A Brief History of Tapestries in American Decor

The myriad details of restoring or furnishing a period house are enough to overwhelm even the most dedicated homeowner. Paint colors, wood finishes, floor covering, lighting fixtures; chosen wisely, these elements can combine to produce a satisfying authenticity. The selection of appropriate textiles can add a visual and textural dimension, a finishing touch of comfort and warmth. Tapestries, in particular, can be used effectively in almost any period home.

Tapestries have been important elements in American interior design both early and late. They were the height of fashion in the 17th and late 19th centuries, and maintained a more modest popularity during the intervening periods.

Early use in American decor
In the 17th century, colonists, as British citizens, were determined to be as defined in the Colonies as their countrymen in the Mother Country. The wealthy and socially conscious remains in vogue as much as time and distance allowed, importing English fashions and goods to the growing urban centers. European-made tapestries were often listed among the most valuable items in estate inventories of the wealthy. As either wall hangings or bed hangings, they were accredited by visitors; During this period, the best bed, splendidly adorned with rich tapestry art, was found more often in the parlor than the bedroom or "chamber."

From the early 18th century to the late 19th, rich fabrics, including tapestries, were used in parlors and "best rooms," but less frequently on walls. The British artist Charles Eastlake, broadly read in America in the mid-19th century, cautioned that wall tapestries may be at risk in homes in dirty, industrialized cities, where they lack protection from soot, coal dust, and smoke, but their popularity persisted as furniture coverings.

A popular option for Americas wealthy
By the late 19th century, American industry had given rise to unpreciated wealth, held (and liberally spent) by families such as the Vanderbilts, Astors, and others. Perceiving themselves as the American aristocracy, they built both urban and country homes (the latter often referred to as "cottages') modeled after European palaces and grand estates.

Tapestries were an important element in the decorative scheme of such grand homes as George Washington Vanderbilt's Biltmore, the dining room of which featured two massive 16th century tapestries of Vulcan and Venus as the focal point. Like their Colonial counterparts, the 19th century American "royalty" bought to display their very new wealth even as they imitated the interior design fashions of centuries before.

The revival in tapestry art
In less luxurious homes, tapestries were literally off the wall, appearing more often as drapery or upholstery fabric, or as a decorative covering for a table, piano, or mantel. Portieres, lambrequins, and valences often used jacquard-woven tapestry fabric to enrich a decorative scheme, providing texture, color, and visual interest. William Morris and his cohorts in the Arts and Crafts movement re-introduced tapestry as both an art form and an element in interior design, and it was once again seen in homes on both sides of the Atlantic. The fashion was short-lived, however, and little innovation in tapestry design appeared for several decades.

A revival of interest in tapestry art began in the mid-20th century. As modern architecture became more austere, large, unbroken walls presented the opportunity for colorful and textural tapestry, executed in designs far removed from the picturesque motifs of centuries before. As an alternative to framed paintings, tapestry art was valued for its portability in an age of increasing mobility. Individuals and families moved from apartment to modest home to larger home as their circumstances changed; tapestries could be folded or rolled and easily moved, to be hung in a new setting.

Popular in any period home
While the popularity of tapestry as a design element has varied through American history, the wide range of available motifs and ways to use these inticate, often striking textiles allow for the homeowner to be creative with their use, resulting in an unexpected focal point, large or small, in any period home.

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Russian Superstitions

Russians are very superstitious people. They will deny this, but it is true. These superstitions affect my life on a daily basis. Most of the time they are harmless and I go along with them to humor my wife. Sometimes I tease her about them.

New superstitions pop up all the time, as new situations arise in our life. I keep telling her that I need a rulebook for them. Perhaps someday I will codify them in a book.

Russians are raised with these superstitions so they have no need to consult a manual.

Here are some of them. It is by no means an exhaustive list:

1) You can’t whistle in the house or car, as they believe that you are whistling away your money.

At a dinner party at our house, a friend of mine started whistling. My wife silenced him immediately. She explained to him, “You can whistle in your own house, but you can’t whistle in mine. In my house, it’s my money you are whistling away.”

When she first came to America, she would see people standing at intersections holding signs. She asked me what they were doing. I told her they were asking for money. She asked me why. I told her that they had done entirely too much whistling in their house for their own good.

2) If you step on your spouse’s shoe by accident, you have to let the other person step on your shoe, or you will have an argument.

I never tested this superstition. It seemed easier to go along with the remedy than pay the price for violating it.

3) If you leave your house, you cannot go back inside for something you have forgotten, or your trip will result in ‘nothing good,’ as my wife says.

4) If you must go back in to get the forgotten item, you can try to mitigate the bad effects of returning by looking into the mirror at your own reflection for a moment before you leave again.

5) Never demonstrate another’s surgery or wound on your own body with your hand or other means as you are likely to visit that upon yourself.

In the few times I have done this, my wife has tried to remedy this by wiping away the spot where I made the imaginary incision with her hand, blowing on her hand to blow it away to the wind, and covering it with the sign of the cross.

6) Never give a Russian woman an even number of flowers. Even numbers are for the dead. Always give odd numbers. When you order a dozen, or two dozen roses, for her, ask them to throw in an extra one for good luck.

7) Never give yellow flowers to a Russian woman. It signifies infidelity and may mean that your relationship will not last.

8) Never give a watch as a gift to a Russian woman. Time is running out on your relationship.

9) Never give knives or handkerchiefs as gifts. I don’t know the reason for this one.

10) Never celebrate a birthday early. You are pushing your luck.

11) Don’t show your newborn baby to strangers until after forty days. They are waiting for their soul to arrive and they may take on another’s soul or energy during that time.

12) It’s best to cut your hair or nails during a full moon.

13) It’s considered bad luck to shave or cut your hair when a family member is in danger or bad health.

14) Whenever someone praises you or offers a positive comment, you knock on wood or imaginarily spit three times over your left shoulder so that you are not jinxed by the comment.

15) Do not shake hands or kiss over the threshold of a door. It forms a bridge that allows the devil or evil spirits from the outside to enter the house this way. When I have done this by mistake, my wife usually pushes me back outside or pulls me inside before greeting me with a kiss at the front door.

