Benefits And Drawbacks Of An Anti-Glare Screen Protector

The first decision you should make is whether glare is a concern for you because if you will be making use of your phone outside or in brightly lit places, then you should consider an anti-glare screen protector. These can reduce overall screen visibility when not in the sun’s rays, so think about whether you’ll be utilizing your mobile phone in bright locations and for what amount of the time. After that you can select between anti-glare and non anti-glare or standard screen protectors.

Anti-glare screen protector not only reduces glare for your LCD screen with a matte finish coating, it also reduces fingerprints which are left on the screen. Your screen will remain clean and brand new looking at all times and it requires little cleaning. As with any protectors, anti-glare version also comes with an anti-scratch coating and non-adhesive backing. An anti-glare screen protector has its own good and bad points. It reduces glare, it decreases fingerprints, provides an anti-scratch coating, provides matte finish, only little cleaning is necessary and the non-adhesive backing leaves zero sticky residue. As for the disadvantages, an anti-glare screen protector decreases clarity.

As for standard or crystal clear screen protectors, they are the basic kind of screen protectors designed to be as invisible as possible so the clarity of your screen is maximized. When looking at them they’ll appear very transparent. Clear ones are generally a bit slimmer than others (anti-glare ones as an example) and their surface usually is shiny or smooth, which means your finger does not ‘stick’ when moving across the screen. This is beneficial on touch screen cell phones in which you ideally want your finger to move in all directions as effortlessly as possible. On the drawback, they don’t often decrease glare very much in direct sunlight. Additionally fingerprints can be more noticeable than with other protectors. Privacy screen protectors are made so that the screen content is only noticeable when looking at it straight-on. If the phone is tilted at an angle then the contents of the screen becomes masked. The purpose of this is to hide the contents of the screen to spying eyes or people looking over your shoulder. They are especially useful for business users who may be reading or writing personal emails, or to anybody who is mindful of their personal privacy.

The anti-glare ability cuts reflections and glare from bright light. This enables operators to utilize their devices more easily, as they do not need to squint or tilt the device to see the screen clearly. Use of an anti-glare screen protector can aid in reducing eye strain, which can be vital for individuals who use devices in bright light frequently. In the event the user needs to replace the screen protector, it should very easily peel away without leaving residue.

Durability also is important when choosing an anti-glare screen protector. You will normally like to avoid re-applying protectors, since this may cause damage to your screen and could cost quite a bit of money. A number of companies have developed models which are more costly than others but are a lot more durable, some lasting as much as the lifetime of your LCD.

Handmade Card Making Supplies

Most of the handmade card making supplies mentioned here,you probably already have, either on hand or around the house. Don’t run out to the store and buy them before looking around…

I’m sure you’ll find card making supplies that you can use to create your very own creative cards…

Below are card making supplies I’ve listed that most people use to create cards…


Discover card making paper supplies.

Different types of paper you can use to be creative…

You can walk into any craft store and see that they have big varieties of all sorts of paper, from plain to glitter to decorative to extra thin rice paper. It’s an endless choice…

I sometimes can’t resist the temptation of buying all these different types of paper, but in the end they intend to be costly! You figure they range from 59 cents to 1.99 per single sheet! That’s crazy!

I like to be budget minded and get more for what I am spending. It’s good to do bargain with different craft stores before making a purchase. But some of us, have to go out of our way to do so!…

Tip: Use what you have and wait for sales and discounts…

Card making paper supplies can be bought in bulk, stocks and kits. Sometimes we see the kits and we only want certain designs or textures. Then we turn to individual paper and you end up spending $20 for 20 sheets when you can spend $20 and get 200 sheets.

I learned that when you buy it by the pack you not only save, you find the use of all the other creative designs for future cards!

Tip: Always keep your scraps. They come in handy for decorative punches, collages and even your envelopes! Use your scraps to decorate your envelopes…So you’ll never waste or throw away paper!

After awhile paper can be costly, so try to make every use of it, by recycling them and reusing them for other projects!

Purchasing card making paper supplies…

Card Stocks

They are more ridged than paper. They can be glossy, regular mats or adhesive mats, textured or glittered. You can buy them already cut or as a whole sheet. They offer card stocks by dark colors, pastel or by themes, school, baby and so fort and range from different sizes

Card Kits

Card kits are pre-folded card stocks. Same as basic blank cards. They come with matching envelopes.

Some Craft stores also offer kits with decorative paper and die-cuts for a flat price ranging from 3.99 to 5.99! These are good for gifts, beginners or even kids!

Card making paper supplies are everywhere…Get them at any craft stores near you or here online…

There are many creative projects you can create using different types of paper…

I hope you found this site helpful for your creative card ideas!

Remember, Many trees are being cut down to help us create our creations! Please Recycle!


Create homemade envelopes that match your creative cards… Instead of giving standard size envelopes that are plain. Why not use your left over scraps to decorate it… Turn your envelopes into a work of art!

Tip: If you are mailing your creative cards, be sure not to decorate over the places where we would write the address to and from and where the postal stamp goes. Be sure to weigh it before mailing it out as the postage may vary!

One day I had left over scraps from creating a birthday card. I said to myself, I don’t want the card to be very nice and the envelope will look very plain. So I decided to take all the scraps I had left over from that one birthday card and created my very own unique envelope!

You can do almost anything with your envelope, by using multiple handmade card making supplies.

Cutting Mat / Craft Knifes / Scissors / Trimmers

When creating cards, good cutting tools are important. Here are some basic card making tools you’ll need to get a neat professional look.

Cutting – Mat

Cutting Mats come in various sizes and are available at any craft stores. Choose one that is big enough for cutting big sized paper. I have a 23inches x 23inches blue mat with measurement squares that I have placed on my work table. It’s a perfect size!

Tip: You might consider purchasing a smaller one for travel or smaller pieces of paper

Craft Knife / Scissors

Craft knives and scissors is a must for card cutting tools. Many crafters like myself like to use X-Acto craft knives. It is great for detailed paper cutting or to cut big sheets of paper

For those who have difficulty handling sharp knives, I would advise that you use an X-Acto knife that is safer than a surgical scalpel.

Tip: I found out that many crafters go to local medical suppliers and purchase KAI no. 3 surgical knife and blades, that intend to last quite some time

Scissors is another type of cutting tool that vary in fancy designs. It is use for basically all cutting purposes. Use a big pair for cutting big sheets and use a small sharp one for cutting small, detailed pieces of work…

Important: Please keep all sharp objects away from children!

Tip: If you don’t have any caps for your knives use bottle corks. It will prevent any type of incident

Paper Trimmers / paper Cutters

A paper cutter is another one of my daily cutting tools. It is good for cutting photos, precision cutting and different sizes of paper. I use it to pre-cut big sheets of paper to direct sizes for all my card making.

I hope you find the right cutting tools you need to make neat professional cuts for all your creative cards!

Adhesives / Tapes / Glue sticks

Adhesives, tape and glue sticks are basic handmade card making supplies needed for most creative card projects. Whether you do a collage or just a simple creative photo card…More Info

Finding the right card making glue and adhesives is important. You want your creative cards to last as long as possible and with the right glue and adhesives, you will help ensure that!

Here is a guide to help you choose the right card making glue and adhesives that you can find in any craft store.

Understand the differences between types of glues, tapes and spray adhesives…I did not list any particular brand to use as everyone prefer different types.

Use this guide to experiment your own brand of one and use it to your budget needs and one that fits your type of project!

Let’s begin…

Double-sided Adhesive Tape

When we here tape most of us think Scotch tape. Double sided adhesive tape is great for photos and sticking paper to paper.

Many scrap bookers and myself like to use this type of tape. It can be costly. I prefer not to use to many double sided tape for card making. Only when creating creative photo cards.

