Differences Between Manual Tilting and Reclining Wheelchairs

What’s Recline?

A reclining wheelchair has a back rest that will recline from almost vertical back almost 90 degrees (almost horizontal). The recline action causes the hips of the user to open up and transform them from a seated position to a position more akin to laying on their back.

What’s Tilt?

A tilting wheelchair has a seat frame that tilts backward in varying degrees from almost vertical back about 50 degrees. The tilt action on a tilting wheelchair does not open up the hip angle. The user stays in the same seated position but is tilted backwards. Tilt wheelchairs are often chosen for children and seniors who require comfort, stability and posture control.

Tilt versus Recline

I’m a big fan of tilting wheelchairs over recliners but each has its own purpose and there are a couple of things that may make a reclining wheelchair more suitable for some users.

Recliner Features:

  • Often used by people who have catheters and want to be able to change them while remaining in their wheelchair.
  • Usually a bit less expensive that tilt wheelchairs
  • Will usually fold for storage and transporting
  • Often used to get people into vehicles where there is inadequate headroom for a wheelchair user

Reclining wheelchairs have a couple of serious characteristics that need to be taken into account.

  1. When a user is reclined part way, gravity will cause their bottoms try to slide forward out of the wheelchair. If the sliding happens they are likely to fall out onto the floor, if the seating prevents them from sliding, pressure is created called shearing which is very uncomfortable and will eventually lead to skin breakdown.
  2. Also, when reclining, the user’s back will slide down the back upholstery. This effect has two inherent problems. The first being that no moulded or contoured back rest can be used as the user will constantly be shifted out of position. The second is when the user is moved back to a upright position and shearing is once again created because gravity is trying to prevent the user’s back from sliding up the back upholstery.
  3. Elevating legrests are almost always ordered with reclining wheelchairs which add to the cost and weight of the wheelchair. Unless the legs are elevated most users find being reclined quite uncomfortable.
  4. Reclining wheelchairs tend to be heavy and hard for a user to self-propel.
  5. The final drawback is that is care giver must control the recline function on manual reclining wheelchairs. (high end power wheelchairs allow the user to control their back angle independently).

Tilt Features:

  • Aids in positioning and posture control for both children and adults
  • Changes user pressure points and reduces the chances of pressure sores when tilt angle is changed regularly
  • Enables proper positioning when users are transferred into the wheelchair using a lift
  • Suitable for almost all custom seating systems and off the shelf seating components
  • Will help increase the field of vision for users who are severely bent forward due to a kyphosis (“roundback” or “hunched back”).
  • Increase the length of time the user can stay in the chair if tilt angle changed regularly
  • Can be tilted back to allow entry into low entrances of vehicles
  • Can be tilted all the way back for resting or napping

Tilt Drawbacks:

  1. They don’t, except for some small pediatric models, fold. This means the transporting and storing of them will require some thought and planning.
  2. A second drawback is that due to their weight they are not easy to propel and really shouldn’t be considered a mobility device for independence.
  3. The final drawback is that is care giver must control the tilt function on manual tilting wheelchairs. (high end power wheelchairs allow the user to control their seat tilt independently).


Reclining wheelchairs, while still widely available, are seldom chosen by wheelchair users these days. Tilt wheelchairs will provide almost all the benefits, few of the drawbacks and some added benefits over the recliners.

The characteristics of both of these types of wheelchairs provide advantages for users who have more complicated needs than those of most conventional wheelchair users.

Juan Gris – The Intellectual Cubist Painter & Sculptor From Spain

One of the greats of the Cubist Movement, Juan Gris was born José Victoriano González-Pérez, on March 23, 1887, to a wealthy businessperson in Madrid, Spain. In 1902, he joined the ‘Escuela de Artes y Manufacturas’ in Madrid to study Mechanical Drawing, only to quit it two years later. During his education itself, he had started contributing to local periodicals. From 1904-05, he started taking his first lessons in painting from the ‘Academic’ artist José Maria Carbonero. In 1905, he adopted the pseudonym of Juan Gris.

Painter and Sculptor, Juan Gris fled to Paris in 1906 and settled in a studio at the Bateau-Lavoir, where his compatriot, Pablo Picasso and other artists, such as Georges Braque and Max Jacob lived. Gris started as a caricaturist for journals, such as Le Rire, L’assiette au beurre, Le Charivari, and Le Cri de Paris. He soon however, encountered the avant-garde, with his initial works being ‘Post-Impressionist’ ‘Still-life.’ In 1911, Juan spent a year with Picasso and was drawn to the ‘Cubist Movement.’ He painted monochromatic still-life canvasses. He held his first exhibition in a small gallery, which was well received. This was followed by his first masterpiece, “Homage à Picasso” (1912), which was displayed at the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d’Or. A German art dealer, Kahnweiler, who would remain his representative for life and even wrote his biography, offered a contract to Juan.