16) Before anyone takes a long trip, the whole family sits together silently for a few minutes before the traveler leaves.

17) The truly superstitious have been known to eat ‘lucky’ bus tickets, when the sum of the left three numbers equals the sum of the three numbers on the right.

18) Recently, while preparing to give my infant daughter a bath, the little tyke peed on me while I was taking her clothes off. My wife laughed and said that it was good news. It meant that I would live to dance at my daughter’s wedding!

This list is not exhaustive by any means. Superstitions vary by country and locale. There is a popular Russian television show that travels around the country exploring the unique superstitions of each particular town or village.

Many of the superstitions came from folk tales or fairy stories, Russian Orthodox tradition, or had peasant or agricultural roots. Most Russians are only one or two generations from the farm or village.

At any rate, be aware of the superstitions and try to show some respect for them whether or not you believe in them. Your Russian friends will appreciate it.

What is a RULA Assessment? – An Ergonomist’s Answer

The validity of the tool as been proven in use around the world but it has some limitations: it should not be used to score more dynamic tasks where the leg and hip postures require assessing too. The author of the tool, Dr. Lynn McAtamney, produced a different tool for this purpose – Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). It also does not include a significant factor of exposure over time or relation to other tasks.

Due to the current sedentary nature of office work, RULA is an ideal tool for use in this environment and the development of online versions of the tool significantly increase the speed and application of the tool. Assessors are no longer required to refer to numerous sets of tables to arrive at a score. This increases accuracy and the number completed in reasonable timescales, so further reducing the costs to companies undertaking this step in their risk management programmes. With a collection of RULA scores attributed to tasks, workstations, equipment and individuals a company can make a targeted reduction in the risks, due to the clear identification of the postures or actions to be avoided, adapted or reduced.

However, in order to reach this outcome, assessors must overcome one of the difficult aspects of using RULA, i.e, the judgement required of assessors in terms of which postures to assess. Some will take the most significant or high scoring posture and may therefore use RULA simply to prove a point while attempting to bring about changes that they think are required. The reverse, of course, may also be true and, with a dash more cynicism, it may be used to ‘support’ the efficacy of changes suggested or deployed. So how can we be sure about what a RULA score, or a collection of scores is showing us? The answer of course is that it will depend on the assessor and to a greater or lesser extent, to the reporting vehicle used to present and explain those scores. A phrase springs to mind about a certain quality of workman and their reliance on their tools to support a blame culture!

As an Ergonomics Consultant for over 12 years, I have experience enough of the vagaries of workplaces, and individual reactions to them, to know that hard and fast assertions of certainty are almost always going to come unstuck. When applying a score to a situation it is very easy to suggest, and in fact often assumed to be, a solid measure, shored up on the undeniable truths of mathematics.

This can cause difficulties for those undertaking the assessment and those receiving the summary of results. The ‘scientific’ delivery is somewhat softened by the Action Levels published with the tool. These take those precise scores and translate them into the management-comforting terms ‘acceptable’, ‘may be’ and ‘soon’ as well as the slightly more alarming ‘immediately’! This brings the impact of the tool to a more

realistic level of what it can achieve on its own and ensures that there must be a level of interpretation and application within a company’s risk management system. The top three Action Levels also mention further investigation as part of the outcomes of the assessment. This has been known to throw those paying for the assessments into some confusion – after all what have the assessors been doing if not investigating? What has the tool produced except confirmation that something needs to be done? Can any management team be accused of being unaware of the need if they have already invested time and money into getting a RULA assessment done?

The reply to this problem, paradoxically, needs to have come before the question is asked. It must be made clear to individuals, assessors and management alike that RULA is ‘Rapid’; RULA is only looking at the ‘Upper Limbs’; RULA is a ‘tool’ and that the outcomes are a filter to prioritise changes based on postural loading. The clue is in the name and it should be clarified if it is to be advertised as a part of an assessment.

There are many applications of Ergonomics in the workplace and Ergonomists are constantly misunderstood when describing the scope of their profession or expertise. It is so important that, when undertaking an Ergonomic assessment, we do not confuse our clients or customers with one of the tools we will be using. Rather, we should be assuring them that our qualifications and experience mean we can undertake well rounded and detailed investigations, using a collection of appropriate tools, to provide solutions to most problems in the workplace and methodologies for tackling the remaining issues over the longer term.

In summary, a RULA assessment is a very useful tool for an Ergonomist to have but hardly the whole contents of our tool-box.

The 3 Idiots of the Education System

“I am beginning to suspect all elaborate and special systems of education. They seem to me to be built up on the supposition that every child is a kind of idiot who must be taught to think”. ~ Anne Sullivan.

I was conducting a Discover Your True Calling workshop at IIM, Indore last week. I had the afternoon free and decided to see the much acclaimed, high-grossing Bollywood movie – “3 Idiots”. I thoroughly enjoyed the movie, largely because it is a complete indictment of our education system. The message was strikingly similar to the theme of my workshop.

The film is about three students who do not really fit into the prestigious engineering college and are considered idiots by their professor. However, the movie clearly shows who the three real idiots are – the educational system, the teachers and the parents. Reflecting on the movie on the flight back to Mumbai, I realized that any real change in education is possible only by transforming these three constituencies.

Idiot #1 – The Education System:

Our current system is performance-oriented rather than mastery-oriented. The emphasis on examinations forces students to learn by rote. They focus on scoring high marks rather than investing the time and energy to understand the subject in depth. A system where true geniuses like Einstein and Ramanujan are considered poor students really needs its head examined. In the movie, this is brilliantly brought out by Aamir Khan playing Rancho – the truly outstanding engineer who goes beyond the book to gain mastery.

Idiot #2 – The Teachers:

Our current system of pedagogy is faculty-led and follows a fixed curriculum. The average teacher assumes that there is one right answer and that (s)he knows the answer. It is the rare teacher who has the ability to facilitate rather than teach, to nurture rather than preach and to support students who stray from the well-trodden path in search of creative ways to learn. Boman Irani as Viru Sahastrabuddhe does a superb job of bringing to life a dogmatic, highly competitive, over-confident college professor – the antithesis of an ideal teacher in every way.