Tip: Scotch tape can be used for all creative card making, if you prefer to use single sided tape!

Glue Sticks

Glue sticks are CHEAP and easy to use. It various in size that range from glue stick pens to wide dispenser type of glue sticks. There are also colored glue sticks that help, especially when working with kids.

I personally don’t like to use glues sticks when creating cards because it’s not permanent. It does not stick as well, neither does It bond very securely. I prefer, you use other types of card making glues and adhesives. But this is Great for kids!

Hot Glue

Hot glue comes in the form of solid sticks of glue that are put through a glue gun to be heated and used. I use hot glue guns for all my card making crafts. It is great for embellishments ( like buttons & flowers, etc…) and I save money comparing to buying tape…

Glue guns are relatively cheap, you could get a glue gun and glue sticks at most craft stores from $3 – $10. Glue sticks usually comes in packages of 25 -100 for a few more dollars.

The glue will create spider like strings, but don’t worry it can be easily rubbed off. They also offer glitter glue sticks that can be used with your hot glue gun, otherwise it’s clear…

Rubber Cement

Rubber cement is thick and creamy glue that dries clear. It can form either a permanent or temporary bond depending on how it is applied

It comes in a dark brown jar and a cap with a attached brush applicator. It can be messy and is ideal for all paper crafting. I personally don’t use it for any creative cards as I’ve always been unlucky with it sticking permanently. Also the smell can be overwhelming after an extended period of time

Self Adhesive Foam Mounting Squares or Circles

Self adhesive foam are usually made of thick foam and are sticky on both sides. They come in various sizes. I don’t use any of these!


For budget minded people: I buy regular foamies that are 2mm thick and cost me only .49 cents! For a sheet sized at 9 x 12. I cut them to however size or shape I need it, then I add some glue from my glue gun and it’s good to go! I buy 2 sheets of white or black and it lasts me for est. 30 cards

It’s great for 3-d effects and to make anything you want to pop! You can stack it on top of each other for additional height. Also great for lettering.

Spray Adhesive

Spray adhesive can be used for paper, photos even fabric. I’ve never used spray adhesive for any of my creative cards because I feel it is better to use it for larger projects such as posters, large photos, or creative boxes.

I have seen it done by other card lovers! And it turned out just fine. Hopefully I’ll get to feature a card using spray adhesive. So check back for that link and I can share all about it with you!

Tacky glue

Tacky glue is one of many card making glue used to create cards. It is durable then regular Elmer’s glue. It dries clear and creates a long lasting bond. Make sure to read the label to see what type of materials it is best used with.

Tip: If you are in a rush or hurry to get a card done. Do not use tacky glue. It takes a long process to dry and recommend it dry over night.

I don’t like to use it on my cards because when it dries, you can see the creation of the glue right through the paper.

Glue pens

Glue pens are great for precision gluing. It works well with glitter and for more detailed designs.

Glue Dots / Glue Roller

There are many different sizes of glue dots and many varieties of glue rollers. They are really great because they are not messy and are really sticky. I don’t like to use them because they become very costly. But it’s a great expensive glue for your creative card creations!

UHU Glue

UHU glue comes in both tube and stick. Many prefer to use this as their brand of one because it sticks better than others. All access glue can be rubbed off after it dries, using a clean pencil eraser. I’ve never tried it, but I’ve read very great reviews about it!

Ink and Ink pads

Ink and inkpads are mainly used for all rubber stamping and scrap booking purposes.

Now you can create different techniques just by knowing what type of ink and inkpads work best for you!

Use this guide to help you decide what type you should use best with your type of projects…

When I first started I used basic colors. I suggest for beginners, you might just like to use the following colors also:

* Black

* White

* Green

* Red

* And Blue

Below are 6 types of ink I am familiar with using…

Versa Color Ultimate Pigment Ink is a great cheap choice. It works really well and I like to use it for many of my creative cards.

Studio G Acid Free Pigment Ink can always be found on sale. I bought these for a $1 and it works great with little design stamps. When times are hard this is the way to go for the cheapest inkpads

Versa Mark Watermark Stamp pad is a must own. I use this type of inkpad for all of my rubber stamping creations. With it you can create very cool looking watermarks on both cards and envelopes.

Brilliance Pigment Inkpad creates a unique look of stamped images. I hardly use this type of ink. But are often used by many card lovers.

Stazon Inkpads are solvent inkpads and will definitely stain the rubber. It can be used for any surface like stamping on plastic.

Tip: Use baby wipes to clean all your stamps.

You might also like Memories Acid Free Dye Ink pads. This type of ink pad is made especially for Hero Arts Shadow Stamps. I like to use soft vanilla and soft leaf. I don’t recommend the use for gold and silver because the finished look, intend to be awful. You can decide!

Decorative Punches

I hardly use any decorative card punches, but I know many creative card lovers that do and they love it!

Some have such intricate designs that many just love to use it to create handmade cards.

When you first begin making homemade cards, you will just have to get a few. I personally have never bought any because they just cost too expensive.

But these decorative designs can last you a lifetime and once you start to use them you’ll notice their so easy to use and fun to create designable cards with!

Here are some of the basic patterns you might like:

* Corner punches or corner rounder. There great to use if you like to round off your corners. I like to use them with photos.

* Basic Shape punches. Squares, diamonds, circles, triangles, rectangles, hearts etc… They also vary in size.

* Long reach punches. Allows youto punch deeper into the inside of a card or any craft project.

* Leaves and flowers: If you love floral designs. They have a great selection on leaves and flowers that you can use for any garden or floral card ideas you have in mind

* Punch Aid. This is a great tool especially for those that love to punch a lot. I have a friend who owns one and she loves this tool. It’s one of her favorites.

Card Making Embellishments

Use this guide below to see some of the many creative card making embellishments you can use on your creative cards…

There are many things we would like to consider using on our cards. Here are some card making embellishments that you can use to add glamor, and 3-d effects to your card creations.

Many of these embellishments are like stickers, eyelets, tassels, glitter, and many more.

Creative Card Making Embellishments:

* Eyelets: There are many ways you can use eyelets. It is great for attaching clear plastic, vellum, and tags to any homemade card. You can use it for your hole punches in your card and weave wire through it.

* Brads: They are similar to eyelets but brads don’t have a hole through them. There also great for attachments and tags. Some come in decorated designs like flowers, buttons and snowflakes. They also come in color coordinate with seasons.

* Buttons: Before throwing out any loose buttons. Keep them. They make great card embellishments for any card. I used them in a creative Christmas card idea, and strung them on the tree as ornaments. So don’t throw them out.

* Alphabet Beads: You can string names, words or sayings for example… “L-O-V-E” or “B-A-B-Y”, birthday, wedding or even personal names.

More creative card making embellishments…

* Fibers: Look for any fibers you might have laying around or just so happen to come across. They are great for hanging tags, lining envelopes, stringing letters like your alphabet beads and creating bows.

* Metallic Threads: They come in many different colors and are great for creating creative tassels. You can also use them to create embroidery cards.

* Ribbons: I love to use ribbons to line my envelopes with or make bows. You can attach ribbons to any of your creative homemade cards.

Tip: You can find many card embellishments to use, like in your closets, drawers, storage bins. Remember to look before you throw away everything. Even tell friends and family they might have some things you could recycle and use for your card making embellishments.

Rubber Stamping

All about rubber stamping supplies.

Below are some of the most common creative rubber stamping supplies and tools we’ve either used or are going to use when creating creative cards.

Rubber stamps comes in many variety ways: Clear stamps, wood stamps, felt stamps and even eraser pads that you can create stamps out of.