He evolved a new geometric style, “The Gris Grid,” which he employed in his works of 1912, the “Man in the Café” and “The Watch.” Juan then took to a new technique, which involved the use of long vertical strips. He however soon swung from it, as he latched on to ‘papier collés,’ better known as collages, an invention by Braque and Picasso. By 1913, Gris devised his own methods of cut and paste, wherein he would use the elements ‘Realistically’ and not as mere ‘Cubist’ representations. Juan’s were much richer and more colorful, as seen in the “Violin and Engraving” (1913), “The Marble Console” (1914), and “the Flowers” (1914).

The World War saw Kahnweiler going into exile and Juan, who had evaded conscription, become penniless. A contract with Leonce Rosenberg helped him survived until Kahnweiler’s returned. He left Paris with his friend Charlotte (Josette) Herpin to settle in Beaulieu, where he made the “Portrait of Josette” (1916). Gris’ skills grew rapidly, resulting in glittering pieces, such as the “Violin and Glass” (1918) and the “Harlequin at a Table” (1919). In 1920, Gris suffered a major bout of pleurisy.

Later, Sergei Diaghilev commissioned him to design the sets and costumes for “Les Tentations de la Berë,” in 1924. Gris held his only exhibition outside France at the Flechtheim Gallery, Duesseldorf, in 1925. This period though saw a general decline in the quality, the artist however, still managed to produce wonders, like the “Guitar with Sheet of Music” (1926). Juan Gris’ health deteriorated rapidly and he died on May 11, 1927, at the age of forty, at Boulogne-sur-Seine. He was survived by his wife and a son.

Benefits of Shade and Sunshade

Some people prefer to leave the outdoor areas in their home as natural as possible. However, before you make this decision you have to consider all the benefits of shade and sunshade. The reality is that patio shades, outdoor umbrellas, marquees and gazebos are not only functional. They can contribute greatly to the decor as well.

Protection from the harmful UV rays of the sun is the major benefit of shade and sunshade. You, your family and your guests need protection from the harmful UV rays of the sun. This is particularly applicable to kids and people with fair skin. Apart from protecting you from disease such as skin cancer, shades allow you to stay cooler even on the hottest days preventing heat stroke and more serious conditions.

Your outdoor furniture is protected as well. Even if the items are made from material that is UV resistant, you will reduce fading and weakening of the structure of the material considerably just by putting an umbrella over them. In general, few fabrics used for making sitting furniture and decorative items have effective UV protection so, it is best for them to be covered especially during the hot summer days.

Making outdoor areas more comfortable and cozier is another superb benefit. You will certainly enjoy the cool breeze under the shade no matter whether you are relaxing by the pool or having a meal with family and friends. Despite the common misconception shades and umbrellas, in particular, do not make the outdoor area more crowded. Modern day models are designed to blend excellently with any outdoor setting and to match furniture pieces with different designs and styles.

Enhancing the outdoor decor is also a great benefit that you will get from shade and sunshade. Outdoor shades come in all sorts of designs, shapes, sizes and colors. You can readily get an artistic umbrella with a top part in the form of a blossom or a tea cup. Such an item can add a totally unique touch to your outdoor area. You can play with color as well. Orange and yellow canopies can give brightness and charm to any outdoor area. Blue and green ones blend excellently with the natural scenery.

You can readily find high-quality shade and sunshade available in stores at affordable prices. Given all their benefits, you should definitely invest in such items for the outdoor area of your home. Just make sure that you get items which are reliable and durable.

Bridge The Gap With Medical Bridge Insurance

Medical bridge insurance is a type of insurance that bridges the gaps that occurs in some traditional policies. It is a known fact that no insurance pays 100% unless the out-of-pocket limit has been met. If this happens, then you have already experienced some major medical bills. In some cases bridge insurance can eliminate the entire portion of cost to the employee. This type of insurance can help provide coverage for confinement to a hospital, and other medical bills.

Those people that are lucky enough to work for a company that offers health benefits can still experience a financial loss. There are deductibles, co-pays, and co-insurance that still have to be paid. And that is on top of high premiums. Wouldn’t it be nice to have a low premium insurance that helps with these expenses in times of sickness?

The flexibility of medical bridge insurance offers different options. They are employee, one-parent families, two-parent families, and employee and spouse. This type of policy is priced very competitively so that makes it a great choice if you are looking for some type of supplement insurance.

