 x 768, and 14 "display with LED backlight technology that provides resolution of 1366 x 768, which requires the additional payment of $ 50. "laptop, the choice is between 15.5" Display with LED backlight (1366 x 768) and 15.5 "Full HD VAIO Premium Display (1920 x 1080). This machine also provides a choice in graphic card of the system which includes AMD Radeon HD 6470 M with 512MB V-RAM and AMD Radeon HD 6630 M with 1GB V-RAM hybrid graphics & wireless display technology.

The memory choices include 4GB DDR3-SDRAM-1333, 6GB DDR3-SDRAM-1333 with the additional price of $ 100 and 8GB DDR3-SDRAM-1333 which requires the additional payment of $ 200. You also get to choose between different hard drive, which ranges from 320 GB Hard Disk Drive (5400 rpm) up till 750 GB Hard Disk Drive (5400 rpm) which would require you to pay $ 110 additionally. Different choices are also available in optical disc drives and by default; you would get CD / DVD player / Burner.

This laptop also features an antivirus program but you would have required to pay additionally for that, however you can also choose to get a free trial version of the antivirus program or you could also opt for the antivirus program. The company also offers a choice between warranties package between 2 and 3 years.

How Consultants Overcharge Their Clients

Consultants' 'Profit enhancers'

When an organization hires management or IT consultants, line managers must ensure that the consultants deliver the results promised. In this article, I summarize six techniques used by consultancies to maximize their own profitability. Some of these are just savvy business, some are dishonest, some are fraudulent – all are widespread throughout the consulting industry. By making organizations aware of these practices, I hope they will be better armed as they pay out their consultants' usually generous fees and expenses.

1. Excessive profitability
A junior consultant will typically be paid around £ 30,000 ($ 45,000) a year. So with social and other costs, the consultancy may be paying around £ 1,000 per week. But they will usually be charged out at £ 7,000 + ($ 10,000 +) per week to private sector clients – for larger public sector projects some consultancies will go down to £ 5,000 + ($ 7,500) per week. A more experienced consultant may cost the consultancy £ 2,000 ($ 3,000) per week, but can be bored at £ 12,000 + ($ 15,000 +) per week. So while many manufacturing businesses make gross margins of around 80% and retailers are at about 100%, management consultancies generally target gross margins of 500% to 800% – a rather striking and intense difference from the margins any of our clients would ever make. Surprisingly, very few clients do the simple mathematics and ask why they should be paying over £ 300,000 ($ 450,000) a year for an inexperienced junior consultant who is probably being paid just over a tenth of that.

2. Retaining travel expenses rebates
Last year three consultations agreed to pay a former client around $ 100m compensation, when they were sued for "unjustly enriching them at the expense of their clients The lawsuit was that for a decade the three firms worked with outside suppliers such as airline firms and travel agencies to obtain rebates of up to 40% on airfare and other costs that were not passed along to clients. "

The way this works is simple. The consultancy sets up a deal with a travel agent, hotel chains and the main airlines for an end-of-year rebate. The consultancy invoices the client for the full travel and accommodation costs, sometimes even adding on an administration charge. At the end of the year, the consultancy receives a rebate from the travel providers. None of this rebate is ever passed back to the clients who have paid for all the travel and accommodation in the first place. The defenders claimed they had "discontinued this practice" however this is disputed by a recent e-mail from a consultant from one of the companies, "Here's how we do it every time. 'expenses. Then we bill them for your air travel expense. One British consultant estimated that his employer had had stolen over £ 20m from just one client in this way.

3. Billing for non-client work
In most consultations, partners or directors divide their time up among their various clients and allocate a certain number of days each month to each client – even when this time is actually not working for that client. Moreover, you often find ordinary consultants being told to charge clients for time spent on internal consultancy business. To quote a consultant from a 100,000 plus employee firm, "I was at an internal meeting with more than 100 other consultants. we needed to make our numbers. " Just this one apparently innocuous decision will probably have cost the client over £ 100,000 ($ 150,000).

4. Overcharging for overhead
In many consultancies, clients pay for fictitious overhead costs. At one major consultancy an extra 10% was automatically added to consultancy fees supposedly to cover overhead costs. So, with each consultant costs £ 300,000 ($ 450,000) a year, clients would also be billed for another £ 30,000 ($ 45,000) to pay for administrative overhead. Yet the London office, for example, had about three hundred consultants and around fifty administrative support staff – secretaries, receptionists, human resources, bean counters, marketing support, resource managers, trainers, information center researchers and document production. Yet, with the 10% add-on, our clients were being charged for the equivalent of about three hundred administrative staff – hence the salaries of up to two hundred and fifty support staff were not being absent, as the staff simply did not exist.

5. Relocation staff
Many management consultancies are international and move their staff around the world at their clients' expense. On £ 2.3 million ($ 4m) project I helped sell in Britain to a regional health authority, the consultancy did not have sufficient UK based staff. As our CEO wrote in an internal memo, "the project took place at a time when we were still heavily supported by US expats.

So our NHS client had to pay thousands of pounds a week extra for these imported consultants in what a consequent official investigation described as "a financial fiasco."

6. Cheating on flat rate expenses
Frequently consultancies will agree with the client that expenses will be around, for example, 12% of fees. Each week the client will be billed for this 12%, then at the end of the project there will be a reconciliation between the 12% paid by the client and the actual expenses incurred.