Idiot #3 – The Parents:

When India’s HRD Minister Kapil Sibal suggested scrapping of the 10th grade exams, parents were the first to stand up against the proposal. Parents want their children to be at the top of their classes, get admitted to the best colleges and follow traditional career options – engineering, medicine, management and the like.

Parents rarely encourage their children to discover their true passions and pursue mastery rather than mediocrity. The movie’s middle class Quereshis, who want their son to be an engineer, and the poorer Rastogis, who see education as a way out of poverty, are typical of today’s Indian parents. They would probably be the toughest nut to crack.

The 21st century calls for talented people who are masters in their chosen fields of work. It calls for collaboration among passionate individuals, from different disciplines, to address the truly challenging issues and opportunities that the world presents. The current assembly-line approach to education falls severely short. We are not equipping our children to succeed in their world. The appeal of the movie is universal and obvious.

But what will it take for all three of the constituencies above, as well as the student community to rally around to a new educational order? Please share your perspectives. We need to work together to bring about transformation in this vital area of our society.

Boundaries, Bottom Lines, and Threats – Knowing the Difference Can Empower Family Member Recovery

One of the most frequent questions by family members of alcoholics/addicts is “What’s the difference between boundaries, bottom lines, and threats?” Before these significant others get very far into recovery, they hear these terms and are confused. Clearing up the confusion with definitions makes a good beginning, but application gives these concepts the most meaning. 

 

A bottom line is tangible definition of what you will or will not tolerate in your life. A threat is a declaration of expectations and consequences if that expectation is not met. The major difference between bottom lines and threats is motivation. One’s motivation in communicating a bottom line is to take responsibility for self. When you develop awareness of your bottom line, you know, without doubt, what you are willing to have in your life and what you aren’t willing to tolerate in your life. When you take responsibility for your own growth and development, recovery, welfare and happiness, you guard it zealously. To do that, you set and maintain limits as to how much we allow others to contribute those things that impede that growth, recovery, and welfare. So, in communicating a bottom line, we are motivated to take care of our own lives, taking full responsibility for our choices, our happiness or unhappiness.

            You may use the exact same words to communicate a bottom line as you would to make a threat. Nevertheless, they are not the same. Threats are motivated by the desire to change someone else. When we make a threat, we are doing so in an attempt to get them to change. We may be convinced that whatever it is that we are trying to get them to do is best for them and for us. We may believe that our intentions are about trying to look out for their welfare. But in this process we are trying to take responsibility for someone else—their life, their decisions, their recovery or disease, their happiness or misery.

 

In working the first three steps we know that we do not have power over other people.   When we are trying to change someone else, through threats, we are not taking responsibility for self. We are investing our efforts in a place where we will have little power over the outcomes.  Self is the one place that we do have some power. We do have power over our own behavior, attitudes, decisions, happiness.

 

            The communication of bottom lines and threats feel different. In communicating a threat we probably have an underlying feeling of uneasiness and fear about what our next step might be when they don’t do what we are asking.   A bottom line feels solid as you decide what you are willing to have in your life and what you aren’t willing to have. You know that you mean it. Its immutable.   A threat feels uneasy and scary. Any resolve to stick to a threat eventually yields to opposition. Threats maintain the status quo. Bottom lines effect change.   The difference is in the motivation. 

 

            Maintaining bottom lines is facilitated by setting boundaries. Generally speaking, boundaries are borders that delineate, separate, and defend us from the world. Setting protective limits might could include denying others the permission to use us, abuse us, take from us, or take us for granted. Boundaries are a demarcation of personal territory. They define where we begin and end. They define areas of responsibility and power. They define our rights and limits in relationships, as citizens, and as human beings. These limits are communicated with assertiveness, with self-confidence, and with self-responsibility. They define a healthy detachment from that which we are not responsible, and promote self-efficacy. 

 

Identification of your bottom lines in relationships and maintaining them through communication of boundaries promotes recovery, self-esteem, and empowerment. Threats reinforce denial, maintain dysfunctional games, increase anxiety, and reduce self-esteem.

Neuro-Pharmacognosy: Is It Nature’s Answer For Neuropathy?

Neuropathy literally means sick nerves. There are a number of different reasons why people develop neuropathy. Neuropathy quite commonly is associated with diabetes, vitamin deficits, inflammation of the nerves and toxins that poison the nerves. We have discussed many of the conditions that cause nerves to become sick in patients in other articles. Patients suffering from the signs and symptoms of neuropathy experience pain, burning, numbness and other odd sensations known as paresthesias most often starting in the feet and progressing throughout the rest of the body. The pain and other symptoms can be debilitating and incapacitating regardless of the reason for the neuropathy.

The nervous system in higher animals like humans is a highly complex collection of specialized cells known as neurons. Neurons have several unique features, including a wire-like process known as an axon. The axon functions very much like an electrical wire and it carries encoded electrical signals known as nerve impulses throughout the body. Just like a copper wire, the nerve axon has insulation around it known as myelin. Unlike a copper wire, a nerve cell and its wire-like axon is living tissue. The neuron contains all the necessary cellular machinery to produce energy, maintain itself and generate energy to support its function of transmitting and receiving electrical signals. Each neuron is an electrochemical marvel and is in essence a living battery. This amazing communication network occurs at the microscopic level and consumes incredible amounts of energy to function properly.

The myelin insulation surrounding the nerve axon is also a living tissue and the nerve cell and its myelin cell partners are intimately arranged to maintain and support one another.

The nervous system typically does a remarkable job of sending and receiving formation from various parts of the body and acts both as a sensor system to monitor what is going on in the body and also as an effector system which drives necessary changes in the body based on the input from the sensors.

Because of its complexity the nervous system and its supporting myelin cells is vulnerable to the slightest disruption in metabolism. The axons are like a microscopic spider’s web yet they travel great distances within the body. They can become dys-regulated very easily by trauma or compression.

Think of the nervous system as a living, delicate, vulnerable communications network that consumes extraordinary amounts of energy for proper function and maintenance. It is no wonder that the nervous system is susceptible to injury, illness, metabolic abnormalities, immune problems and many other afflictions that can make it sick and malfunction.