Another benefit to this supplement is that you can sometimes afford to select your main health insurance with a higher deductible. This will make your premiums much less each month. If you do get sick, the bridge policy can help take up the slack and help keep your finances in good shape.

Talk to your benefit coordinator and see if there are options at your place of employment for medical bridge insurance. If there is not anyone assigned to your company as benefit coordinator, you can get the information you need through the human resource department or your manager.

It is good to know that supplemental insurance is not just for the elderly anymore. A medical bridge insurance policy is a safety net that is affordable to everyone. Investigate yourself, and see if this is protection you would like to have.

Hammer Throwing Technique – Basic Tips On Training For The Hammer Throw

There are many famous track and field events, of which the hammer throw is certainly not one of them. It is more of a fringe discipline but still requires a great deal of technical proficiency and physical strength and power in order to succeed. Hammer throwing technique is crucial, and this should form a significant part of your training. When training for any event, consider these tips.

Your training should be divided into three distinct phases, the first of which should focus on preparation, the second of which should focus on precompetition work, and the third of which will be the actual competition itself.

Core strength is an absolutely fundamental element of hammer throwing and therefore this is something that should be incorporated into all of the different phases of your training. The only times when you should not be focusing on core strength training will be during your days of rest, but in general it is important to train five days a week in this way.

Your technique is something that should be developed during the preparation phase of your training schedule. Unless you have or be knuckled down on the proper technique it simply will not matter how much strength training and core training you do. As such, focus on getting your technique right before you move onto any other aspect of your training.

During the second phase it is important that you track your progress in competition style throws. Make sure that you are recording every throw that you do note down progress you are making.

Feedback from your coaches is a crucial element and unless you do this you will never be able to improve. During the final stage of competition and the lead up to that competition you should eliminate weight training completely. Instead, maintain your focus on core training, conditioning, and improving on your technique if required.

Mosaics In Roman Baths

To say that the ancient Romans were obsessed with bathing would not be a great exaggeration. At it’s heyday, around 100 AD, the city of Rome had over 30 public baths and a host of private establishments. Rome was extremely well watered, with eleven great aqueducts bringing a huge amount of water into the city – some estimates give a figure as high as 1000 liters per day per person (about four times as much water as a modern American would use). Water-borne sewage, in a vast network of sewers laid under the streets, kept the city clean and healthy. Much of this abundant water was allocated to the “thermae” or public bathing facilities.

A Roman public bath, in imperial times, was very impressive facility, in many respects a combination of a sports centre or gym and a country club – though the larger ones would have dwarfed most similar modern facilities. Besides spacious halls for the swimming pools, there were suites of rooms, containing the equivalent of modern Turkish Baths (steam) and Scandinavian style Saunas (dry heat), Jacuzzis (warm pools), ice-cold plunge pools as well as exercise halls, massage rooms, toilet facilities, lounges and even public libraries. Extensive gardens surrounded the main structures and there were exercise yards for the athletically inclined.  

The prestigious public baths in Rome and in many of the other important cities were endowed personally by the reigning emperor and were a means of stressing his importance, status and power. A large portion of the water from the aqueducts was reserved for the baths and one aqueduct – the Aquis Alexandretta was built specifically for this purpose. What is interesting, is that the facilities were not confined to the use of the upper classes and were open to all free citizens of the empire, though there may have been a very nominal entrance fee of a couple of copper coins. Public decorum was preserved and there were separate times set at the public baths for the bathing of women and men.  

In order to embellish the massive halls, with their acres of concrete pavements and  many enclosed suites of hot and cold rooms, the medium of choice was always mosaics. Artists were commissioned to create works on a huge scale and on a variety of themes – though water-related themes, such as playing dolphins,  representations of waves and the depictions of water gods such as Neptune prevailed. Using mosaic motifs for floor and wall covering was both decorative and practical, for it not only added to the sense of luxury and elegance, but it also waterproofed and prorected the base concrete and made the surfaces easy to keep clean. An important consideration was that the use of brilliant white marble or other light coloured tesserae (mosaic blocks) for larger areas of background in the art work ensured that maximum use was made of reflected light to brighten up the rooms.  

As an example of imperial splendor, the Baths of Caracalla at Rome remain the most impressive. They were built on a massive scale and, even in their ruined state, one can get a sense of the opulence and grandeur that they once represented. This was recognised by the Italian dictator Mussolini and since his time the great halls have been used as a most impressive  backdrop for  seasonal night time operatic productions.

Millions of baked clay bricks and tons of concrete were used in the building of the Baths and the original mosaic floors would easily have covered several football fields. Most of the floors were covered with repetitive geometric patterns of coloured tesserae, but there were also cheerful dichromatic works featuring dark figures of dolphins, charioteers, bulls and musicians, picked out skillfuly, against brilliant white marble backgrounds. The artists have managed to capture a great sense of movement and vivacity in their work, using just these two colors of tesserae.