On a project for a leading manufacturer of military aircraft, missile systems and satellites, we had agreed 12% but were actually only running at about 7%. The account vice president informed the rest of the consultancy that he had room to soak up expenses both from other projects and from our head office, rather than paying money back to the client.

Very often, clients would audit our expenses. If they found some real horrors, we'd just say there had been an administrative error and refund the minimum necessary to keep the client happy.

Health and Nutrition During Pregnancy

Pregnancy

Pregnancy is a nine month journey … It is a time in your life to feel happy, excited, serene and joyful. However it is also quite normal to experience anxieties about the birth and worrying about whether you are nourishing yourself properly, exercising, keeping, calm, positive, loving thoughts and emotions within your being.
Pregnancy lasts 39 weeks or nine months from conception and is looked at in three stages.

Health & Nutrition During Pregnancy

To ensure that your baby develops in a healthy environment, you should keep your body as fit and well nourished as you possibly can. Do not think in terms of devising a special diet for pregnancy, it is more to do with eating a good variety of the right foods which are those that are rich in the essential nutrients.

Weight Gain

The amount of weight put on by women in pregnancy varies between 9 – 16 kilograms, with the most rapid gain usually between weeks 24 and 32.
Do not "eat for two". Some 46 percent of women gain too much weight during pregnancy.

Diet During Pregnancy

You Are What You Eat therefore Your Baby Is What You Eat!

What You Eat affects your baby's future. What you eat in the following nine months can affect your baby's health, as well as your own, for decades to come.

A good diet is vital to health during pregnancy, and to the normal development of the baby. The time to pay attention to diet, and if necessary change it for the better, is several months prior to conception and not when pregnancy is confirmed.

During the critical early weeks the normal, healthy development of the embryo depends on the mother's state of nutritional health and also her toxic state.

Mineral and vitamin imbalances which would probably go unnoticed in a child or adult can have a disastrous effect on the developing baby.

This is because the cells in the embryo are growing at such a rapid rate, causing an exaggerated response to any harmful effects.

A natural, organic, whole food diet is the only one which will adequately serve during pregnancy.

A high quality diet is needed to maintain your health and the best possible conditions for the baby to develop.

As our environment becomes more polluted and the soils more depleted of nutrients, going 100% organic, if possible, is the best thing you can do for oneself, and for a developing fetus, and last but not least; the environment.

Pesticides, herbicides, and other forms of pollution interfer with the metabolic pathways of many nutrients and thus indirectly interfer with the development of the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems.

Eating as many of our foods in their live, raw form preserves 70 to 80% more vitamins and minerals, 50% more bioactive protein, and up to 96% more bioavailable vitamin B12.

Grains, nuts and seeds are the most potent health-building foods of all. Eaten raw or sprouted if possible (some grains need to be cooked), they contain all the essential nutrients for human growth, sustenance, and ongoing optimal health.

A well balanced diet is based on whole cereals and grains (brown bread, rice, pasta, buckwheat, rye, oats), nuts and seeds, pulses and beans, fresh fruit and vegetables, pure unrefined oils such as cold pressed olive oil, with some fish and eggs if required.

Fruit and vegetables are all excellent sources of vitamins, minerals and trace elements provided they are eaten in the right way.

They should be fresh, either raw or quickly cooked, steamed or stir-fried, and preferably consumed immediately after they are harvested.

Salt is needed to maintain the extra volume of blood, to supply enough placental blood, and to guard against dehydration and shock from blood loss at birth, (except in cases of kidney and heart problems) Suggested form of salt is Himalayan Pink Salt.

Proteins

• Form the basic building blocks of all our body tissues, cells, hormones, and antibodies.
• Food must fuel the growth of the uterus, which can grow to 30 times its original size over the nine months gestation period Add the development of breastfeeding, placenta, development of breast milk, the baby's body.

Proteins are divided into complete and incomplete:

Complete proteins contain significant amounts of all the essential amino acids, you find them in meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk and soya bean products.

Vegetable proteins are incomplete and contain only some of the essential amino acids. Some vegetarian sources of complete protein are: buckwheat, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, flaxseeds, and almonds.

Plant proteins are easier for our bodies to digest and produce less toxic waste than animal proteins. The fiber in plants also has a very beneficial effect on the bowel; it ensures healthy bowel movements and the correct bacterial population in the gut, and anticipates the buildup of putreactive bacteria produced by excess animal proteins.

Eating meat and meat products also carries the risk from chemical and hormonal residues found in intensely reared animals. Also soya beans or soy products are mostly genetically engineered, it is wise to stay clear of them.

Pregnant women need about 60 to 75 grams of protein a day.

The best and cleanest sources of protein are green vegetables, spirulina, seeds (hemp, flax, sesame, poppy, sunflower, chia, quinoa, amaranth).

Real strength and building material comes from:

• green – leafy vegetables, seeds and superfoods. They contain all the amino acids we require.

Essential Fatty Acids are vital to:

• the development of the baby's nervous and immune systems. They build the cell walls in all our tissues, and so that trace elements and fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D, and K) can be absorbed.
• EFA's are needed to make adrenal and sex hormones, and to maintain a healthy population of bacteria in the gut.
• They are also essential to the normal development of the fetus's brain: 70 per cent of all EFAs go to the brain.