Malfunctioning of the peripheral nervous system occurs frequently and when this happens people develop the cardinal symptoms of poly-neuropathy.

Despite the fact that poly-neuropathy is one of the most common diseases of the peripheral nervous system, there are few FDA approved drugs available to treat it. Many patients that try traditional prescription medication for relief of their neuropathy symptoms are disappointed with the results.

Too often newer drugs in the research pipeline appear promising, but fail due to unwanted side effects. The research and data obtained from failed drug development experiments can sometimes be applied to herbal medicine where natural substances may work in a similar manner as artificial chemicals, but with less harsh side effects. The scientific study of natural substances that may mimic artificial drugs is known as Pharmacognosy. When this knowledge is applied to the nervous system we call it Neuropharmacognosy. You can translate this as the study of the pharmacology of natural substances that may influence the function of the nervous system. There are a number of natural substances that may mimic the pharmacology of drugs used to treat neuropathy. We have discussed them in other articles, but we will review them together here.

Based on experimental data on nerve function and disease a number of broad classes of chemicals may have theoretical application in the relief of symptoms of neuropathy.

It appears when nerves become sick that raising a chemical known as GABA may calm down irritable and inflamed nerves and provide relief for people struggling with the symptoms of neuropathy. You can think of GABA as a brake pedal that slows down the symptoms of neuropathy. There is research that suggest the herbs valerian root and lemon balm may increase GABA thus applying the body’s brake on run away nerve pain. Valerian root may block an enzyme known as GABA-T that breaks down and neutralizes GABA in the nervous system. By blocking the breakdown of GABA, valerian root may prolong the braking effect of GABA on the nerve and slow down neuropathy symptoms. Lemon Balm appears to increase the effect of GABA in a slightly different way. Rather than blocking the breakdown of GABA, Lemon Balm may stimulate an enzyme known as GAD which is responsible for building GABA. So the braking action of GABA on the sick nerve is supported by the increased production of this neurotransmitter

If GABA acts like the body’s brake on a runaway nervous system, Glutamate is the nerve’s gas pedal. Studies suggest that injured nerves become hyper-sensitive because Glutamate is released after the nervous system is irritated. This has the effect of sensitizing the nerve and contributing to the signs and symptoms of neuropathy. There are two potentially important herbs that may block the effects of Glutamate on the nervous system in neuropathy. The first is Theanine a protein derived from green tea. Theanine is believed to act as a Glutamate analog. This means that Theanine is processed by the body like Glutamate, but does not have the nerve stimulating effects of Glutamate. Think of Theanine as a blank bullet that has the net effect of reducing the actions of Glutamate. The other herb that may reduce the excitatory effects of Glutamate, is Magnolia Bark. Magnolia Bark is believed to bind to a specific Glutamate receptor and block it. This suggests that Magnolia Bark is a specific antagonist to Glutamate and might be a more specific way to take-the-foot-off-the-gas-pedal in nerves damaged by neuropathy.

In keeping with our car analogy, if GABA is the brake on the nerve in neuropathy and Glutamate acts like the gas pedal, a third chemical known as Glycine might be thought of as the transmission. Glycine slows the nervous system down. Think of shifting the nerve into low gear. Glycine down shifts the nerve in neuropathy directly thus slowing down and inhibiting painful transmission of nerve signals, but also it also may indirectly compete with Glutamate. The mechanism by which Glycine might provide relief to patients suffering from neuropathy is a little less direct. If a patient would take a large dose of Glycine, the nerves would slow down. This effect would not last long however, because in the nervous system Glycine is carried away from the nerve by what is known as a Glycine Transporter. The Glycine Transporter has the net effect of getting rid of Glycine which effectively shifts the nervous system back into high gear. This Glycine Transporter system is so effective that it renders Glycine as a treatment for neuropathy impractical. Because of the Glycine Transporter, the nerve simply cannot keep enough Glycine in the nerve to slow down the function of a hypersensitive nerve in a meaningful way. However there are substances which may inhibit the Glycine Transporter and this appears to be a promising way to enhance the suppression of nerve hyper-excitability such as occurs in neuropathy. The herb Prickly Ash Bark appears to be a meaningful Glycine Transporter Inhibitor. Prickly Ash has a long history of use for relief of pain. Likewise the naturally occurring compound Sarcosine is a known Glycine Transporter inhibitor. Both of these naturally occurring substances appear to be candidates for the relief of the signs and symptoms of neuropathy.

Another pathway that may be exploited for neuropathy relief is the endogenous cannabinoid receptor system. This system is activated by marijuana and is believed to suppress pain at the higher levels of the nervous system. The receptors of the endogenous cannabinoid system can be activated for pain relief without producing a “high” and the side effects associasted with marijuana drug use by certain breakdown products of fatty acids in the nervous system. Substances that block the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase or FAAH appear to activate the endogenous cannabinoid system and are currently being investigated for the treatment of neuropathic type pain. There appears to be naturally occurring FAAH inhibitors in Red Clover and the herb MACA. This suggests that these herbs through their potential to modulate the activity of the enzyme FAAH may be capable of activating the endogenous cannabinoid system and providing relief from neuropathic pain.

Finally with particular reference to neuropathy associated with diabetes, the Protein Kinase C or PKC enzyme and its relationship with T-Type Calcium Channels may be therapeutic targets. It appears that elevated blood glucose unregulates PKC in diabetic nerves. PKC appears to drive specific calcium channels in diabetic nerves known as T-Type Calcium Channels. These changes are believed to drive hyper-sensitivity and excitability at least in nerves affected by diabetic neuropathy.

Chelidonium Majus is an herbal remedy that may modulate PKC. The alkaloid chelerythrine found in this herb is a potent antagonist of Protein Kinase C. This suggests a possible benefit of this herb in polyneuropathy. While generally safe some reports of liver toxicity associate with Chelidonium Majus appear in the medical literature.

Picrorhiza Kurroa is an herb that contains the phytochemical Apocynin. At least one study suggests that apocynin prevented or markedly reduces the up-regulation of Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels. This suggests that Picrorhiza Kurroa may be able to down regulate the over expression of T-Type Cav3.2 Calcium channels believed to contribute to the hyper-excitability of nerves seen in diabetic neuropathy.