One cannot but be amazed at the planning and care that went into setting out artwork on such a scale to cover these huge areas of floor – Where did they get all the mosaic artists and artisans, capable of maintaining the unity and spirit of these enormous pieces?  

Not far to the east of Rome, where the Tiber meets the sea is the ancient city of Ostia. This  seaport was the entrepot of Rome and was a well laid out, compact port city of merchants, shipwrights, tavern keepers and prostitutes – an industrial / commercial city that had the responsibility of despatching food and produce to the mother city. It was primarily a functional trading town, but nevertheless,  possessed  great public facilities.

There was a fine amphitheatre, a forum and other public spaces, many splendid temples, water-borne toilets and, of course, well appointed public baths (thermae). The two preserved baths were lavish and spacious, with floor coverings of exquisite dichromatic mosaic art – much of it still in good condition. The baths took up a sizeable area of the central city and were obviously of great importance to the hard working populace, who would have been mainly middle class merchants and dockyard workers.    

In England an ancient Roman villa has been lovingly restored at Chedworth, near the town of Cirencester. There were two luxurious bathing suites attached to the buildings of this extensive homestead. Each of the bath houses had several beautiful mosaic floors, featuring geometric patterns and borders, but also displaying motifs such as figures, birds and flowers. A number of these bright floors were set up on stubby hippocaust columns and hot air was drafted through the space underneath, to provide central heating to chase away the winter chill. The floor mosaics themselves were set out with a small palette of whites, greys, yellows and browns, all cut from local stones.

However the prominent terracotta red tesserae were re-cycled ceramics, from baked roof tiles. The villa was in a remote area, a great distance from the heart of the empire, and it is not plausible that the necessary artistic skills and mosaic techniques would have been found locally, in order to produce such impressive work. The owner’s of the farm must have been wealthy enough to have imported the services of migrant professional mosaic workers, presumably working under contract, to embellish their home. Incidentally it was the mosaics themselves that led to the re-discovery of the villa, which had become buried in time, following its abandonment in the fourth century. Burrowing rabbits had unearthed loose mosaic pieces (tesserae) and these colourful blocks were noticed by some woodsmen on a hunting expedition, who then informed the local squire.  

We can still see many of these wonderful mosaics of the Roman world looking as bright and cheerful, as the day they were first laid out. A 2000 year testimony to the durability of this versatile medium. For some photographs of mosaics in Roman baths, you can visit the site http://how-to-make-mosaics.com.

How to Apply Tile Adhesive

Preparing and applying tile adhesive is a very straightforward job, and is often thought of as the simplest part to laying tiles. Be sure to choose the right tile adhesive for your project as the types and compositions can vary considerably. It’s important to take into account the colour of the adhesive with regard to the kind of tiles you are laying (use a white adhesive for tiles with any transparency such as natural stone tiles), the setting time (standard setting times average around 24 hours, while rapid-set adhesives can dry in up to 2 hours), and the type of the adhesive with regard to the surfaces and materials you are working with (some adhesives offer added flexibility, or varying bond strengths etc).

Once you’ve purchase the correct tile adhesive for your project, you then need to start mixing it, ready to apply. Always mix your adhesive in small amounts as you progress through the project, and never in one go, as it’s difficult to predict exactly how much you’ll at the beginning, and also how long it will take you to complete the job. The mixing ratio can vary between types of tile adhesive, so be sure to check the packaging for the correct amounts, and if you have any queries, just speak to your local tile specialist. The easiest way to accurately mix the correct quantities is to use a specialised mixing bucket, which will indicate quantities on the bucket itself. The mixing itself is best performed with an electric drill fitted with a mortar-mixing paddle. It’s important not to mix your adhesive too rapidly – suggested speeds are under 300rpm – as this may encourage unwanted air pockets to become trapped in the mixture. Once the adhesive is mixed to form a consistency almost like whipped cream with no lumps, allow it to rest for 5-10mins before applying it, as this can help to encourage any un-dissolved powder to mix effectively.

When applying tile adhesive, it’s best to use the correct trowel for the type of adhesive you’re using, and for the kind of tile you will be laying. Again, recommendations should be found on the adhesive packaging indicating which type of trowel is most appropriate for the job. The simple reason for this is that different types of tiles will require varying degrees of bond and purchase from their relationship with the texture of the adhesive, and this will be achieved using an appropriate trowel. Trowels differ in their shape, size, and most importantly, in the depth of their notches, which creates the texture when applying the tile adhesive to your sub-floor or wall. An example of how trowels may differ in type and use is for example when laying large tiles, it’s recommended to use a large-notched trowel, to create a heavier, deeper grain in the adhesive, where as a mosaic trowel, with much finer notches can be used when applying adhesive for a mosaic tiling job, to create a shallower, more intricate texture.