The Best Fatty Foods include:

Avocados, Borage Seed Oil, Raw Cacao Beans (Chocolate Nuts), Coconut oil / butter, Flax seed and its oil, Grape seeds, Hemp seed and its oil (cold pressed), RAW Nuts of all types (cashews must be soft to be truly "raw"), Nut Butters (almond butter is excellent), Olives and their oil (stone pressed or cold pressed), Peanuts (must be certified aflatoxin free), Poppy seeds, pumpkin seeds and their oil (cold pressed), Sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, tahini (sesame butter), or even better if you can get hold of it at a health food store unhulled tahini (an alkaline fat, high in calcium), Young Coconuts (young Thai coconuts are available in the US at Asian markets), Coconut milk, coconuts (mature).

SUPERFOODS

Superfoods are foods with extraordinary properties. Usually they contain all essential amino acids, high levels of minerals, and a wide array of unique, even rare, nutrients. I have included the superfoods in the nutritional tips below.

Some prominent superfoods to include:

1) Himalayan Pink Salt – offers 84 minerals exactly identical to the elements in your body.

2) Spirulina (a spiral algae consumed for thousands of years by indigenous people in Mexico and Africa)
-It has the highest concentration of protein on Earth. 60%
-It is also very high in Iron, and many other vitamins and minerals.
-It is one of the highest sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on the planet. Only mother's milk is higher.
-It is recommended to take more Spirulina during breastfeeding because of the GLA.
-Spirulina is very high in human-active B12.

3) Blue-Green Algae (Klamath lake algae wonderful brain food). It is high in protein, chlorophyll, vitamins, and minerals and enhances the immune system.

I value it in pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and lactation for its enhancing effect on brain function.

4) Bee Pollen (wild pollen, not orchard pollen, should be used and should come from ethically harvested sources where bees are treated respectfully. Bee Pollen is nature's most complete food) All amino acids, immune system, brain, eyes.

5) Flax, Sunflower, Chia, Sesame and pumpkin seeds are the best to use. Flaxseeds are excellent and the highest vegetarian source of omega-3-essential fatty acids, important for the immune system, nervous system, and brain development. I recommend one to two tablespoons daily of the uncooked and unheated oil or three to six tablespoons of freshly ground flaxseeds. (Use a coffee grinder). You may also grind the other above mentioned seeds and add them to salads, and fruit salads.

6) Wild young coconuts (not be confused with white Thai coconuts found in markets, wild coconuts are one of the greatest foods on earth. Great in smoothies.

NUTRITION TIPS

Here Are Some Nutrition Tips that will help you both:

1) Get Enough Folic Acid. 400 micrograms (mcg) daily. Folic Acid reduces chance of birth defects such as spina bifida. Especially in the first 6 weeks of pregnancy.

2) Best Food Sources of Folic Acid are: RAW Green leafy vegetables, including spinach, kale, beet greens, beet root, chard, asparagus, and broccoli. Starchy vegetables containing folic acid are corn, lima beans, green peas, sweet peas, sweet potatoes, artichokes, okra, and parsnips. Oats are high in folic acid as well as whole wheat brown bread. Many fruits have folic acid such as oranges, cantaloupe, pineapple, banana, and many berries including loganberries, boysenberries, and strawberries. Also fresh sprouts such as lentil, mung bean sprouts are excellent sources. REMINDER: Folic acid is available from fresh, unprocessed food, which is why it is so common a deficient in our culture's processed, cooked food diet.

3) Eat Your Fish. Getting enough DHA (found in abundance in seafood and flaxseed) is one of the most important things you can do for you and your developing baby's health. DHA is the omega-3 fatty acid that can boost baby's brain development before birth, leading to better vision, memory, motor skills and language comprehension in early childhood. Eat at least 12 ounces a week of low-mercury fish, or take a DHA supplement such as Krill Oil.

• Avoid large, predatory fish such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and tilefish. (As big fish eat smaller fish, the larger, longer-living ones accumulate more mercury).

• Seaweed and Cilantro remove heavy metals and radioactive isotopes from the tissues.

4) Avoid Alcohol – The main risk of consuming alcohol during pregnancy is the development of "fetal alcohol syndrome" (FAS). mother .. NO AMOUNT IS SAFE. AVOID TOTALLY.

5) Avoid Caffeine: In high amounts causes birth defects and still births, miscarriages and premature delivery.

6) Avoid Drugs – As far as possible all orthodontic drugs should be avoided during pregnancy, especially in the first three months. Consider natural alternatives and visiting a medical herbalist or nutritionist prior to conception.

FOODS THAT MAY CAUSE INFECTIONS

Although the chance of contracting one of these rare infections is limited, you will reduce this likelihood even further if you follow the basic guidelines given here.

Listeriosis – caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this is a very rare infection. Its symptoms are similar to flu and gastroenteritis and it can cause stillbirth.

Toxoplasmosis – usually symptomless (apart from mild flu symptoms), this can cause serious problems for the baby. Caused by direct contact with the organism Toxoplasma Gondi, it is found in cat faeces, raw meat, and unpasteurized goats' milk. Soil on fruit and vegetables may be contaminated.

Salmonella – Contamination with Salmonella bacterium can cause bacterial food poisoning. This does not typically harm the baby directly, but any illness involving a high temperature, vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration could cause a miscarriage or preterm labor.

HERBS TO AVOID DURING PREGNANCY.

Herbal remedies are for the most part quite safe to be taken during pregnancy; some are useful alternatives to drugs both in chronic illness and acute minor problems such as may arise during pregnancy. It is still prefer to take NO MEDICATION whatever in the first three months, unless there is a specific problem that needs treatment.