A final note and warning about using internet information to try to treat a medical condition. Don’t do it! The use of this article is provided solely for patients to discuss the contained information with their licensed healthcare provider. Herbal treatments while generally safe can have unwanted or unpredictable side effects. Only a licensed practitioner that is familiar with your specific healthcare condition can safely diagnose and advise you about treatment for your particular condition. Always consult with and inform your doctor before making additions or changes to your treatment regime.

Forehead Sweating – The Top 5 Causes

Some things are easy to hide like the helm that comes a loose from your pants. Then there are other things like hiding forehead sweat and that’s like trying to stop the rain. And as hard as it is to keep profuse sweating unnoticed, imagine how impossible it is to camouflage forehead sweating. What’s even worse is sweating starts without warning. Your face begins to get hot from the inside out. Next, you start to shine, then beads of sweat begins to roll down your face. Last but not least, you are sweating like a fire hydrant, full force with no cut-off valve. This common occurrence for excessive sweating sufferers is irritating and aggravating, not to mention embarrassing. Unfortunately, the common causes of forehead sweating are everyday activities in most of our lives.

Most people don’t really know that excessive sweating affects 3 percent of our population. Part of the reason for that is because our medical professionals didn’t see it as a serious problem. When patients would schedule an appointment because of excessive sweating; we’ve heard, some reported sentiments such as: go home and stop complaining. Those professionals were obviously uninformed and didn’t realize the psychological side that’s associated with over-sweating.

Most likely if you are a victim of hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), you may have experienced this. While modern medicine still doesn’t quite know exactly how to stop excessive sweating or what are common causes, there are clues from other sufferers that have gone before you.

There are many causes that seem to bring about forehead sweating, listed below are a few of them. Keep in mind that they will vary from person to person.

Anxiety: Anxiety is the body’s natural response to danger, an automatic trigger that goes off when we are under pressure. A few symptoms of anxiety; racing heart beat, stomach butterflies and the jitters.

Stress: Stress is an emotion that’s unavoidable. We all experience stress in our daily lives. However, chronic stress can be very detrimental to our over-all health.

Anger: Unless you are Mother Theresa; anger is something that you have experienced. Anger normally builds up fast and ferocious. It’s normally a gut reaction to a situation or problem.

Fear: Fear is a crippling emotion. It’s an emotion of thought. Many times we are fearful of the unknown. We become fearful when we lose the ability to think rationally and logically.

Excitement: Building excitement takes a lot of energy. Burning the necessary amounts of energy causes our bodies to heat up and once we heat up, the brain reports to the nervous system. It sends a signal to keep us cool and this process is known as sweating.

There you are, 5 underlying causes of forehead sweating. Emotions are one of the main causes of forehead-sweating. The average person has a tendency to sweat when they are nervous, stressed, angry, excited or anxious; but those that suffer from excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) will NO Doubt sweat. And more than likely it will show all over their face.

Calcium Rich Foods and Calcium Deficiencies – Wealths And Deficits

In an individual's body assessment, bones and teeth require deposits of calcium in an effort to balance calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies. Also to be accounted for, in balancing the nutritional budget for calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, are nerve impulse transmission, heartbeat regulation, contraction of muscles, meeting fuel obligations in fluids for both cells and lymphatic levels, and adding deposits to support the blood's ability to clot. If one does not meet their personal personal and bodily debts in paying the body with calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies funds, they could risk bleeding the account dry.

Calcium as an essential mineral, could have considered a precious gem to the body. From the first century, when Romans of ancient history formed lime into calcium oxide, as a supplementary bodily budgeter for calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, and on to present times, bodies require regular deposits of this valuable asset its role towards sustaining human life.

The worth of Calcium as it relates to the values ​​of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, is measured by its assets in developing the precious mineral accounting of bones and teeth, at a cost of ninety-nine percent of the take, with the remaining balance of one percent being charged to a body's blood and various tissues. Calcium's dividends are paid to the normal development and growth of bodies. If such dependent residuals are not scheduled in regular payments to the body, in maintaining daily operations of the body, as a bank of existence, huge deficits can break the biological accounting, in the forms of fractures and stunted growth.

Bodies need accurate tellers, in order to balance the daily deposits of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies. Such deposits need to be sizeable, in the denominations of natural calcium and processed either through the resources of food or like supplements, in order to keep the body functioning in its operations.

A body has two sources in which to earn its calcium in to both provide for and shelter calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies. Working for calcium can take place through a person's ingesting and digesting foods that pay in calcium or, if enough calcium in not earned from eating a balance of, and to avoid, respectably, calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, the body's biology must apply for a loan, by borrowing calcium for its bones. As in any process, whereas borrowing is connected, there must be a formula devised, in order to reappear the lender, which, in this case, are the bones. Therefore, it is at the obligation of individuals, respectively, to provide enough of the essential nutrients for their respective bodies, so that bones can be paid back in a duel form of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies.

For individuals to know what to budget into their essential nutrient intake, in regards to calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, they need to know the needs or obligations involved in the expenditures, as the amount of calcium owed to their bodies. The clinically recommended daily nutritional amount of calcium due the body ranges from one thousand to one thousand three hundred milligrams. According to clinical accounting, following a body's processing of the appropriate amount foods rich in calcium to bring the total within acceptable ranges, only twenty to thirty percent is applied to the body's required account. Therefore, as the body requires more towards the balancing of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, an addition fund of calcium must be delivered into the body to match the funds of such material necessary to, as the expression goes, "make ends meet." Here, early and conscientious work ethics, by individuals, must be taken out through another natural source beyond food consumption. Such resource can be found in the form of a good quality calcium supplement, in support of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies.

Those foods that are rich in calcium include dairy products, dried figs, green leafy vegetables, nuts, seaweeds, seeds, tofu and watercress.

To summarize, in the quest of establishing habits for calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, individuals can find equitable equity by incorporating any combination of calcium-rich foods, along with the compliment of a calcium supplement of fine quality.