I personally don’t like to use stamps as much. I feel that stamps can only be used in so many ways and they only have so many designs before many will be using the same stamps.

Although rubber stamping can become addictive when you start creating creative cards. You’ll want to own every design out there and every image for every occasion.

Creative rubber stamping supplies come in shapes, images, alphabets and can be worked with for many different creative card ideas.

Here are techniques you can use with all your rubber stamps:

You can do:

* Embossing

* Wrapping paper

* Water Marking

* Simple stamping

* Decorating envelopes

* Backgrounds

* And many more!

Here are some of the basic creative rubber stamping supplies that will do with any card making.

Remember, you do not need all of them some can even be substitute with items around the house.

* Clear Stamps: Clear stamps can in deed be costly. Most of them don’t even come with clear blocks for you to put your stamp on and create clear images. So before buying clear stamps think of its costly price.

* Wooded Stamps: They are the most common stamps that has been around for many years. Their cheap and some come with out wooded blocks, but that is okay because some don’t need them. They have a wide range of variety selections to choose from. This is where you would like to start. Here is a guide on recommended ink and ink pads.

* Roller Stamps: I like to call them roller stamps, because they roll out beautiful borders on your cards. They are great for creating borders on tags, cards and envelopes.

Tip: Use baby wipes to clean all your rubber stamps. Rinse them and leave it to dry. Don’t buy expensive rubber stamp cleaners as they do not work as good as baby wipes. It gets it clean!

Creative Rubber stamping Tools…

* Heat Gun: The Milwaukee heat gun is one of the most favorable heat gun used for embossing. It is inexpensive and it does the job well. I’ve known of people who actually use hot plates which can be sufficient, but I wouldn’t want to take the chance of burning any cards.

* Brayer: They brayer is very useful when creating creative cards. It is create for creating background on any card or envelope or any creative project you have in mind. Roll it on any multicolor ink pad, get it evenly on the rubber and roll away! You probably would want to include this tool on your creative rubber stamping supplies list if you do not own one yet.

* Embossing Markers: You can apply them directly to your rubber stamps using different colors for the image. Let them dry and then add your embossing powder on them. Then use them and apply them to your cards. I’ve learned that clear embossing powder works best!

Tip: Be sure to store your markers in a cool place to avoid drying out.

Today there are many rubber stamping companies with their own in house artist that design such images. Check out all the different companies and see which type of rubber stamps will work best for you.

Once you make an investment in stamps there are many enjoyable projects you can do with them and they will last you a very long time.

I hope all these handmade card making tools were helpful to you!. Don’t think you have to go out of your way to purchase all of this. Start small and once you get into doing your very own favorite hobby rather it is card making or scrapbooking, slowly you’ll start to collect many of these supplies. And before you know it you’ll have quite a collection! Have fun and enjoy creating creative crafts.

No Hot Water From Combi Boiler

One of the most commonly asked questions that I get asked is: why there is no hot water in my taps? To be able to diagnose this problem we need to establish the type of heating system that is installed at the property in question. Generally there will be many options to choose from such us: instantaneous electric water heaters (electric), instantaneous gas water heaters, storage water heaters, electric showers, gas fired combination boilers, gas fired traditional boilers and hot water cylinder, unvented hot water cylinders and variations on above.

This series of articles will deal with the most common systems in UK starting with combination boilers also known as ‘combi’ boilers. Other systems we will discuss in further articles are:

– Unvented cylinders

– Traditional cylinders (vented)

No hot water on combination boiler. The first thing to check in case there is no hot water on combination boiler is to see if it works in central heating mode. To do that you will need to make sure that your wall mounted thermostat is calling for heat. You also may have a programmable thermostat. In that case make sure that it is set to constant on central heating mode. If boiler fires up then we can suspect that a diverter valve is stuck on heating mode. A visit from an engineer will be required to replace this part.

If combination boiler does not work in both hot water and heating modes there are some steps that can be performed by the owner before calling a heating engineer to eliminate most obvious possible causes. Combination boilers require on average 1 bar pressure in central heating system to function satisfactorily. Look for a pressure gauge on the front of the boiler or sometimes on central heating pipe work.

Most boiler makes will have markers in green or red pointer (as on the picture) showing required system pressure. If system pressure is low then that may be the reason for boiler not firing up in both domestic hot water and heating modes. By low we understand below marked field on the gauge. Most boilers will not fire up if pressure drops below 0.5 bar. If low pressure has been detected next step is to top up system pressure. Majority of boilers on the market would have been fitted with a filling loop that comprises of no.2 valves and a flexible metallic connector. Good plumbing practice requires that filling loop should be detached and left by the boiler with no.2 valves capped of to avoid accidental over pressurising the system and leaks from PRVs (Pressure Relief Valve). In reality however 90% of installation have filling loops attached. Let’s assume we have our filling loop in place.

Some filling loops will have a singel tap while other may have 2 taps or a flat screwdriver point. On single tap ones it is enough to turn one tap on. On filling loops with 2 taps you will have to turn both on. On filling loops without taps you may need a small flat screwdriver to turn them on and off.

Be aware that some combination boilers and not fitted with filling loops. The best example is Worcester Bosh CDi range of boilers that require a special plastic key to top them up. This may be a major hassle if the key had been lost! I will not detail how to top those boilers up as there is a very detailed guide on how to do that on Worcester Bosch web site.

Once you know where your filling loop is and how to use it turn the boiler off and fill up the system to around 1.5 bar pressure. On some boilers (Vaillant Eco Tec Pro) there is only green and red field without digits showing pressure. Top up to 2/3 of the green. System topped up? Hot water back on? Great! No hot water? Read on.

With your system at correct pressure check if boiler controls are set properly. There should be hot water thermostat on the boiler. It may be the case that it is turned all the way down. If it is, set it half way up and try again.

System pressurised? Controls in on position? Hopefully your hot water is back on. If not suspect a more serious issue and call a qualified heating engineer to help you with your hot water problem.

Newton’s Third Law and The Secret Physics of Drumming

Dating back to 4000 BC in Egypt, drums are the oldest known instrument in the world. Not only have people been using drums for a long time, but Macaque monkeys also use drumming to show dominance and communicate. Drums have been used all over the world as a means of communication or a way to create music. People who play the drums heavily rely on the physics behind them, but many people never truly realize how much newton’s third law takes place in their activity. When a person plays drums, to simply put it, they are just hitting drums in different ways at different times. The main thing they are doing is bouncing a stick, a hand, a mallet or something similar off of a drum. Without being able to bounce something off the drum, drumming would be drastically different, or even non-existent in this day and age.

Both the sticks, mallets, hands, etc., and the makeup of the drum itself have major roles in the physics of drumming. For example, without Newton’s Third Law, the drumstick would never bounce off the drum, leaving drums having a dull and bland smacking noise. Newton’s Third Law states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. The action would be the sticks hitting the drum, and the equal and opposite reaction are the sticks bouncing off the drum. As the sticks push against the drumhead, the drumhead also pushes against the sticks with an equal and opposite force, leaving the drum resonating with sound and the sticks back up in the air. This is possible because of the tension in the circular membrane of the drumhead. The tension makes it easier for the sticks to apply more force to the drumhead and make a louder sound while being pushed back up to hit again. Different drums also have different ways they need to be hit. For example, the snare drum needs to be hit in the center, whereas the timpani drum needs to be hit near the sides.

The ideal circular membrane has a fundamental frequency of ƒ1=0.765((√ T/σ)/D), where ƒ = frequency, T = membrane tension, σ = mass per unit, and D = the diameter of membrane. With this ideal frequency, it is easiest and most efficient to hit the drumstick off of the drum. Leading back to Newton’s Third Law, when it is most efficient to hit the drumstick off of the drumhead the forces of the sticks and the drum are completely equal and the drum leaves a resonating sound as the stick goes back up the be used to hit the drum again.