There are many Herbs which should never be taken in pregnancy – their emmonagogue or oxytocic properties may, in large amounts, cause uterine contracts and thereby risk miscarriage: I will only mention a few as there at least twenty on the list.

Nutmeg Myristica Fragrans
Thuja Thuja occidentalis
Calendula Calendula officinalis
Sage Salvia officinalis
Thyme Thymus vulgaris
Marjoram Origanum vulgare
Lovage Levisticum officinale
Rosemary Rosmarinus Officinalis
Rhubarb Rheum sp.

Herbs that are safe to eat to take in culinary doses but not as a medicine during pregnancy include:

celery seed, cinnamon, fennel, fenugreek, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage and saffron.

If you enjoyed reading this article and would like to read the full version of this e-book called 'A Natural Approach to Pregnancy', visit my website http://www.easyconsciousliving.com or e-mail me at: barbara @ easyconsciousliving .com

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"The Doctor Of The Future Will Give No Medicines, But Will Interest His Patients In The Care Of The Human Frame, In Diet, And In The Causes Of Diseases."
– Edomom Edison.

Itching Natural Home Remedies – Itchy Skin Treatments

An itchy skin gives skin irritation or a peculiar tingling of the skin. Itchiness is mainly caused by allergies to pollens, plants, pets, feathers, cosmetics, perfumes, chemicals, cleaning solutions and smokers. Dry skin is also one of the major causes of itching. The major symptoms of itchy skin are itching, scratching and rubbing on the skin. There is also a feeling of anxiety, sleeplessness and malaise in advanced cases.

This article covers some of the simple and effective home remedies to tie itching. The best natural remedy for itching is to keep your skin clean and healthy. Use of moisturizer is also beneficial in preventing itchiness.

Home Remedies and Natural Treatments for Itchy Skin

Aloe vera is one of the useful herbal remedy for this problem. Use aloe vera lotion, soap or cream for maintaining a good health of your skin. You can also use margosa (neem) soap in place of aloe vera. Apply sandalwood oil mixed with coconut oil or sesame oil and massage gently on the affected area. This is a useful home remedy for itching.

Add five grams of camphor in 100 grams of coconut oil and mix in a glass bottle. Close the bottle with a tight cork and keep in the sun till the camphor gets dissolved in the oil. Apply this oil daily on the whole body before bathing. It is an effective home remedy for dry itching.

You can also add 10 drops of this oil in a bucket of water and used for bathing to cure itching. This oil is also useful in curing any wound caused due to itching. This will heal the wound in a week and skin will become white. Apply only coconut oil at this stage. The skin will become normal within 25-30 days.

Margosa (neem) is a widely used home remedy for itchy skin. Simply boil few fresh margosa leaves in water and take bath using this water. Alternately take 20 fresh leaves of margosa. Clean it properly. Now add 10 black peppers and mash in 60 grams of water. Drink this in morning and evening for a week. It will purify your blood. This remedy is also effective in boils.

Coconut oil is one of the simple home remedies for itching. Apply this oil on the affected area to tie itchiness. Alternately, you can also mix some turmeric in coconut or mustard oil and warm it little. Apply this at the area of ​​itching.

Mix a small amount of alum (phitkari) in two teaspoons of lemon juice and apply on itching areas. It is an effective home remedies for itchy skin. Local application of coconut oil mixed with lemon juice mixed is useful in relieving general itching. Another useful remedy is papaya seeds. Mash papaya seeds and apply on the itchy areas.

Disclaimer: This article is not meant to provide health advice and is for general information only. Always seek the insights of a qualified health professional before embarking on any health program.

Copyright © Nick Mutt, All Rights Reserved. If you want to use this article on your website or in your ezine, make all the urls (links) active.

Differences Between Hardwood and Oak Sliding Doors

A common type of wood that is used for internal doors for a closet is oak. Oak is a type of hardwood from various oak trees that is hard and durable. A common type of softwood used for internal doors is pine.

Doors made from a hardwood and a softwood differ in many ways. A typical door made from oak has a high resistance to humidity and humidity. This means that the door will not easily warp if you have high levels of humidity in your home. Standard internal doors made from pine will be stiff and sturdy. These doors will also tend to show wear over time if they are heavily used.

Appearance is another difference that is seen with oak hardwood doors and pine softwood doors. Doors that are made from oak tend to the darker in color with a unique grain pattern in the wood. The grain of the wood also has a texture that you can feel. A door made from pine will be smooth and will show any flaws such as knots with other natural characteristics.

One big difference between oak hardwood interior doors and pine softwood interior doors is the cost of the wood. Oak doors are typically more expensive than pine. The reason for this is that oak trees have a longer growing period than pine. Another reason is that pine trees are also more plentiful in the US than oak trees. The cost of an oak door made with oak wood from the US will be nearly double a door that is made from pine wood from the US.

The consideration of oak interior doors or pine interior wardrobe sliding doors will need to be based on many factors. One important factor is the type of stain or paint that you will want to use. Paint is not a great option for oak because it hides the natural grain. The find grain of pine looks better painted than when it is stained. Another factor is that pine is porous and does not even absorb stain.

Different species of wood are used for the construction of interior wood doors. This gives a buyer of this door a choice for the color and grain of the wood. Oak doors can be made from a red oak or a white oak that have different characteristics. Pine doors can be made from a yellow pine, a white pine, and even a red pine. Compare the types of wood that you have available for internal sliding doors.