When it comes to the actual application of the tile adhesive, use a standard gauging trowel to deliver the adhesive onto the floor or wall which you’ll be tiling onto. Then once you have applied a generous amount of adhesive – enough to lay a few tiles onto – begin to level it out with your notched trowel to evenly cover the area you’ll be working on. Once you have spread the adhesive out evenly, begin methodically scraping the trowel through the adhesive at a 45 degree angle with the wall or floor surface, creating the appropriate lines of notched adhesive.

You should now be ready to place your tile onto the tile adhesive, taking care with heavy tiles, not to over extend yourself or do any damage to your back. Also, take care to ‘back-butter’ any tiles that have cracks in them, or happen to be particularly porous (like travertine tiles for example), to ensure they are adequately protected, and will form a good bond.

Is It Bad Luck to Wear Pearls on Your Wedding Day?

Is wearing pearls on your wedding day a bad idea? There are many superstitions and myths associated with getting married that would tell you this shall bring bad luck. Is it true or just another old wives’ tale?

Many brides choose to wear pearl jewellery on their big day, with the pearls themselves representing perfection, purity and love. It is a long-standing tradition that can be found as far back as at the beginning of Hindu civilization when Krishna is said to have decorated his daughter Pandia with a pearl that was drawn from the sea.

And yet despite this symbolic good luck charm, there is a contrary belief that it is bad luck for a bride to wear pearls on her wedding day. In Western countries, pearls can be associated with an ill omen, representing the tears that a bride will later shed in married life. Where does this superstition come from?

There is much historical evidence in most Western cultural histories for pearls to be linked with tears. The Romans thought pearls to be tears of angels or gods and Homer in The Odyssey describes tears being ‘reborn as pearls’. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the flood of pearls into Europe following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the West Indies created a ‘pearl rush’. Women of high rank were adorned with extravagant pearl ornaments with matching sets of necklaces, bracelets, earrings and brooches. Queen Elizabeth I of England was said to own over 3,000 pearl embroidered dresses.

But the keeping up with fashion had a cost, possibly leading to the downfall of several small European royal houses. In 1645 Milton wrote in his Epitaph to the Marchioness of Winchester that the ‘pearls of dew she wears prove to be presaging tears’. By the middle of the 18th and 19th centuries, pearls began to be reserved for wear during periods of official half-mourning. These took place after the passing of a specific period of time following a funeral and were largely fashion-led. Ladies at the court of Queen Victoria were permitted to wear pearls, diamonds or plain ornaments.

Today’s superstitious association of pearls with bad luck simply comes from a rich ancient, medieval and modern cultural history. There’s no bad luck in wearing pearls at your wedding. The beauty and simplicity of a white pearl, perhaps worn with diamonds, will complement a bride on her special day.

Phenomenal German ‘Expressionist’ Painter – Anton Kerschbaumer

Anton Kerschbaumer, the famous German ‘Expressionist’ painter, was born on November 20, 1885, in Rosenheim, Germany. He championed one of the most complex and diverse art movements ever included in the history of ‘Modern Art.’ Kerschbaumer believed that he could use his art as a bridge towards a better future. From the year 1901 to 1908, Anton studied under Maximilian Dasio and Julius Exter, at the School of Decorative Arts in Munich. Initially in his career, Anton also taught as an art teacher there. After 1908, he moved to Berlin to study under Lovis Corinth, who had also taught Paul Kleinschmidt. In his early years, The ‘Impressionist’ works of Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, and Henri Matisse, impressed the artist. Later however, he deflected from ‘Impressionism.’

In 1905, Anton Kerschbaumer joined a very famous ‘Expressionist’ group, “Die Brücke,” formed by a small section of artists who met as the students of architecture in Dresden. Other prominent members of this group included Erich Heckel, Fritz Bleyl, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, and Carl Schmidt-Rottluf. The group disbanded after eight years, in 1913, but its implications for the ‘Modern German Art’ were immense. In 1914, Anton Kerschbaumer had his first exhibition with the help of an art dealer, Israel Beer Neumann.

Due to the outset of the First World War, Kerschbaumer had to stop painting for some time and in 1916, he worked as an ambulance driver in Flanders. During this period, he met several artists, such as Erich Heckel, Max Kaus, and Otto Herbig, who were too serving in the German army. Erich Heckel, his military supervisor in Ostend, inspired Kerschbaumer’s early works and also influenced him to create ‘Lithographic Art.’ In 1919, Kerschbaumer came back to Berlin and took part in his first big exhibition with the publisher, Paul Cassirer.