UHF Versus VHF – Which Two-Way Radio Frequency is Better?

There are two major formats for two-way radios. They are Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radio and Very High Frequency (VHF) radio. Neither frequency band is inherently better than the other. They each have their pluses and minuses. Both formats are effective ways to communicate with another person. But how do you decide which one will fit your needs? Let’s go over the key components of both frequencies to help you decide.

Two-way radios communicate with each other through use of radio waves. Radio waves have different frequencies, and by tuning a radio receiver to a specific frequency you can pick up a specific signal.

Radio waves are transmitted as a series of cycles, one after the other. You will always see the “Hz” abbreviation used to indicate the frequency of a radio. Hertz is equal to one cycle per second.

Radio waves are measured by kilohertz (kHz), which is equal to 1000 cycles per second, or megahertz (MHz), which is equal to 1,000,000 cycles per second–or 1000 kHz. The relationship between these units is like this: 1,000,000 Hertz = 1000 kilohertz = 1 megahertz.

You may also hear the term “wavelength” when you hear about radio waves. This term is from the early days of radio when frequencies were measured in terms of the distance between the peaks of two consecutive cycles of a radio wave instead of the number of cycles per second. Lower frequencies produce a longer wavelength.

While wavelength measures distance between the peaks of cycles, frequency refers to how long the measured time is between the “crest” and “trough” of a wave arriving at the source. So frequency measures time instead of distance, but they are essentially both saying the same thing.

What is significant about wavelength for two-way radios is that it affects transmission range under certain conditions. A longer wavelength as a general rule lets a radio signal travel a greater distance.

Lower frequencies or wavelengths have greater penetrating power. That’s one of the reasons they are used for communicating with submarines. VLF radio waves (3-30 kHz) can penetrate sea water to a depth of approximately 20 meters. So a submarine at shallow depth can use these frequencies.

So from what you read above you may think VHF is always the better choice for a two-way radio no matter where you are using it. That’s not necessarily true. Even though VHF has better penetrating capabilities, that doesn’t necessarily make it the better choice for buildings. Remember the conversation about wavelength above? Wavelength has a big impact on transmission.

To explain this let’s assume we are communicating from one side of a commercial building to the other. In between these two points is a metal wall with a three foot door in it. Metal is an enemy to radio waves and they typically don’t pass through it.

For our example let’s assume that the UHF wavelength the radio uses is about a foot and a half long and a similar VHF radio is around five feet long. These are in the ballpark of their normal wavelengths.

When the UHF transmits its signal the foot and a half long wave will pass through the door since the door is wider than the wavelength. The VHF signal will be totally reflected since it is wider than the opening to the door.

Your microwave oven is an example of this. The glass front door has a metal mesh with very small holes. Microwaves being a very high frequency have wavelengths that are only several inches long. The mesh keeps the microwaves trapped in the oven but it allows you to see inside because light waves have a microscopic wavelength.

Just imagine walking through the building carrying a five foot wide pole. You will encounter the same challenges a VHF signal encounters. Now imagine walking through the building with a pole that’s only a foot and a half wide like a UHF wave. There are lots fewer doorways you couldn’t get through.

The one difference is that wireless signals will penetrate through drywall, masonry, human bodies, furniture, wall paneling, and other solid objects. All these objects will reduce the signal strength though. The more dense the object, the more it reduces the signal. VHF will penetrate these obstacles better than UHF, but that doesn’t necessarily mean that VHF is better for indoor applications as we will talk about in the UHF section below.

In our example above we assumed you had a metal wall with an opening. If you reverse this and you have a three foot metal object in front of the transmitting radio, then VHF would win. Since the object is three foot wide it will totally block the UHF signal whereas the VHF signal will get around it. Lower frequencies such as VHF diffract around large smooth obstacles more easily, and they also travel more easily through brick and stone.

For most applications, lower radio frequencies are better for longer range. A broadcasting TV station illustrates this. A typical VHF station operates at about 100,000 watts and has a coverage radius range of about 60 miles. A UHF station with a 60-mile coverage radius requires transmitting at 3,000,000 watts.

So there is no clear choice for which is better, VHF or UHF. There is a lot of “black magic” to radio technology so it’s not always easy to tell which will work better for your application. To help you decide on the best technology for you, more detail about each one is included below.

UHF Radio

UHF equipment operates between the frequencies of 300 MHz and 3000 MHz. Until recently, it wasn’t widely used. Now, the UHF radio frequency is used for GPS, Bluetooth, cordless phones, and WiFi.

There are more available channels with UHF so in more populated areas UHF may be less likely to have interference from other systems. If you are in an area where population is thin, VHF should work fine for you. Not too long ago the FCC also opened up a new VHF frequency called MURS that is so far not heavily used in most areas. There’s more about MURS below in the VHF section. If you are in an area where interference from other radios may be an issue, UHF transmitters and receivers could be your best choice unless you use a MURS VHF radio. UHF is better at squeezing through physical barriers like walls, buildings, and rugged landscape. Anything that obstructs a radio wave, will weaken a radio signal. UHF lessens that effect. Though it may not travel as far, UHF radio waves will traverse around obstacles better than VHF.

To highlight the differences in indoor range, below is an excerpt from a brochure of a leading two-way radio maker on the predicted range of one of their lines of handheld VHF and UHF two-way radios:

“Coverage estimates: At full power, line-of-sight, no obstructions the range is approximately 4+ miles. Indoor coverage at VHF is approximately 270,000 sq ft and 300,000 sq ft at UHF. Expect about 20 floors vertical coverage at VHF and up to 30 floors at UHF. Note: Range and coverage are estimates and are not guaranteed.”

VHF waves are not very good at finding their way around walls, buildings and rugged landscape. Therefore range will be significantly reduced for VHF radios in these environments. That may not necessarily be a problem if the range needed is only a few hundred feet. You can also add an external antenna to an indoor VHF base station that will reduce or eliminate this problem.

One of the downsides to UHF is that the FCC requires you to get a license to operate in these frequencies. Although many frequencies in the VHF business band also require a license. If you choose a radio in the VHF MURS frequencies you can operate it without a license. UHF equipment is usually more expensive. The components need to be finely tuned and are more expensive to construct. This does not mean it’s necessarily better, just more expensive.

One advantage of UHF transmission is the physically short wave that is produced by the high frequency. That means the antenna on the radio can be shorter than an equivalent VHF radio.

VHF Radio

VHF equipment operates between the frequencies of 30 MHz and 300 MHz. FM radio, two-way radios, and television broadcasts operate in this range.

Both UHF and VHF radios are prone to line of sight factors, but VHF a little more so. The waves make it through trees and rugged landscapes, but not as well as UHF frequencies do. However, if a VHF wave and a UHF wave were transmitted over an area without barriers, the VHF wave would travel almost twice as far. This makes VHF easier to broadcast over a long range. If you are working mostly outdoors, a VHF radio is probably the best choice, especially if you are using a base station radio indoors and you add the external antenna.

Since VHF has been around longer and isn’t as complicated to make, equipment is usually cheaper when compared to similar UHF equipment. One disadvantage to this equipment can be its size. Since the frequency waves are bigger, an antenna must be bigger.

VHF radios also have a smaller number of available frequencies. Interference with other radios could be more likely to be a problem. However, the FCC recently made this less of a problem when they opened up the MURS frequencies. The 150 MHz frequency is a Citizens Band radio spectrum that is called the MURS service. MURS stands for Multi-Use Radio Service. This service is for use in the United States and Canada. It is a low power, short range service in the VHF 150 MHz Citizens Band radio spectrum. There are 5 channels in the MURS frequencies with 38 privacy codes under each one that enable you to only pick up conversations on your code. The FCC does not require users of products for MURS to be licensed.