How To Read Your Construction Industry Financial Statements

How to Read Your Financials

Many smaller and mid-market companies in the construction industry find that critical information is misunderstood or ignored because their reports and schedules are inaccurate, often because the reports are used primarily as a tool for the accountant to prepare a tax return or to fulfill a bank -reporting obligation, so they do not contain enough information for you to control your business.

But your reports and schedules, when organized, will inevitably help your profits. They represent the "financial control" of your business. It is imperative to understand how to read your financials.

A Balance Sheet
In simple terms, a balance sheet is a snapshot of the assets and liabilities of your company in a particular moment in time. It shows where you stand with what you own and what you owe on a particular date. Your assets are listed "at cost" minus any depreciation or amortization taken over the ownership period of the asset; nothing is shown at fair market value. Your balance sheet should list the amount of money the stockholders will receive before capital gains taxes on liquidation, plus or minus the fair market value of the assets versus the value stated on the balance sheet, (or the "short fall" if there is a negative equity).

The purpose of the balance sheet is to control the accuracy of the income statement. If your balance sheet is substantively inaccurate on the opening or ending date of the income statement period, then the income statement will be substantially wrong. For example, the income statement for the year ending 12-31-06 would need an accurate balance sheet dated 12-31-05 and 12-31-06.

I met with a new client recently whose accountant not only lost his records for the past three years, but could not locate his records for the current year. Knowing that accountants do not ever lose that many records and knowing that accountants normally back up their computer records, I knew we had a big problem. My client thought he had generated about $ 6 million in revenue from the past twelve months as a result of the revenue generated from his high-end New York City co-op remodeling projects. He had pretty good job cost and billing data but needed bank financing. He had a horrible bid-to-award ratio, and he needed guidance with his plan of revenue and profit for his company.

He needed to know:
• What his margins should be in order to win bids
• How to identify who his customers should be
• If his bid margins allowed for profit after general conditions and overhead
• Whether he was making money or losing it
• What had happened to his business over the last three years

My client and I were in a situation where we could not wait for his new accountant to slowly reconstruct his last three years of records, so we sat down and created a balance sheet. I interviewed him to determine what he owned and owed, located records which included his bank statements; accounts receivable; retainages receivables; an inventory of his trucks and computers; his vendor and subcontractor payables; the amount of debt on his trucks, cars and equipment; the jobs he had in progress; and the estimated costs of those jobs to complete. With that information, I created a balance sheet that covered the beginning and the eleventh month of his fiscal year.

Finally, satisfied that we had two "good" balance sheets, we simply computed the change in his equity section from one date to the other, adding back in the dividends that were checks other than payroll or expense reimbursements to itself during that period. Then, we looked at the payroll records to compute what he earned in salary during that same eleven month period. Our final step was to combine what he earned in salary and profit for the eleven months reviewed. The combined information, within a quick couple of hours, gave us the amount the client had earned. So, when you are unsure of your financial situation, use this short-cut to make sure your balance sheet is correct. Otherwise, look no further at your financials; they will likely be inaccurate and useless.

Estimated Cost to Complete Jobs / Projects
It is my experience that nearly all contractors use the "percentage of completion" method of recognizing revenue and cost other than the residential developer / builders who use the "completed contracts" method of accounting for revenue and cost. "Completed contracts" means just that: When the job is completely done, you "book" or record the total income and expense of construction on the income statement. No income, job expense, profit or loss related to the specific job is to be recorded on the income statement until the home settlements. Prior to that, the job costs appear as an item on the balance sheet named "work-in-progress." Revenue appears as customer deposits, deferred revenue or an item of debt.

"Percentage of completion" means that revenue is recognized as income at the rate the job is completed. Job costs are recognized at the rate that they are incurred in ratio to both revenue recognized and total job costs expended to date, plus what is estimated to be incurred to complete the job. Your balance sheet will have an asset entitled "costs in excess of billings," meaning that you have costs you have not or can not bill right now to the customer on jobs in progress. A liability account, or "billings in excess of costs" means that the contractor has billed the customer for work not yet done – which is where all contractors would prefer to be placing the contractor ahead of the customer on a cash flow basis.

If the costs in excess of billings are greater than the billing in excess of costs, you will likely have a cash flow problem. This means that either you are spending faster than you are billing, your project managers are behind in getting their bills out, or you have costs on your balance sheet that are really losses such as job overruns or change orders that are not or will not be approved. All jobs with costs in excess of billings should be lumped together under a liability account on the current asset side of the balance sheet. Always double-check for losses not yet recorded. You, as an owner, may not know about the losses. A project manager may simply fall behind in billing, which costs you interest expense, poor vendor relationships, cash heartache and sleepless nights.

If your "bills in excess of cost" are always substantially higher than your "costs in excess of billings" it is good for current cash flow as long as that difference is rising. However, this will give you a false sense of cash security once the job comes to an end because the cash flow slows down. The excess billings over costs are not profit; they are simply a positive cash flow timing difference that will change from time to time.

The "schedule" of closed jobs and the open jobs "estimated costs to complete" should be prepared more than once a year when the accountants request it. This maintains a current review of each job's status and addresses problems while the job is ongoing, since you will have problems to face during the project. Do not wait until the job-close-out meeting to address them, when everyone wins they'll do better next time. Instead, confront problem situations earlier in the project. Review schedules and reports to estimate an opportunity to bid higher or correct a problem in the bid process. This is critical to remodeling companies, as most problems occur during the preconstruction process, specifically in estimating errors or "buy out" of material errors, and in remodeling, jobs are shorter, problems become permanent losses quickly, and persist more often than not in new jobs before the problem is identified.