In 1921, the artist married Friederike and spent most of his summers with her in Ammersee. In 1923, he founded the Bloch-Kerschbaumer School in Berlin with Martin Bloch. He later, however, gave up his place to Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Also later that year, Kerschbaumer took part in an exhibition of contemporary artists in the Berlin gallery, Nierendorf. In the year 1930, he joined the German Academy Villa Massimo in Rome for three months on a scholarship. Here, he met the famous ‘Expressionist,’ Karl Schmidt-Rottluff and Otto Herbig, with whom he spent the summer in Malcesine. In the winter of the same year, Anton Kerschbaumer became seriously ill and died on August 2, 1931 in Berlin-Tegel.

Chandelier Design – How to Choose a Chandelier Size & Style

Chandelier Lighting Guides and Information

Chandeliers can be elegant or purely functional, center piece light fixtures or smaller functional lights, the focus of a room or merely provide complementary light. For centuries, chandeliers have provided illumination for all sorts of interior spaces. Kichler Chandeliers are one of the top brands today for any price and style. From the classy to the reserved, these adaptable chandelier fixtures are becoming increasingly versatile. They add sparkle and ambience, while displaying a functionality that is undeniable. When you’re looking for a chandelier, you may have some questions. How much light do I need for my room? How big should my new chandelier be? What are the top name brands? What themes and finishes are available? Whatever your questions, this is a great place to begin.

What room should the chandelier go?

For years, chandeliers were hung in the dining room, living room and entry. But recently even large bathrooms-which have become increasingly popular-and other areas of the home have become ideal settings. Your new chandelier should be large enough to draw the eye without taking up so much space that there is nothing to see but the fixture itself. Keep the ceiling height in mind.

Kichler chandeliers will fill in some of the open space toward the top of your room, making the general feel of the room more friendly and inviting. As a general rule, you want to have the bottom of the chandelier located eight feet above the floor. If you have low ceilings, you will want to be very careful with your selection. No lighting fixture should be so low enough that people have to duck around it just to walk through the room. Seriously do you want people crashing into your chandelier and knocking themselves out?

What size chandelier?

First, determine the length and width of the room and add those figures together. That should equal the sum of and chandelier converted to inches. Example: If the dining room is 18 ft. x 14 ft. Knowing that 18 + 14 is 32, the correct size chandelier for the dining room would be 32 inches in diameter.

If this measurement seems small due to the size of your dining room table, size your chandelier three-quarters the width of the table. In addition, the bottom of the chandelier should be approximately 32 to 34 inches above the dining room table.

The above equation can be used when sizing a chandelier for an entry or foyer. However, foyers can be high, keep in mind the bottom of the fixture should be at least seven to eight feet from the floor. Also, installing a chandelier in a entry, glare can be avoided by buying a chandelier with shades.

How do I light my room?

Lighting a smaller room can be challenging, but much like sizing your chandelier, we have created a formula that works very well to get a general idea on the size of your chandelier. Determine the area of the room by multiplying the length by the width in feet. Then, multiply that number by 1.5. This will give you the total amount of wattage you need for general brightness and size. Example: Again, if your room is 18 feet times 13 feet, when you multiply these numbers, you get 234. Then multiply 192 by 1.5, and you get 351 watts. This would be the recommended wattage value for the room. If you have an 8-light chandelier that requires 40-watt bulbs, 320 watt should be about the right amount of light. If you have a bigger room or need more lighting you can multiply the number by 2.5 to get a stronger idea on the amount of light.

Kichler Lighting and other brand offer hundreds of different choices in from sizes to theme.  There is a wide range of themes and styles out there, something will be sure to tickle your fancy and please guests. Some of the themes are available from Kichler Lighting include art deco, contemporary, craftsman, crystal, renaissance, traditional, stained glass, tropical, and tuscan.

Kate Spade – 10 Fun Facts About Her

You mention “Kate Spade” and visions of designer handbags instantly come to mind; however, she has broadened her horizons once again to now include designer style Kindle Covers. No more “nerdy”, plain, unattractive covers for Amazons newest generation e-reader. Now it’s style all the way with the Kate Spade Kindle Covers.

This isn’t the first time Kate has expanded her horizons. Starting out designing handbags based on the simple fact that she couldn’t find what SHE wanted when she shopped, she took her designing abilities long strides since those beginning days and has created quite the designer empire. While her newest product line may be the versatile Kindle covers, she has everything from handbags to jewelry, perfumes to bedding and everything in between. But she doesn’t do it alone…from the very beginning she’s held tight to her man and he’s played an important part in her life as both business and life partner.