With MURS you can add a larger or external antenna to improve range. If you want to put an antenna on top of your house or business, you can do it with MURS. Some antenna manufacturers claim an external antenna can increase the effective radiated power of a transmitter by a factor of 4. These MURS intercoms can transmit up to four miles, and perhaps more with an external antenna depending on the terrain.

One benefit of VHF wireless radios is that battery life is almost always better than for similar UHF units. For handheld radios this is a plus.

VHF equipment is usually lower cost for those on a budget. Equipment can be more economical than similar UHF products.

In summary, if you are planning on using your two-way radios mainly inside buildings, then UHF is likely the best solution for you. If you are mainly using your two-way radios for communication outside, then VHF would be a good choice. Either radio technology can work for you if you don’t really have a long range to cover. In that case you may want to choose VHF for it’s lower cost.

Know This When Bringing a Personal Trainer Into Your Apartment Building Gym

As more and more New York City apartment buildings look to attract new buyers and renters, there is an ever grow list of amenities being offered. This can range from a doorman and/or a concierge on premises to an onsite gym, space permitted, for residents. Most buildings will let residents bring in their own personal trainers to work with them.

Often the gyms are maintained by the building or an outside company, while equipment maintenance is handled by authorized technicians. However,, like a beach with “no lifeguard on duty,” many of these facilities do not have a fitness staff. Residents can use it unsupervised.

In these cases, should a resident wish to bring in a personal trainer, it is best to check with the building management or a board member on procedures. Often, all that is required is proof that the personal trainer is certified and insured. Copies of both documents will most likely need to be submitted to the building management company to be kept on file. They want to make sure that the resident, trainer, and the building’s assets are legally protected in case of any accidental injury. While most building do not charge to allow a trainer on premises, keep in mind that other buildings may have a fee in place for personal trainers nyc training clients in the building. This fee can be as much as $15 per session or a flat annual membership fee to train in the building. This can be a better deal for the personal trainer if they have multiple clients in that building, as well as a good source of revenue for the building.

Commercial buildings are also getting into the onsite gym game. Some buildings allow individual companies to construct a facility for their own employees. Still others will establish a facility in which all commercial tenant employees can access. Not only does this improve the amenities to the corporate tenants, but it provides a person with additional exercises choices throughout the day.

The great thing is that you can find personal trainers in NYC that can meet you anywhere you need them, at home, at the office, or anywhere in between. New York City is full of independent Personal trainers ready to work with you.

Enharmonic Notes 101: The Easy Method to Understanding

What are enharmonic notes? They are two notes that SOUND the same but are written differently. This seems odd and totally unnecessary but in order to understand, let’s compare words in the English language to notes in the musical language.

For example, the words two, too, and to, all SOUND the same but are written different. You spell them according to how you use them. I have “two” cats. I went “to” the store. There are “too” many flies in the house! In the English language, you’d never say “I have ‘to’ cats.” It’s the wrong version of the word. However, all three versions of “to” SOUND the same. You only know the difference when put into context. Think of other words that sound the same but are spelled differently. Other examples include: their or there, son or sun, week or weak, break or brake, him or hymn, etc.

In music, notes that sound the same can also have two names, just like words. The reason for this is that note patterns are important to help read scales and musical patterns, just like word patterns help in reading sentences better.

Go online and find a picture of a piano keyboard that shows note names for both black and white keys. Type in “piano key images” into the search box and you’ll find several to choose from. You should notice that all black keys have TWO note names.

The normal black key notes:

  • C-sharp = D-flat
  • D-sharp = E-flat
  • F-sharp = G-flat
  • G-sharp = A-flat
  • A-sharp = B-flat

The odd ducks (white keys with two note names):

  • E-sharp = F
  • F-flat = E
  • B-sharp = C
  • C-flat = B

WHAT!? Why is it that white keys can have enharmonic names, too? As a reminder (or in case you didn’t know), a sharp raises a note by one piano key (a half-step) and a flat lowers a note by one piano key (also a half-step). For example, look at an “E” (to the right of the group of two black keys). In order to go up a half-step (sharp the note), you must go to the next KEY. That key is called “F.” So, “E-sharp” is the same note as “F.” To do the reverse and flat “F,” go down ONE piano key. This means that “F-flat” is the same as “E.”

The same is true for “B” and “C” because there’s no black key between those notes. “E” to “F” and “B” to “C” are considered natural half-steps because they are lacking a black key between them.

Remember earlier when I said that it’s important to spell correctly in music like it is with words? In music, we learn to recognize everything based on patterns. Scales are patterns of notes that fit within different key signatures (a lesson for another day). When reading music, a performer learns to recognize the appropriate scale based on the notes in the musical passage. After awhile, a performer no longer has to look at every note because he/she begins to recognize the musical patterns within the music. To “spell” a scale correctly, it’s important to use the correct version of the note. For example, an “F-sharp” and “G-flat” major scale are exactly the same scale. To the listener, they both sound the same. These scales are “enharmonic” with one another.

Why do you need to learn enharmonics? When reading a piece of music, it’s much easier to know what note to play if you can remember that when you see “A-sharp” in one measure and then see it again as “B-flat” in the next measure (always this way in chromatic scales), they are the same fingering on your instrument.

Ways to practice learning enharmonics:

  • Make flash cards of individual note names on the front. (E-flat, D-sharp, F-sharp, G-flat, etc). Each note gets its own card. Write the fingering or enharmonic note name on the back. Go through the flashcards daily and put the notes you don’t get right away back in the pile. Go through the flashcards until you can remember all of them quickly. Repeat until all enharmonics are solidly cemented in the brain.
  • Practice filling in blank piano keyboards as a timed test. See how quickly you can label all of the notes.
  • Practice chromatic scales (going both up and down) on your instrument. Notes are sharped on the way up and flatted on the way down. Read music while practicing this scale.
  • Practice “F-Sharp” and “D-flat” Major scales. First, write out the note names only for each scale. Then, look at them on the staff.

As with all things in life, if you want to get better, practice. But, good practice will take patience and perseverance. There is no easy button for learning music.

Happy Practicing!

How to Shrink or Enlarge a Casting – Part 1 of 3


This is a three-part article on how to enlarge (also called pointing up) and alternatively, how to shrink the size of castings without the use of laser scanning, CAD/CAM and computer operated CNC machinery. The procedures for both are much simpler than one would imagine and avoids the cost and the complexity of high-tech equipment. This knowledge comes in handy for many mold making and casting projects and artistic commissions, saving the time and aggravation of re-sculpting a model to a needed size.

Two Ways to Enlarge a Casting

There are two ways to enlarge a casting. The first is to enlarge the mold before the casting in created. While the second method is to enlarge the casting after the mold has been made. Both methods of enlargement, if properly done will yield a finished casting in correct proportion and detail as its original. Each method depends on a different material. To enlarge the mold, the material used is known as addition-cured silicone. To enlarge the casting the material used is a specially formulated polyurethane rubber.

Method One – Enlarge the Mold

We begin with instructions on how to enlarge the mold in order to enlarge the casting. The first method to create an enlargement of a casting, is approached the same as for making a duplicate size casting, which is to create a normal silicone mold. In this case the silicone material of choice is an addition cure (platinum catalyzed) silicone as condensation cure silicone will not work. Once the mold is created, the next step is to enlarge it. The mold is targeted rather than the casting because the enlargement process involves the solvent saturation of the rubber. Saturating the casting would make it awkward to work with and difficult to re-mold. So it is more efficient to enlarge the mold instead.