The Benefits of Regular Reporting
Our firm instituted a weekly job review and estimated cost to complete process for one of our remodeling company clients, Xylem Builders, Inc (t / a Archadeck-South Shore & AX Builders). Job margins for the client increased by twenty points as a result of immediately identifying problems and making corrections in preconstruction in new jobs. The company has never incurred a monthly loss in now over a year, sales have continued to rise, they have attained a positive equity after 3 consecutive years of losses … all within two months of implementing weekly job reviews and estimated cost to complete. As previously stated, remodeling projects begin and end quickly, so mistakes will hurt the current job and likely repeat in new jobs. Those mistakes do not have to be repeated if you institute weekly reviews and estimates.

It can be difficult and time-consuming to correctly prepare an estimated "cost to complete schedule" for larger jobs in their early stages, yet it is worthwhile. You may continue to assum your estimate is correct. However, the estimator, project manager, job superintendent and controller must review a job early on to determine what is needed to complete and extremely improver looming problems as early as possible. That step will create better value engineering, change orders will be billed in a timely manner and job profit will increase.

Schedule of Cash Flow and Working Capital
The schedule of "cash flow and working capital" provides a map of where your cash resources covering the period of the income statement originated. It consist of profit, new loans or repayment (principal due more than twelve months in the future), purchases or sales of capital assets and depreciation. All of these have the effect of increasing or decreasing cash. An accurate reading of the schedule allows for better billing practices, better collection practices and advances slower paying of vendors and subs. It shows where and how money was used to absorb losses, the debt principal repayments and may contribute to faster paying of bills. It advances poor billing practices, slow receivables and reflects retention receivables, purchase of equipment or other assets. If the opening and closing period balance sheets are correct, then this schedule will be correct. Remember, though, if the balance sheets are not correct, do not waste your time looking at this schedule or any other financial statement because they will be wrong!

Working capital is defined as the total of "current assets" consisting of your cash, receivables, retainages, costs in excess of billings, work-in-progress, inventories and prepaid expenses minus your current liabilities. Your current liabilities are complied with your lines of credit, principal payments of debt due within twelve months, accounts payable, accrued expenses, accrued payroll, accumulated taxes, bills in excess of costs, customer deposits and deferred income. A greater than 1: 1 ratio is important.

Your bank may require a defined working capital ratio, so check your loan documents. If your actual ratio is too high, you're probably wasting the use of your cash and resources by making them too idle. A good business analyst will determine the amount of excess working capital / cash that is funding the income statement profit versus normal operations. I have seen many multi-generational businesses with excessive working capital, but upon quick analysis of a profitable income statement, I saw a generous financial income derived from discounts from vendor early pay, interest income and low interest expense. It was a poor business operation masked by the working capital wealth of the company.

Income Statement
Your income statement should be a validation of what occurs with your jobs in the field, assuming that your opening and closing balance sheets are correct. Your income statement should be in the same category as your job-cost comparison to your estimates, and it should be in a format that highlights whether components of your business are operating according to plan. In order for your income statement to be used as the effective management tool and "sanity check" that it was meant to be, the following components must exist:

• It must be an accrual, not cash basis statement. Accrual means you have recorded all your receivables and debt inclusive of payables on the balance sheet.

• It must include not only numbers next to the expense categories but also percentages of revenue next to the number.

• The only revenue in your top line should be job revenue. No interest income, rebates, purchase discounts or sales of equipment should be included.

• The costs of construction must be detailed to identify construction labor and payroll added costs, subcontractors, materials (not net of early pay discounts), equipment rentals, revenue-driven liability insurance, superintendents' costs or other direct costs of construction as detailed in the estimate and tracked in your job cost reports. Some or all of these are your "direct job costs". Labor, materials, subs, equipment rental, permits, direct insurance, etc., are at a minimum included on your job cost reports, regardless of software, and in the estimate.

• Indirect construction costs such as mobilization, trucks, pagers, cell phones, supers, trailers, etc., may be what you call "general conditions." Define what you mean by "general conditions," and categorize these costs separately on your income statement. This will allow you to see if the general conditions you are using in your estimates are making or losing money. General Conditions should be a profit center.

• Categorize your preconstruction costs of estimators and bidding / selling expenses separately on the income statement. Divide the number of bids or estimations produced into this total, and see what it is costing you to bid. Add that to your bid-to-score ratio and you may find that not only are you wasting money in bids you'll never get but also how much you are wasting.

• Keep the office and support staff under an administrative expense category. Be sure to allocate the workmen's compensation insurance, vehicle and equipment insurance, depreciation, payroll taxes, benefits, safety and training to the indirect or general conditions as appropriate.

• Show purchase discounts and interest income as "other income" after computing profit or loss from the construction operations. These are financial incomes which are earned due to ownership, equity and working capital, not from operations.

• Compare the percentage of gross profit from jobs completed and jobs in progress to your income statement. This should be done before general conditions are deducted when you compare the percentage of gross profit. Be aware of additional profit that you may earn in gross profit from the labor rate that you use in estimating versus your labor rate posted to job cost sheets or categorized on your income statement. If you use your own equipment in construction in lieu of renting it, separately analyze these costs to see if you are making or losing money in this regard. If you are approaching a profit from this, that's great, but it will likely distort the gross profit from construction if your estimate utilized a fair market rental rate.