Calcium Rich Foods and Calcium Deficiencies – Wealths And Deficits

In an individual's body assessment, bones and teeth require deposits of calcium in an effort to balance calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies. Also to be accounted for, in balancing the nutritional budget for calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, are nerve impulse transmission, heartbeat regulation, contraction of muscles, meeting fuel obligations in fluids for both cells and lymphatic levels, and adding deposits to support the blood's ability to clot. If one does not meet their personal personal and bodily debts in paying the body with calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies funds, they could risk bleeding the account dry.

Calcium as an essential mineral, could have considered a precious gem to the body. From the first century, when Romans of ancient history formed lime into calcium oxide, as a supplementary bodily budgeter for calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, and on to present times, bodies require regular deposits of this valuable asset its role towards sustaining human life.

The worth of Calcium as it relates to the values ​​of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, is measured by its assets in developing the precious mineral accounting of bones and teeth, at a cost of ninety-nine percent of the take, with the remaining balance of one percent being charged to a body's blood and various tissues. Calcium's dividends are paid to the normal development and growth of bodies. If such dependent residuals are not scheduled in regular payments to the body, in maintaining daily operations of the body, as a bank of existence, huge deficits can break the biological accounting, in the forms of fractures and stunted growth.

Bodies need accurate tellers, in order to balance the daily deposits of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies. Such deposits need to be sizeable, in the denominations of natural calcium and processed either through the resources of food or like supplements, in order to keep the body functioning in its operations.

A body has two sources in which to earn its calcium in to both provide for and shelter calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies. Working for calcium can take place through a person's ingesting and digesting foods that pay in calcium or, if enough calcium in not earned from eating a balance of, and to avoid, respectably, calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, the body's biology must apply for a loan, by borrowing calcium for its bones. As in any process, whereas borrowing is connected, there must be a formula devised, in order to reappear the lender, which, in this case, are the bones. Therefore, it is at the obligation of individuals, respectively, to provide enough of the essential nutrients for their respective bodies, so that bones can be paid back in a duel form of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies.

For individuals to know what to budget into their essential nutrient intake, in regards to calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, they need to know the needs or obligations involved in the expenditures, as the amount of calcium owed to their bodies. The clinically recommended daily nutritional amount of calcium due the body ranges from one thousand to one thousand three hundred milligrams. According to clinical accounting, following a body's processing of the appropriate amount foods rich in calcium to bring the total within acceptable ranges, only twenty to thirty percent is applied to the body's required account. Therefore, as the body requires more towards the balancing of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, an addition fund of calcium must be delivered into the body to match the funds of such material necessary to, as the expression goes, "make ends meet." Here, early and conscientious work ethics, by individuals, must be taken out through another natural source beyond food consumption. Such resource can be found in the form of a good quality calcium supplement, in support of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies.

Those foods that are rich in calcium include dairy products, dried figs, green leafy vegetables, nuts, seaweeds, seeds, tofu and watercress.

To summarize, in the quest of establishing habits for calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, individuals can find equitable equity by incorporating any combination of calcium-rich foods, along with the compliment of a calcium supplement of fine quality.

The 5 Basic Elements of Green Architecture

Sustainable architecture is the practice of designing buildings while taking into consideration sustainable development and environmental growth. It aims to minimize environmental impact of buildings through moderation in the utilization of energy and development space as well as building materials. To be able to strongly promote the practice, there are some basic elements to keep in mind:

Small space

More often than not, large houses consume a tremendous amount of energy. Aside from that, they also need a lot of building materials. To minimize wastefulness, smaller houses are now preferred as these facilitates energy conservation and reduces depletion of natural resources.

Solar energy

A solar-heated house makes it very comfortable to live in. A well-built passive solar energy should be able to provide enough sunlight into the rooms.

Water conservation

In making green buildings or green homes, the use of low water should be highly taken into consideration. Toilets, shower heads, faucet aerators and flow restrictors should be carefully chosen. Others even use drought-tolerant plants in order to minimize water usage.

Renewable energy

A good way to produce electricity while conserving fossil fuel is by making use of the natural powers of the wind, water and the sun.

Natural and local materials

Nature provides us a wide range of materials which we can use to make homes and buildings – mud plasters, lime, glass, bricks, tiles, bamboo, grasses, paper, reeds and natural fibers. Using local materials for construction minimizes transporting costs and hassles. You may also use plants to enhance natural ambiance in your living space. Aside from the ambiance, plants also release oxygen into the air.

These are some of the basic elements of green architecture. Considering green homes and green buildings will not only help you save the environment, it will also help you save on costs, in the long run. Thank you for taking the time to inform yourself about how to build a greener home.

The Facts About Miter Saws

Miter saws are one of the most popular, most widely used power tools in the tool industry today. Because of their portability, convenient capacities, and overall accuracy, a miter saw can be found in nearly every wood-shop, garage, or pickup truck. Miter saws are generally designed to produce fast, accurate crosscuts into a workpiece, typically for framing or molding applications. The workpiece is pressed up against an angled fence to ensure the most precise cutting angles as you work. The fence generally sits at a 900 angle, but can be adjusted as needed for a particular cut. While most miter saws have a miter index that allows users to precisely modify their cut angle in one degree increments, most also have capacities which allow for quick and accurate cut stops at common cut angles like 150, 300, and 450. These precise miter cuts are made with the downward motion of a circular saw blade that spins with the power of the tool’s motor.

There are several types of miter saw available, the standard miter, a compound miter, and a sliding or compound sliding miter saw. The standard miter has a blade pivot from right to left to cut miters; this saw is however becoming less popular as compound miters have more applications and are only slightly more expensive. Compound miters have the ability to bevel cut, or tip the blade to either the left or right side (00 – 500). Some can bevel in both directions allowing operators to miter and bevel within the same cut (-500 through 500). A sliding miter saw is just like a compound miter but with extension rods that allow the saw blade and motor to move forward and back. This motion increases the blade cut capacity enabling the cut length to be longer than the blade diameter. Sliding compound miter saws also have a depth cut setting to cut dadoes into materials at a variety of depths. Sliding miter saws, because of bigger capacities and more applications, tend to be more expensive than the standard and compound miter saws.