Before beginning, follow the usual mold making protocol. You should first de-gas the rubber using a vacuum chamber, lacking that, a pressure pot will do. If you don’t have either of those basic mold making tools, make certain you vibrate your mold while it is curing to drive air bubbles to the surface. A power tool such as a hand-sander placed against the mold is very effective. Once created, place the mold in a container that can be sealed, such as a 5-gallon bucket. Then add solvent to the container such as toluene, xylene or naphtha.

When handling volatile solvents, we recommend extreme caution as all of the recommended solvents are flammable. So you do not want to expose to open flame or a heat source such as an electric heater. In addition, the fumes are extremely toxic so that when pouring any of these solvents, you must have good ventilation and you should wear an approved NIOS mask.

Once the mold is fully immersed, the silicone rubber will begin to absorb it. Over time (weeks), you can expect an almost doubling in size could be reached with all its details in proportion to the original model. That is, providing that the mold is completely covered in solvent, if not the mold will distort. Patience is required when resizing the mold, as an example, a mold soaked in toluene takes seven days to expand to approximately 130% of the original size. Larger sizes require more time in the solvent. Molds that have been expanded using solvent are very fragile and must be handled more carefully than usual to prevent tearing or damage.

When you are satisfied with the size, or after three weeks the mold has ceased to expand it should be removed from the solvent bath, and the surface should be thoroughly dried. These are volatile liquids which immediately begin to evaporate when exposed to air. As evaporation continues the mold will begin to shrink. So you must be quick to create your casting. Once the surface is dried, a good casting choice is a two-part polyurethane casting resin. Though silicone doesn’t ordinarily need a mold release, we do suggest using a silicone-based release as it will be de-molding much easier.

Now that the new casting has been created, you can repeat the entire process of silicone mold enlargement using solvent immersion to further increase the size of the final casting.

That completes part one of How to Shrink or Enlarge a Casting. Part two will provide details on how to enlarge the casting itself. Part three will provide the details on how to shrink the casting.

Are You Hearing Running Crying Chewing Noises in Your Attic? You Could Have a Raccoon in Your Attic

If you are hearing noises in your attic such as running, crying and or growling you could have a raccoon or raccoons with babies in your attic or soffet area. If you do have raccoons in your home you will know it, they will drive you nuts! It is baby season for raccoons. There are humane ways remove Raccoons and their babies from your home.

First, let’s address the age old question.” How do I know if I have a raccoon problem?” There are many telltale signs to knowing that you have a raccoon in your home.

  • You know the sound your dog makes when it scampers across your hardwood floors? Well put that noise above your head in your bedroom and that’s the sound a grown raccoon makes when he’s running through your attic. Now the problem is,is that you only start hearing that noise when the raccoon or raccoons have been there for a while and have stomped your insulation down enough that they are now walking on your rafters.
  • Especially this time of year you will hear what sounds like a dog fight going on up there. This is because when the female raccoon is getting ready to have her young she kicks the male out. The reason being that the male has absolutely no attachment to the babies and will eat them. Some new females have been known to do the same. On the whole, female raccoons are very good moms and will do anything to protect their young. Anyway once the fight is over don’t think they are gone he is she’s not. She might go out for one more feed before she stays in for almost a week. In that time you could hear panting or moaning in the first night after that she will stay in nurse and keep them warm and safe as the male might still be lurking around she will clean the kitts (babies) and eat the placenta. One for nourishment, two as too not draw her male or any others to the blood and her babies. After a week of no water and crying babies she’s had enough. She’ll leave and you’ll hear her leave as she doesn’t care if you hear her any more. Like any woman after having a baby she needs a break and a drink. Problem being that till now YOU haven’t heard the babies crying. NOW YOU WILL AND THEY WON’T STOP TILL SHE COMES BACK AND NURSES THEM!!!!!! Believe me she takes her time coming back. Then she will leave them for a few hours every night while she goes hunting for food and they will cry the entire time. The other problem being that she usually picks the quietest part of your home to have them which is above your bedroom. So when she goes out you’ll stay up.
  • You will see the male sitting on your roof or back porch just hanging around he is looking for a new place to live as he has lost his usefulness. He doesn’t like to work very hard. He’ll look to your shed, deck or neighbour’s house as a place to go.
  • Where the female raccoons are sneaky and usually have more than one hole, one you can see and one or two escape holes. The male will simply go on your roof and rip your roof vent off and walk in.
  • A raccoon’s favorite entry area is where the roof and the soffet meet. All they have to do is push on the siding and they are in. They then use it like a door.
  • Raccoons will also be found in chimneys, especially in the older houses. This is because in the older houses they ruffed in fireplaces on each floor to let the main fireplace heat the rest of the home. This is the perfect apartment for a female raccoon. It’s a nice warm cubby-hole that is really hard for us to get at. That is until the babies start moving around. Then they all end up sitting on the flu. If you have noticed a dirty cat fishing smell in your fireplace area that’s why. DON’T START A FIRE AND THINK THAT, THAT IS GOING TO SOLVE YOUR PROBLEM! All that will do is make momma mad she will get as many of the babies up to the cubby space as she can and you won’t get her out. All you will have accomplished is smoking out your entire house with that wonderful dirty cat fishy smell. Your wife will end up kicking you out.

Trapping takes that raccoon away but doesn’t prevent other raccoons from moving in. The reason that fact is SO important is that female raccoons are very clean. They have their babies above your bedroom and they will do their business above your bathroom. That’s why when you turn on your bathroom fan you might also smell dirty fishy cat. When she is looking for a male she will do her business on the roof. She will draw any males that are near. Problem being that, that sent never goes away unless disinfected properly. So you can live trap all you want but it isn’t going to solve your problem in the long run. If you have known anyone that has had a raccoon problem and thought they solved it themselves by buying a trap. They’ll say “Yah trapped a couple of raccoons last year now I got them back again.”. They don’t have the same raccoons back. What they have are the males come looking for the females, or the babies that were born there coming to have their own babies.

Second question “How do I get rid of the Raccoons in my attic? The best most effective way to remove raccoons from your attic is the following:

  • Make a one-way-door to fit the main hole of the raccoons layer. Use Plexiglas so that the raccoon can see out and will go out. Once she is out the heavy duty spring on the door will slam the door shut. Due to the way the door is made the raccoon won’t be able to open it to get back in.
  • Properly seal up any other holes and or areas that she might get back in through.
  • Cap your vents and chimneys. Which means secure your vents including plumbing stacks at the base with heavy gauge mesh that they can’t penetrate but still allows the vents and chimney to work properly.
  • Once momma’s out go into the attic and find the babies if there are any. There are usually anywhere from 2 to 6. Then place them and their nest of insulation outside where she can take them to their new home. This all has to be done right. Don’t think that by reading this you can follow these instructions and do it yourself. Well you can but you will end up calling me to fix the job! If you don’t do it right she could get spooked and move the babies. The babies could fall down into the wall. You will then have at best three days to find those babies before they die in your walls. Then you want to see an angry animal watch out. Momma will rip the siding right off the side of your house to get at them!
  • Once the raccoon and her babies are out you will access the damage that your unwanted tenants have caused. Problem being while the female is very clean. The male and babies aren’t. When momma goes out the babies will chew on whatever is available,wiring, rafters. They teethe just like real babies. They also poop like real babies, everywhere. So we check to make sure that your wiring is intact. That there is no structural damage and that the insulation hasn’t been to badly stomped.
  • If everything checks out you will disinfect the attic area to remove the female scent and odour. So that you won’t have any other visitors.
  • If insulation is damaged it will need to be removed, disinfected and replaced with blown in R75 insulation. The raccoons don’t like it. You will when you get your next heating bill.