Meet regularly with your outside accountants if they are construction knowledgeable or your construction business advisor and / or your controller on a monthly basis to review your balance sheet, income statement, working capital, source and use of funds statement and completed jobs / estimated costs to complete schedules. It establishes control in your business. It also helps create the "sanity" of profit, helps avoid the "insanity" of making the same mistakes over and over again and advances you from losing profit-or your construction business itself.

Liuhe Pagoda (Six Harmonies Tower) of Hangzhou China – History and Information

Liuhe Pagoda or Six Harmonies Tower is a tall multi-storied pagoda in southern Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Located on the Qiantang River, at the foot of Yuelun Hill, the pagoda was built in 970 AD during the northern Song dynasty but destroyed in a war. It was then rebuilt and ruined several more times. The current wood and brick structure dates to 1152.

Being one of the impressive masterpieces of ancient Chinese architectures, Liuhe pagoda attracts thousands of tourists every year. The 196.5 feet tall pagoda has 13 stories outside and 7 stories inside. The six harmonies refers to the 6 directions (heaven, earth, east, west, north and south) as well as the six regulations of Buddhism. A bright lamp installed in the top can also served as a lighthouse.

The pagoda was originally built by the ruler of the Wuyue State (which is an area that now become a part of Zhejiang province). It is also believed that one of the reason for building Liuhe pagoda is to calm the tidal waters of Qiantang River as well as to become a navigational aid. During the night, lanterns were lit almost everywhere in the pagoda so that boats and ships on the Qiantang River could see the building and use it as a navigation tower. You can also see 104 large iron bells hung on its flying eaves as this was done to ward off harmful spirits who responsible for the heavy tides which had caused so much flooding before dykes were finally constructed.

Every story of the pagoda consists of 4 elements; the interior walls, the exterior walls, a zigzagged corridor and a small chamber. This octagonal tower also has a spiral staircase which leads to the top floor. Each of its seven ceilings are carved with painted figures such as birds, flowers, animals and characters. When the pagoda is viewed from the outside, it may appears to be layered-bright on the upper surface but dark underneath. That is harmonious alternation of light and shade.

If you climb to the top of the pagoda, you can see a beautiful and impressive view of the Qiantang River Bridge spanning the surging tides of Qiantang River. There is also an exhibition center near the pagoda that displays many details about other important ancient pagodas in China including all the information about their architectural style. That gallery is also known as the Pagoda Park.

Detached Retina Symptoms – Fast Action Can Save Your Eyes

Are you experiencing hazy vision or are you bothered by floating specks? These are symptoms of a detached retina which needs immediate attention from your doctor. If not attended to right away, then this condition can lead to blindness.

In order to properly function, the retina should receive oxygen and nutrients from the blood vessels underneath. When it separates from the blood vessels, the condition is called retinal detachment. In the United States alone, approximately 20,000 people annually suffer from retinal detachment. It is the result of an eye injury, cataract surgery, or an extreme case of nearsightedness.

Men are more prone to having this condition than their female counterparts and its sunset is higher in people with eye tumor and hypertension. Genetics also play a crucial factor in the development of the condition as it has the tendency to run in families. Doctors characterize it as a medical emergency which requires immediate surgery because it could lead to the permanent loss of vision in the affected eye.

Although the condition is painless, detached retina symptoms manifest themselves prior to the detachment. It involves the shrinking and sagging of the vitreous fluid within the eyesballs. The tugging of the retina results to the sensation of flashing images. When strong enough, this may cause the retinal tear and consequential damage the small blood vessels paving the way for blood to see into the vitreous.

Whether or not surgical procedures will help is determined by the condition of the patient. For example, if there is only retinal teething but no detachment from the blood vessels below is involved, laser treatment or photocoagulation can undo the damage. Likewise, performing cryopexy, which involves application of cold temperature to produce a scar which holds the retina in place, can also repair the damaged retina.

Surgical procedures are only saved to when there is a detachment of the retina. The treatment should be performed at once because rods and cones die when detached from their source of nourishment for an extended period of time. This could lead to permanent blindness and nothing can bring back the loss vision.

Detached retina symptoms are usually treated using one of three surgical methods, some of which are integrated with photocoagulation or cryopexy. These surgical procedures are designed to close retinal holes or tears in order to minimize the tugging of the retina from a shrinking vitreous. The kind of procedure to be recommended by the surgeon is dependent on the kind, size, and position of the detached retina. These procedures can successfully treat over 90 percent of retinal detachment patients although another treatment is sometimes needed.

Hair Extensions Not Just Boost Your Hair But Even Your Appeal

Today almost every one can have long and beautiful hair with the help of hair integration or extension. If you've thought that hair extensions are only meant for celebrities or for people visiting formal occasions then you probably need to re-think the whole matter again. The adorning results of professionally applied integrations have over turned the perspective hair styles across the world. Growing number of people are visiting expert salons to assist them in the picking out and application of real hair extensions as a daily have on.

People want extensions for an n number of reasons. Some have fine or thin hair that they wish could appear thicker and healthier, while others badly want beautiful long hair and can not wait for their own hair to grow. Your expert stylist will select the attachment method according to the texture of your hair and its condition. Some flash straight hair and instead want curls. Extended hair can even be applied to very short or thin hair, making them an excellent option for just about anyone who wants better, heavier, or longer hair than naturally grows on their heads.

Adding hair extensions is a very easy procedure if you engage a professional for the task. It bonds well the natural hair on your head by utilizing different techniques such as hot unification, sew-in, braid-in, heat-sealed in, and the famous, clipped-in. One can use either synthetic or natural hair for these procedures depending on the price one can pay for this.