Blades:

As one would think, the price of the saw, and of the blades as well, tends to rise with the size of the saw and blade. Blade sizes range from eight, ten, and twelve inches; ten and twelve inches being the most popular sizes. Not only does the blade price increase with size, but also with tooth count. It is important that you use the proper blade for each application. Blade changes are generally pretty simple, so don’t avoid blade switching out of inconvenience. Using an improper blade can cost you much more in the long run than a few short minutes to pop on a new blade: when cutting, to achieve a cleaner, more precise cut, use a blade with more teeth, for a quicker, more rough cut, use a blade with fewer teeth, when crosscutting be sure to use a crosscut blade, and so forth.

Blade Changes:

To change your blade you first need to remove the guard and pivot the blade mount cover, or access plate, away from the blade and remove the center nut. Make certain to turn the nut in the direction indicated on the saw as most are reverse threaded. While this area of your saw is open you should blow any lingering dust or debris. Dust will accumulate around the center of the blade which can effect the blade’s alignment and consequently, the accuracy of its spin. You should also check the washer and mounting plate for security and for any dust or residual buildup. Simply use any standard scouring pad to remove rust or residue.

General Tips:

Miter Table Top: It’s not only important to keep dust away from your blade, its also crucial to keep dust off the miter saw table. Keeping the saw table surface clean keeps you safe and ensures a cleaner, more precise cut. It’s also good practice to not oil or lube the table top as you don’t want any materials sliding or slipping during a cut. Essentially, it’s important to keep the saw table surface clean, but also to keep it slip free for the security of your materials and fingers.

Miter Fence: A good fence is crucial for cutting accuracy. All miter saws come with a left and right fence that connect in the middle of the saw. These standard fences are very accurate and great for perpendicular cutting. Because they are aluminum, however, they can bend or break relatively easily so remain cautious with your saw even when just making adjustments. Independent fences are also available for purchase. These are remarkably accurate and tend to yield pretty commendable results.

Dust Bags: Because saw dust can be a problem with miter saws, dust bags are essential for shop cleanliness and safety. They make a surprising difference in keeping your tools and parts clean, but also save operators from inhaling airborne particulates. The dust bag connects directly to the miter saw and collects excess dust and debris during use. Some saws can also be hooked up to a shop-vacuum for easier disposal and better collection.

Upkeep:

Brushes: Be certain to check your brushes every-so-often for wear and tear. It’s important to keep healthy brushes in your tools for performance purposes, but it also helps in diagnosing a problem. If you already know the condition of your brushes, you either know the brushes are bad, or that the problem lies somewhere else.

Power Cords:Check power cords for cracks or fraying. Faulty cords will obviously prevent power from getting to your tools, but they also present a safety hazard. Additionally, if you must use an extension cord, use the shortest length possible reach your project.

Cleanliness: Keep the tool blown out and your parts clean and tight. Lube the blade pivot joint around once per year depending on frequency of use. Wipe saw blades clean after every use.

Miter saws are a superior power tool to have on hand, and their accuracy, durability, and portability render them nearly indispensable for many woodworkers. For framing, molding, and other carpentry applications, miter saws are, by most accounts, the king of the wood-shop.

Simple Budgeting Tips – What Are Some of the Items Found in a Typical Household Budget?

If you’re new to budgeting, you’re probably wondering where to start. That’s easy, you should start by looking at your typical monthly expenses and create a master list of every expense. Budgeting can be overwhelming, but if you take simple steps and start with a list of your expenses, you’re much more likely to have a more comprehensive and accurate budget model. Here are the top categories that you must include in any household budget, starting with the largest costs.

Housing Expenses

This list is by far the biggest part of most people’s budget. Housing expenses include your monthly mortgage or rent, as well as the utility expenses such as gas, electric, water and sewer. Other related costs of housing include any homeowners or renters insurance, property taxes and private mortgage insurance. Monthly or annual homeowners association fees are also part of your housing expense, as well as any maintenance on your home or home improvements. Make a list of all your expenses related to where you live and that should complete the budget items for this category.

Transportation Expenses

Transportation is typically the second largest budget expense for most people’s household budget. Transportation costs include any type of travel related to everyday life. For example, any car payments, drivers license fees, registration fees, bus passes or taxi rides would be part of your transportation expenses. Other budget items include any car insurance or parking fees. Plane trips are included here if they are part of your everyday life, but would fall into vacation or entertainment if they are for pleasure. And don’t forget to add the cost of your car’s maintenance, oil changes, and of course, gas.

Food

Food is the next largest part of most household budgets. When preparing your budget, you’ll want to include any costs related to the food that you eat on a daily basis. This includes any grocery store trips and wholesale club visits, however, you’ll want to remove any non-food expenses from these bills. Other food budget items include dining out, coffee, snacks and the cost of any vegetable or fruit garden.

Entertainment

Entertainment can mean a lot of different things. Basically, anything that you do for pleasure that is not a required expenditure. Big ticket items in this category include such costs as boats, campers, snowmobiles and ATVs, as well as the costs that go along with them such as insurance, gas, maintenance, and any trailer costs. The day to day entertainment expenses that you’ll want to add to your budget include such things as movie theaters, dinner theaters, social events, parties at home or away, going out with your friends, trips to museums or sporting events, and anything else that you do for pleasure that isn’t a vacation. Other expenses that fit this category include your TV, satellite, cable, Netflix, or Hulu subscriptions, as well as any video game costs.

Vacation

Although it can be considered an entertainment expense, vacations should be broken out separately in a household budget. Vacation expenses include the travel, lodging, dining and entertainment expenses while you are on vacation. Make sure you include all of the little expenses like gas, taxis, souvenirs, airport shuttles, and tips at hotels and restaurants.

Communication

Communication expenses also make up a substantial portion of your monthly budget. These include costs for Internet access, your home phone, and any cell phone and cell phone data charges. Also, make sure you add in the cost of your phones and even computers if you use them primarily for communicating with sites like Facebook or skype.