I can’t stress enough to leave the entire process to the professionals. It isn’t as easy as it sounds and your always run the risk of another raccoon hiding in the rafters. Females will nest together. This will give you a guideline as to what a professional should do. So that you can make an informed discussion when hiring an Animal Removal Company to help you with your problem.

Communication Skills Are Necessary in a Real Estate Agent

One of the most important skills you should look for in your selection of a real estate agent is his or her communication skills. A real estate agent’s ability to effectively communicate with all parties involved in a transacation can effectively make or break a deal.

At the top of the list of communications traits to seek in a real estate agent is listening skills. Yes, communication involves not only the effective transmission of information, but most importantly the receipt of information. A real estate agent should ask you questions, and then listen (which means internalize and digest) the information that you are transmitting to them.

Common questions which the real estate agent should ask include queries as to your financial situation. This is important so that the real estate agent can effectively guide you in the right direction when it comes to your need for both purchasing and selling a home.

Communication also involves you, however. The most effective communicator is unable to provide much assistance if you do not provide them with the information he or she requires. A good real estate agent will know how to obtain this information from you, by asking key questions regarding important topics that you might not have considered to volunteer but which are nevertheless crucial for the agent to do his or her job.

Questions asked may include the time frame for buying or selling a home, the amount of down payment you have available, whether or not you are a first time buyer, and of course questions about neighborhood, school and other requirements.

Effective communication is also required with respect to the other parties involved. Your real estate agent should not only be able to communicate well with you, but equally well with the other parties to the transaction. The ability to calmy communicate one’s way through glitches in closings and financial negotiations benefits all of the parties involved.

Basic Palmistry Part II

Palmistry, also known as Chiromancy, is the art of telling a person’s fortune by looking at the lines and bumps on a person’s hand. However, since the 1920s, the art of Chiromancy has come a long way. Chirognomy is a related science in which hand shape; finger shape, fingers, nails and the texture and consistency of the flesh are examined in order to get a glimpse into the inner workings of the personality. Dermatoglyphics is the study of ridge patterns and formations found on the fingertips and palm itself to detect and diagnose inherited diseases. However here we are dealing with what I would call the “Romany Reader Basics” of the Art.

In an earlier New Age Notebook called Basic Palmistry I identified the major lines and mounts of the human hand. In this article we are going to examine other kinds of markings and characteristics that are common indicators of personality, temperament and fate.

Bubbles and Loops – Bubbles and loops that occur on life lines, heart lines and fate lines indicate significant episodes in your life or a life that is broken by many odd experiences. Strong clean lines without bubbles are always preferable if you are looking for a serene and quiet life.

Broken Lines – These usually indicate that a life will be disrupted in an upsetting manner. A broken lifeline can mean an early or tragic life. A break in the head line can mean a period of insanity or mental illness.

Crosses and cross-hatching: These marks on any mound or area of the hand often represent stressful influences, events or people. Usually the influence is a significant or important relationship. The deeper the line the more traumatic or life-defining the experience is said to be. The nature of the event is determined on which mound you find the cross or cross-hatching.

For instance, if you have a lot of cross-hatching on your Mound of Lower Mars you may encounter a lot of war or violence in your life. Crosses and cross-hatching on your Mound of Apollo can indicate troubles with career, confidence and success. On the outer edge of the hand, just below the little finger and the Mound of Mercury such marks are said to indicate how many children are in your future. If horizontal lines or cross-hatching occurs on your thumbs or fingertips it is a sure sign that you are under too much stress.

Attachment lines: These are lines that occur above the heart line and wrap from the side of the hand and extend out beneath the little finger. This is supposed to indicate the number of significant relationships or attachments you will have in your life.

Healer Stigmata: a long horizontal line that is crossed by three shorter lines indicates this. It is a symbol of natural healing abilities and usually occurs on the mound of Mercury just below the little finger.

Squares: If you find a square on your hand it means that you are a teacher or natural born leader and meant to enlighten others. The area of interest where you will excel is indicated where it is placed on a mound. For instance, a square that is found on the mound of Mercury indicates a career in teaching or education. A square found on the Mound of Venus below the thumb can indicate a nurse, doctor or healer.

Feathery light lines: These can be found all over the hand and are usually an indication of failing health. If the lines travel up from the wrist to the little finger it can indicate a chronic disease or disability.

X’s: X’s found anywhere in the palm usually indicate travel. If it is found on either of the Mounds of Upper or Lower Mars or on the plain of Mars it means traveling as a result of war or a military career. An X on the mound of Venus (below the thumb) means relocating for love and on the mound of Jupiter an X can mean relocating for reasons to do with career advancement.

Triangles: Triangles anywhere on the palm indicate a decent upbringing and emotional or intellectual strength. This once again depends which mound the triangle is found on. For example: a triangle found on the Mound of Venus indicates emotional strength and understanding when it comes to love. A triangle found on the mound of Saturn beneath the third finger indicates incredible physical and emotional endurance during times of trouble.

The Ring of Solomon: This is a line that circles the base of the Jupiter finger (index finger) and is found in the hands of those who are said to be psychic. It is also believed to represent royal blood or ancestry.

Stars: A star-shaped hatching of lines can mean that you will enjoy especially good fortune wherever that star is located. For instance if you have a star on your Mound of Venus, it can indicate fame. A star on your Mound of Mercury can mean success at relationships. Wherever you find a star on your hand, you are most likely to find good fortune unless it is located on the mound of Saturn beneath your third finger. In that case, it means a life of arrogance and pride without the prizes.

What Is a Fiber Optic Continuity Tester? Fiber Optic Technology Tutorial, Series Two

What is a fiber optic continuity tester?

Fiber continuity tester is also called fiber optic continuity checker. It is the simplest visual test of a fiber optic cable link.

To function properly, a fiber optic cable link must be “continuous”, meaning no breakage, either within the fiber cable or in the fiber connectors, should exist. The simplest and least expensive way to check is to inject some visual light into one fiber end and check the light coming out from the other end.

To perform this task, two types of fiber testers are available: a fiber optic continuity tester or a laser visual fault locater.

Differences between a fiber continuity tester and a laser visual fault locator

The most important difference is their light source. A fiber continuity tester typically uses a red or green color high intensity LED while a laser visual fault locator uses red color semiconductor laser.

Visible lasers produce a more powerful light and can provide more information to the technician than a LED light. By coupling the fiber link to a visible laser, problems with connectors, breaks in the fiber near connectors or splices, and some bend radius violations can be located.

On the other hand, LED powered fiber continuity tester can only verify that light can travel through the fiber link and no more information is obtained. Fiber continuity tester simply yields a “no go” result. If the light isn’t visible at the other end of the fiber link, then the fiber is unusable in its present state and requires further testing and repair.

Applications of a fiber continuity tester

Its best application is testing fiber on a reel before you pull it to make sure it hasn’t been damaged during shipment. Look for visible signs of damage (like cracked or broken reels, kinks in the cable, etc.)

The other good application is to check fiber patch cables at patch panels. When connecting fiber cables at patch panels, use the fiber optic continuity tester to make sure each connection is the right two fibers!

And to make certain the proper fibers are connected to the transmitter and receiver, use the continuity tester in place of the transmitter and your eye instead of the receiver.

Understanding the features of a fiber continuity tester

1. Fiber mode compatibility

Some fiber continuity testers only support multimode fibers while the others support both single mode fibers and multimode fibers. So it’s best to check the spec sheet from manufacturers to choose the type you need.

2. Fiber connectors supported

Most fiber continuity testers have adapters available for testing 2.5mm ferrule connectors such as ST, SC and FC, 1.25mm ferrule connectors such as LC, MU and special types such as SMA connectors.

3. Fiber distance

Most fiber continuity testers have enough light power to support 2km on multimode fibers.