So who is Kate Spade? Here are 10 Fun Facts

Kate Spade was born Christmas eve in 1962 as Katherine Noel Brosnahan in Kansas City, MO.

Kate Spade has been in business with her husband, Andy Spade, since January of 1993 when she decided to design sleek, utilitarian handbags she had been searching for to buy for herself for years.

Kate’s brother-in-law is the one and only comedian, David Spade – hmmm, wonder if THAT’S why her handbags are often spotted on the David Spade comedy series “Just Shoot Me”?

Kate was a former accessories editor/senior editor of accessories at Mademoiselle Magazine from 1986 to 1991.

The Kate Spade Company prides itself with “utility, wit and playful sophistication” as hallmarks of their style and creates handbags, stationery, home products, shoes, perfume and more (including the newest Kindle 6″ covers)!

Kate’s husband is the main man in charge of the “Men’s Line” of complimentary items. The men’s line is called ‘Jack Spade’ – a fictional name and compliments many of the items available in her line.

In 2007 the company was acquired by design powerhouse Liz Claiborne, becoming an American Icon with a strong backing of an established company; while using their core values and exclusive styles

Kate Spade Kindle Covers are designed with a touch of “playful sophistication” in mind… focusing, as always on color and design they also honor some of the great classics like “The Great Gatsby” and “Great Expectations”. But what makes them truly unique is the fact that they are built for protection of your Newest Generation 6″ style Kindle with knapsack like features, a strong locking mechanism that holds the Kindle in snug without fear of dropping out and includes a storage pocket. The covers are much like the rest of her line of goods, completely usable, sturdy and serve a purpose while looking designer fantastic!

She has a strong voice for women and her company has taken part in an organization called ‘Women for Women International’. The organization speaks out and helps organize women in need from many countries such as Bosnia, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Rwanda and more to encompass women’s talents with the abilities of large corporations such as Kate Spade NYC to create a better life for women in these countries. By utilizing their talents and employing them in their countries, they can sustain a livelihood. In the end Kate Spade NYC provides a market for the goods and talents of the women in countries with deplorable conditions.

The couple had a daughter in 2005, Frances Beatrix Spade which is the apple of their eye. I wonder if she will be the inspiration of a new “Children’s Line” to compliment the already beloved Kate Spade styles?

The Ups and Downs of Folding Snow Shovels

You might be considering a new snow shovel. Maybe you should take a look at folding snow shovels and explore your options?

The ups

It will not cost you much more than any other low-end shovel. They are priced as low as ten dollars and many are fifteen dollars. There are however, more expensive ones, depending on your taste.

You never know what conditions you may run into in inclement weather. Having a snow shovel at your immediate disposal may be invaluable. You can take it with you when you travel. Many times, your old shovel will just not fit. Also, it may take up more space than you can afford.

If you go camping often, you know that a shovel is a handy tool to have. When traveling, space is at a premium. This shovel fits into a small area. That leaves room for something else that you need. Suppose you are out in your snowmobile. There will be times when a shovel can be a very important tool. If you have a snow shovel in your car, you may avoid being stranded sometime.

You may find yourself hiking someday. How are you going to get through that blocked path? If you have a shovel, you can use it to clear the way. There is a multitude of uses for a space saving shovel. What are you going to do with all of those leaves or grass trimmings? You might consider scooping them up and getting rid of them.

There is always a need for an extra snow shovel in wintertime. You may not have to shovel that walkway alone, if there are enough tools to go around.

The downs

Sometimes take apart tools are not as strong as solid one. Durability may be an issue. Consider how much usage the tool will receive. If it is only for emergencies or part time, it may work fine. If you have harsh winters and need something reliable, you may want to look elsewhere.

It may not be for everyone. You may decide that space is not an issue. In that case, a normal snow shovel will do.

You may not be able to buy this shovel in the usual places. There are however, many online vendors to purchase them from. As with those types of orders, there is always a delay for processing and shipping. If you need the item today, you may not be able to get it.


Folding snow shovels can save you a great deal of space and help keep things organized. They are relatively inexpensive. There may be a durability issue if they are to be used often. Their compact design makes them perfect for emergency use.

Scissor Lift Table – Buying Guide

When choosing a scissor lift table, you need to consider these 5 items to prevent operator injuries and expensive downtime. I have been selling lift tables for years and these 5 key points are what I would consider a must know for any engineer or purchasing agent.

1. Who Makes The Lift Table

It amazes me as to the sheer number of lift tables that are available on the market! What amazes me even more is that the quality of some of these lifts are so poor. More and more of these lifts are coming from China and are designed not for performance, but for price points.