Many professional and reputable hair extension salons have the expertise and knowledge that is required for adding volume or length or whatever you are seeking, without damage to your natural hair. Months later, when it's time to take them out, you'll be all the more surprised that now you are simply in need of a basic split-end cutting. Furthermore, an expert undertaking this procedure can make it last around approximately 3-6 months, based on how quickly your natural hair grow and how well you maintain and care for it.

If you are not a celebrity that does not at all mean that you can not have hair like one. Your skillful stylist will be able to insight you so much about ideal extensions for the styles you want to put up, and will be sure to inform you the best possible ways to care and well maintain your beautiful hair style to keep it long-lasting and beautiful even on the every day basis. So if you want to gain a confidence that boosts through long and beautiful hair, then you can get hair integrations and enjoy your added value. Apart from this they can be a perfect choice for some special functions where you can flaunt your new appeal.

The Importance of Hiring Professional Window Cleaning Services

Have you often marveled how those high-rise commercial buildings, condominiums and even luxury homes retain their perfect appearance through the years? Well, the answer behind this is plain and simple. Most business establishments and even homeowners valued the need to hire people who can maintain the above mentioned properties. They hire reliable individuals who have the necessary skills to make the property looks appealing to the eyes. Entrepreneurs do this to get a good impression from other people who may want to do business with them.

In business, the appearance of the establishment plays a very important role to its success or failure because the appearance of a particular establishment dictates the decision-making of potential customers. There are customers who would prefer to do business with a neat looking commercial establishment than with outdated ones. Customers are one good factor why it is very important to hire the service of a professional window cleaner, to preserve the looks of the property from the inside and out and attract customers at the same time.

Apart from the above mentioned, let me share with you the other valuable reasons why hiring professional window cleaning services are important:

Hire professionals to avoid accident

Why do we need to hire professionals if we can easily clean our own windows? Well, that's absolutely true. Anybody can wipe out dirt and remove unnecessary particles from windows but because we do not have the necessary skills to do the job correctly like what a real professional has; ordinary people like us will be sooner to accident which would cost us time and money, not to mention the suffering and pain we could get out of it.

Hire professionals to get the best possible result

Hiring professional cleaners can provide you the best possible result of having dirt free, spotless windows all-year round. Since these people are experts and because they are fully equipped with the specialized tools used for cleaning windows such as the water- fed pole and ladder, you can feel confident that everything will come out perfectly once they are stepped out of your doorway.

Hire professionals to avoid liability

Lastly, it is advisable to hire professional cleaners to avoid liability. Always keep in mind that as a property owner, you will be held responsible for any damages and injuries that may happen to anyone inside your property. But when you hire professional cleaners, you can be sure that each of them is insured so you will not be held accountable if something happens to them during the duration of their job.

Hiring professionals to clean your windows could be ideal somehow because they have the skills and the technology to do the job correctly. But make sure you choose the most competent window cleaning services so you will not have any regret in the end.

7 Tips For a Basic Tool Chest

If you're thinking about buying a home or are a new home owner, there are some basic tools you need to have around. There are lots of tools out there, but you need just a few basics tools to get started. I started out with a hammer, rubber mallet, hand saw, drill, pliers, socket set, an adjustable wrench, and two types of screwdrivers, buckets and for paintings and paintbrushes. You'll need them to drive a nail, hang a picture, put together bed frames, and tighten and loosen screws and nuts. Let me suggest to you what kinds of tools I think you are going to need to start out with.

1. Hammer
There are a few different types of mallets and hammers available. Your basic claw hammer is the best for driving nails and getting them out. It would also be good to get a rubber mallet for closing paint buckets and such, because using a hammer tends to deform the metal lids.

2. Saw
I started out with a simple carpenters hand saw. You'll run into small projects and need something to cut wood with. I think a power saw is over kill if you only have to use a saw periodically on small items.

3. Pliers
Pliers are jaws to squeeze things shut or to get a firm grip on to pull out. An adjustable plier is good to have around. I like the ones with a rubberized handle and jaws you can vary the widths with.

4. Drill
A basic 18 volt drill with some bits is a good purchase. Any time you want to screw something in it goes easier if you drill a hole first. You can also get accessory screw bits and have a drill do the screwing in for you.

Fasteners
There are numbers of type of fasteners, but many types you will seldom or never encounter. In your home your fasteners are going to be hex nuts and bolts, Phillips screws, and flat headed screws.

5. Screwdrivers
Both Phillips and flat head screw drivers come in all sorts of sizes but two very useful sizes, small (# 1) and medium (# 2) are what you will mostly need around the house.

6. Socket Sets
You'll also want a 6 point socket set in your tool box. Every nut you have in your house is a hexagon of varying sizes. Any time you assemble or disassemble

7. Adjustable Wrenches
An adjustable wrench is open on one side and has two jaws that come with a screw to adjust the width. The jaws come together on two sides of the hex nut, and can be used in places where the bolt or screw is deeper than a socket in the socket set. I'd start with one medium and one large adjustable wrench.

You'll only need these few types of tools to do almost everything you'll run into when going into a new home. Do not over buy. You'll be able to put these tools to good use, and you should not need more tools unless you start doing repair repair, or are building something for your house. anything in the home environment you will run into the six sided nut. The best basic socket set is a 40 piece hex or 6 point set. They have standard inch and metric millimeter size sockets and a ratchet handle.