Holiday and Gifts

While collecting the items for your budget, don’t forget to include a monthly allowance for holiday and gift costs. Holidays include all of the extra food and entertainment expenses, as well as decorations, costumes and sweets. Gift costs include all the gifts you buy each year, for holidays, birthdays, and for all the parties you may attend.

Miscellaneous

Everything not covered above can be lumped into miscellaneous expenses. Once you’ve collected these expenses, you can break them into any budget categories that you want to include in your budget.

These are all of the typical expenses found in a budget. Notice that income is not included, but will be when you create your budget. And now that you know what type of items are found in a typical household budget, you can start collecting and tracking your expenses to get ready to create your own personal budget.

How To Clean Your Earphones

Every time you put your earbuds in your ear you are getting them dirty. No matter how clean your ears are it is part of our body’s defense to create earwax to protect against infection and block out dust and dirt. While earbud earphones offer a high sound quality, and a noise isolating listening experience, these types of earphones need to be cleaned often as to not get a buildup of earwax on and in your earphones that can reduce the sound quality.

To avoid this build up and potential loss of sound quality there several things you need to clean your earphones.

What You Need:

  • Rubbing Alcohol (You can use warm water and soap as well but other cleaning supplies can cause damage)
  • Q-Tips
  • Cotton Balls
  • Soft Cloth

Steps To Cleaning Your Earphones

  1. Unplug the earbuds. (We just want to make sure we don’t get any liquid on your electronic device.)
  2. Take off silicone earphone tips from earphones housing.
  3. Put rubbing alcohol onto cotton ball. (The cotton ball should only be slightly damp not completely wet.)
  4. Gently rub along the earbuds housing with the cotton ball.
  5. Dip Q-Tip in rubbing alcohol
  6. Use Q-Tip to clean earphone tips inside and out.
  7. Let dry or wipe with soft cloth.

Cleaning Tips

  • Never use rough or coarse material to clean your earphones.
  • Do not saturate Q-Tips or cotton balls with rubbing alcohol.
  • Give earphones time to dry.

If you follow these steps you should be able to keep your earphones in top condition and get a little extra life out of them. Also it is possible to hurt your earphones when you are washing them so make sure you are extra careful not to get the

Q-Tips to wet or the cotton balls.

Comic Books – Japanese Manga vs American Comics

What are the primary differences between Japanese Manga (Comics) and American Comics?

There is a big difference in art styles between Manga, which is more stylized (exaggerated) and American comics, which tend to be more “realistic”. There are also quite a few serious differences between the two types of comics. Some of the differences, just to mention a few of them are the cost, creation, diverse audience and genres, presentation and even size.

The creation of Manga as well as its presentation is quite different than American Comics. Manga is printed in black-and-white format while American comics are the majority of the time in full color. Also, when you look at a graphic novel or Manga you will notice a difference in the size. Manga is frequently smaller than traditional American comic books, usually digest-size and roughly half to one-third the size of American comics. But where the American comics are generally thin like a small magazine, running about 32 pages, Manga comic books are thick and can be hundreds of pages in length!

In page count, Manga is quite similar to graphic novels, which are often just collections of the ongoing American comics. But unlike American graphic novels, which are usually just a collection of monthly comics in a single unified story or story arc, Manga books are often apart of an even bigger story and a complete Manga storyline can run thousands of pages.

Another difference between traditional American comics is that mainstream American comics are often created in a sort of assembly-line fashion. They have a writer (story), a penciler (initial sketch), inker (uses a pen to ink over the sketch), letterer (adds dialog) and a colorist (colors the inked sketch). Most Manga books are done by a single creator, who combines all those chores (except coloring).

Also Manga story lines usually move at a much quicker pace. Due to the high page count, one reads a Manga book at an accelerated pace. Manga books almost always have fewer panels and less dialogue (rambling) per page than American comic books. The price for Manga is also more than the average comic book and a bit more than a standard paperback novel, the small size of Manga and black-and-white printing rather than full color keeps the cost down. The lack color is made up when you consider the story development that it’ll have with the amount of pages it has.

In Japan, Manga is not viewed as just for kids unlike the American stereotype. There pretty much is a Manga for everyone. With that being stated there are three main genres in Japanese Manga: Shonen Manga (boy’s comics), Shojo Manga (girl’s comics) and Hentai (adult comics).

Shonen Manga is pretty much comics that are primarily action and/or adventure geared. If you’d like to view some examples of that genre, I’d recommend “Bleach” and/or “Full Metal Alchemist”. Shojo Manga is for the opposite sex; they are often about relationships and/or love interests. Please note that even though a particular genre is geared towards a certain audience it’s not limited to just that audience (unless otherwise stated). Finally Hentai Manga, I won’t delve much into this since it is primarily for adults and NOT suitable for children (just to be safe in case a child is reading this). Anyways, Hentai Manga is sometimes sexually explicit and/or adult-themed. In other words, do not purchase this for your child.

Next time someone asks you what the difference is between Manga and [American] comics, you can surprise them with your knowledge.

Educational Classroom Games – Wheel of Fortune

GREAT GAME

Wheel of fortune

A useful tool to have for playing educational games in the classroom is a Sticky Ball. A Sticky Ball is a small plastic ball that is covered with miniature suction cups. These balls are ideal for playing target games on your classroom boards.

Wheel of Fortune is just one of the many fun games a teacher can play with their students to review concepts taught in class.

1) Divide the class into two teams.

2) Draw a giant wheel on the board and divide it up into 6-8 pie slices.

3) Make half the pie slices worth points (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4)

4) The other sections are what add fun to the game. How you label them is up to you. However, here are some of the fan favourites.

– Bankrupt (Team loses all their points)

– Switch (Teams switch point totals)

– Cha-cha (Team must do the Cha-cha dance)

– Bow (Team must bow to their opponents)

– Kiss the Pig (Team must blow a kiss to a pig drawn on the board)

5) Begin play by choosing a player from each team and asking them a question from the lesson.

6) Once students have answered their question they go to the toss line and toss the Sticky Ball toward the target.

7) The game continues as long as you want and the team with the most point at the end of the last round is victorious.

If you want to make the game more competitive and move along more quickly only ask one question to the pair of students and allow the student who answers first to toss from a closer toss line.