Action – Ask the lift manufacturer, or distributor, where the lift is built. If it is not built here in the states, then chances are you will end up with oil leaks, bad motors, weak welds, and inferior components! Remember, pay now or pay later.

2. Know Your Duty Cycle

If your application calls for a lift table that will cycle more than 20 times an hour then you will likely need a high duty cycle lift table. Standard lifts are only designed to cycle a few times an hour. Anything more than that can prematurely wear the lift table out.

Action – Let the manufacturer know how many cycles the lift will endure in a hour, day, year time frame. If you inform them that the lift will cycle 60 times an hour and they still suggest a standard duty cycle lift table, then talk to another manufacturer.

3. Center the Load

A lift table with an offset load is unsafe and also prematurely wears out the lift tables scissor joints and other components. Any load that is more than 30% offset from the lifts center should be a concern. Keep in mind this is a general rule. For very heavy weight capacities and for high duty cycle lifts, 30% can even be too much.

Action – Make it a point to properly center the load onto the lifter. If that is not possible, talk through your loading sequence with the manufacturer. They can make recommendations or worst case, red flag your application.

4. Safety First

Any lift table that will be used with human operators nearby, should be equipped with the proper safety components.

Action – Safety skirts should be purchased to protect scissor pinch points. If the lift is pit mounted, then it should be equipped with angled toe guards to prevent shear points. A power lockout device should also be used to maintenance the lift. These are often times call LOTO valves. I also recommend that all tables be anchored to the floor when possible.

5. Ergonomics

Lift tables are primarily used to improve ergonomics, so you need to give special consideration to how the operator will load and unload the material.

Action – Ideally you want the material to around 30″ to 42″ from the ground. This will keep it around the elbow height of 95% of the operators. If the material is flat sheets then a lift only can be used. If the material is in small boxes, then you should consider a lift and rotate. The rotate will prevent the operator from reaching across the pallet. If the material is in a bin and it is loaded with small pieces, then a lift and tilt should be considered. The tilting function will place the material closest the operator as it will slide to one side of the bin.

These are just a few of the items you need to consider when purchasing lift tables, and you should always consult with an expert if possible. The more information you can provide the manufacturer about your application, the more likely you are to end up with a quality table that your boss will be impressed with.

Elevator Companies – Which Is The Best?

See how easily you can get the best elevator for your building plan!

Contractors need not search for elevator companies in various places anymore because of the information that can be acquired from the internet. Do you wish to get the best elevator for your building project? Then you have come to the right place because I will give you a run-down of the elevator names that you might want to consider.

Almost all elevators come in the same appearance: automatic doors, buttons that light up, lifts that go up and down, and other things. However, there are still differences in elevators for every brand in the market like energy consumption, aesthetic qualities, capacity, speed, durability, etc. That’s why it’s important that contractors seek out the best ones that will fit the needs of the people in the building.

Elevators are said to consume 2-10% of the entire building’s energy bill, hence the need nowadays to look for the energy-friendly ones. Brands like Schindler, Otis, and Thyssenkrupp offer elevators that do not make use much energy.

Also, another thing that one should consider is the size of the elevator; the people (or freight weight) capacity and the space it needs for the shaft or cabs and the internal ropes. Be sure to look into the details like this one because it’s very important to coordinate the best size for the elevator, that is, according to how it will be used.

Aside from the size, also mind the number of floors your elevator will travel as some elevators are compatible for smaller buildings and some are actually made for buildings like the Petronas.

Select the quality products, those which are rated and more industrially used and the ones which offer exactly the specifications for your ideal elevator.

Search License Plate Numbers Online – Free License Plate Search

There may be a need for you to find out the identity of person through there license plate number. You may have been in a hit and run or maybe you saw someone driving erratic on the road and you were able to get there license plate number and you want to find out who the owner of that vehicle is. There are several ways you can go about searching a license plate identity online.

The first one is there are private investigators that will perform this kind of search for you but they will charge you around $200 or so. This can be a fast and effective way to get the information you want and if you do not have a lot of time then this can be a good alternative for you.

Next you can use a online private search company and they will get you the identity information that you are looking for. They also charge you a fee of around $75 but it can be a faster way to get the information because it is online you do not have to wait until someone calls you back. This kind of search will usually give you the owner of the cars name, address, VIN number, registration number and expiration date.

Finally you can become a member of a private investigation service and the fees are cheaper about $25 – $30. There are benefits to using a service like this because you will gain access to the databases that are used to look up a license plate number. Of course with this option you will have to do most of the work yourself but you will get the results you are looking for.

Remember that when you want to find out the identity of a person using there license plate there are many options for you to use.