Irrevocable Trust and Revocable Living Trust Which Is More Suitable for the Reverse Mortgage

Placing the home in a revocable living trust can be a good decision and determining the best path can be completed through consulting your attorney CPA or financial planner. The question asked often is can I take out a reverse mortgage while the property is held in a trust. Typically as long as you and your occupant spouse meet the guideline requirements for the reverse mortgage then the answer is yes you can.

When you choose to establish a trust you are creating a vehicle to transfer the rights of your property and assets to the respectful heirs or spouse, this reduces the cost and timelines associated with the probate process. The trustee can then simply transfer the property in question at the death of the grantor.

Revocable Living Trust

A revocable living Trust is usually arranged by an attorney to avoid probate and reduce the long wait and cost of transferring the rights of ownership to the property to the heirs. The revocable trust allows the trustee to transfer the property to the mortgage lender at the time of passing or satisfy the loan prior the heirs taking their remaining portions, this makes it the more likely of trust to be approved by the lender. The owners of the home trust grantor and settler can qualify for the reverse loan program.

Irrevocable Living Trust

irrevocable living trust are more complicated and can pose more issues and have not been widely used by Reverse Advisors simply due to the thought process that these are not permissible. According to an article in reverse mortgage daily and expert trust advisor reported that the guidelines have nothing in them in reference to the irrevocable trust. The biggest problem with these types of trust is the limitation on the survivor’s ability to finance the property or the lender to attach a lien.

The Advantages of the Reverse Loan

As with any mortgage there are a few advantages to arranging this type of financial advance, one of which is the fact that you can continue living in your home payment free, and the title of your home remains with you in the trust. When the first spouse passes or becomes incapacitated the successor trustee will manage the trust assets giving the successor trustee the same controls that the grantor had as Trustee to buy, sell, borrow, or transfer the assets inside the trust including the reverse mortgage. This cash withdrawals or credit line will give you the financial freedom to enjoy retirement and provide supplemental income for personal daily living. The funds are for the individuals to decide what they are needed for. The income is not taxed as regular income and detailed questions can be answered by your CPA or financial tax adviser.

The key important thing to know is that a reverse mortgage in a trust based on current HECM lender guidelines, but in In all circumstances the bank or lender will require a the trust to be reviewed by a trust attorney and or the underwriter for the title policy usually arranged by the title company, if the attorney allows it then the reverse mortgage specialist can complete the reverse loan transaction.

Benefits of Using Marble Stone in Construction

Marble stone is a metamorphic rock which varies widely in hardness, veining, and color. It is very rare to find two pieces of marble alike. Marbles vary from location to location. Hence, this stone is exported in large quantity to meet the requirement. This natural stone industry is growing very fast, thereby providing us with various types of stones. Common types of marble stones are Carrara, Paper, Limestone, Green Types of Marble, or Cultured Marble to name a few. Varied color range is also available in this natural stones.

Uses of Natural Stone

Marble provides elegance and beauty to our modern era. It can be used in interior or exterior of the houses or buildings. Apart from creating statues from marbles it is being very popularly used in home construction. This stone can be used in homes for furniture, counterparts, flooring, foyers, bars, tables, showers, windows, fireplaces, and in handicraft items to name few. It is very long lasting natural stone. More and more people are using the marble stone in the homes due to the following benefits of the marble:

. Easy cleaning

. Spectacular look

. Importance of marbles in interior decoration


Marble is a good building material. It has very soft look, and therefore it is very popular with sculptors especially. Various monuments and places have been built using this stones. Ancestors made magnificent architecture which today has become architectural heritage. The best example among the architectural heritage is the Taj Mahal which is one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Let us look into the benefits of marble stone:

. Durable: Marble is one of the durable stone among all the natural stone. It always guarantees the long life of the items build with marble.

. Heat Resistance: The Marble is one of the best heat resistance stone among all the natural stones. This also ensures the uniform temperature within the home.

. Fire Resistance: Marble being fire resistance makes it ideal for home and office construction. In case of any fire accident in the home, marble ensures less damage.

Although, by using marble in the home and office construction you tend to increase the cost of the construction of the home and office, but brings with it lot of advantages.

Marble Care

Marble products enhance the decor of your home. But you need to take care of the marble. Just by taking little care of the same, you can retain the shining of this natural stone forever. Hence, you should regularly clean the furniture, floors, or other items made up of marble. You can use commercial cleaners available in the market to clean the marble products.

Various marble suppliers are available today, who deal in manufacturing as well as supplying of the marble in the market. KushalBagh Marbles Pvt Ltd. established in 1988 is one of the major manufacturer and supplier of the natural stones. They are specialized in supplying the marble stone to approximately 22 countries.

Cleaning Your Ice Box and Avoiding Bacteria


Regardless of whether you are an Australian who calls an ice box by the generic name of Esky, or are a New Zealander who calls the same item a Chilly Bin, these ice boxes are not cheap. Consequently, if you are paying good money for a quality cooler box you need to know how to maintain it. Part of the maintenance involves regular cleaning. In fact, if you keep your cooler box in pristine condition it will last you for many years and provide you with a good service throughout a long and useful lifespan.

Selecting the Right Box

You should select a cooler that is designed to reduce bacterial growth.

Many cheaper bands have ropes that are installed to support the lid. These ropes are made from twisted strands that can become contaminated by hanging down into the box contents. Contaminated ropes are very hard to clean effectively. A box that uses hinges that fully support the lid instead of ropes is the way to go.


Whatever you do, make sure you avoid the opportunity for mildew to develop. Once it is present, mildew is rather troublesome to completely get rid of and, allowing it to develop will ruin the resilience and durability of your cooler box. Cleaning with a water bleach mix will help keep the mildew at bay. Twenty percent bleach and eighty percent water should be fine for this. Rather than have stale odours seeping into food that you put into your cool box, ensure that you carefully and thoroughly wipe it out with your water and bleach mix.. This is never a particularly onerous task, especially if you keep on top of the job and get into the habit of always cleaning the inside and outside of your cooler after use.

Good quality plastic does not require tough cleaning products of the kind used in commercial premises. If mildew is not present, then just clean your cooler with warm water which has some kitchen detergent dissolved in it. Using this gentle mixture wipe down both the inside and the outside then dry the inside thoroughly. After you have finished wiping it dry, leave the lid off until you are absolutely certain that the inside of your ice box is completely dry.


Before you put your cooler box away for storage always ensure that it is completely dry. It is important to store plastic boxes away from heat sources as they can warp under high ambient temperatures. If you intend to store your cooler in a garden shed or a garage, you could find your cooler is likely to be exposed to quite high temperatures. To prevent the lid warping make sure you attach it firmly to its base using plastic ties to keep it in place if you can.

Avoiding Bacteria

Plastic coolers that might be used to store food need to be free from bacteria. One way to avoid an overgrowth of bacteria is to allow your clean cooler to stand outside in the sunshine so that it is exposed to the rays of the sun. This UV exposure will kill off many harmful pathogens. Of course, if you are concerned about bacteria that could remain, then obtain some alcohol wipes and wipe over all the surfaces, both inside and out. Even once the moisture has evaporated it will leave an antiseptic residue to inhibit bacteria and moulds from growing. If you do not have access to alcohol wipes, you could dilute a cup of bleach dissolved in your ice box half-filled with warm water.

Carefully wipe a solution of this solution around your cooler with a sponge and swirl the bleach-water gently around the inside of it. Once you have disposed of the water allow your cooler to dry in the sun then rinse it carefully so ensure there is no bleach residue left on the plastic to damage it. After rinsing, allow your cooler to dry naturally before storing away. Taking these small steps to keep your ice box clean and dry and free of mildew should ensure that it will last you for a very long time.